• fungi
  • Methods and compositions are provided for the efficient in vivo diversification of gene-products in filamentous fungi, starting from (but not limited to) two or more copies of a single gene constituent. (google.com)
  • Fungi have the capacity to produce many diverse secondary metabolites, and over 300 fungal secondary metabolites are described as mycotoxins. (asmscience.org)
  • Reproduction regulated by mating types is especially prevalent in fungi. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mating in fungi Mating of yeast Mating-type region Neurospora crassa Saccharomyces cerevisiae Yoder, O.C. (wikipedia.org)
  • We suggest that, although rare, imperfect fungi may genuinely be present in nature and that certain human activities, combined with the genetic flexibility that is a hallmark of the fungal kingdom, might favor the evolution of asexuality under certain conditions. (asmscience.org)
  • PPATH 502 Plant Disease Diagnosis (3) Field and laboratory techniques used in diagnosing plant diseases caused by various types of pathogens with emphasis on fungi. (psu.edu)
  • While current fungal models have provided numerous insights into the evolution of sex [ 9 ], there is still much to be understood about the mechanisms, evolution and ecological impact of sexuality in fungi. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Because aneuploidy is a common property of many pathogenic fungi, including those posing emerging threats to plants, animals and humans, we propose that aneuploid formation and LOH often accompanying it contribute to the rapid generation of diversity that can facilitate the emergence of fungal pathogens to new environmental niches and/or new hosts, as well as promote antifungal drug resistance that makes emerging fungal infections ever more difficult to contain. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • Recent work suggests that aneuploidy is a common property of pathogenic and environmental isolates of unicellular fungi, ranging from basidiomycetes such as Cryptococcus neoformans , to ascomycete yeasts, including wild isolates of baker's yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Candida albicans , a common commensal of humans and the most prevalent cause of fungal infections of humans [ 1 , 5 - 9 ]. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • This is especially true for fungi and other eukaryotes that, unlike bacteria, do not participate in active, high-frequency lateral gene transfer. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • The thiamin pyrophosphate (TPP) riboswitch is the only type of riboswitches found not only in bacteria, but also in eukaryotes - in plants, green algae, protists, and fungi. (readbyqxmd.com)
  • Comparisons between the mating type loci of these fungi showed that the mating type genes are highly variable, but in most cases the organization of these genes is conserved. (readbyqxmd.com)
  • Mating in fungi is a complex process governed by mating types. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mating between isogamous fungi may consist only of a transfer of nuclei from one cell to another. (wikipedia.org)
  • Fungi within Zygomycota form progametangia with suspensors during mating Fungi within Ascomycota form ascogonium and antheridium with trichogyne bridge Typical mating fusion of two compatible monokaryons in Basidiomycota A zygomycete hypha grows towards a compatible mate and they both form a bridge, called a progametangia, by joining at the hyphal tips via plasmogamy. (wikipedia.org)
  • The process is regulated by specialized chemical signaling and by changes in gene expression of both the host and AM fungi. (wikipedia.org)
  • In addition, mating type gene homologues and a putative sex hormone-sensing pathway were detected in these fungi. (wikipedia.org)
  • Fungal genetics uses yeast, and filamentous fungi as model organisms for eukaryotic genetic research, including cell cycle regulation, chromatin structure and gene regulation. (wikipedia.org)
  • pathogen
  • Elicitors are often encoded by the avirulence allele of the pathogen in a gene-for-gene interaction. (apsnet.org)
  • As mentioned above, H. capsulatum groups with B. dermatitidis and the South American pathogen Paracoccidioides brasiliensis in the recently recognized fungal family Ajellomycetaceae. (wikipedia.org)
  • opposite
  • Chiasmata near the ends hold the homologs together and ensure proper disjunction at anaphase I. Spindles at the second division are precisely repositioned pairwise to ensure that two nuclei of opposite mating type are enclosed in each ascospore, rendering it self-fertile. (genetics.org)
  • In contrast, the autosomes recombine freely and sibling nuclei of opposite mating type from each wild-type isolate exhibit nearly complete homoallelism (homozygosity) along the autosomes. (genetics.org)
  • That matings in N. crassa are restricted to interaction of strains of opposite mating type may be an adaptation to promote some degree of outcrossing. (wikipedia.org)
  • The sexual cycle is initiated (i.e. fertilization occurs) when a cell, usually a conidium, of opposite mating type contacts a part of the trichogyne (see Figure). (wikipedia.org)
  • oxidative
  • Light exposure, oxidative growth conditions, fungal volatiles and nutrient availability (sugars and zinc) affect the production of these toxins. (wikipedia.org)
  • One mechanism by which C. neoformans survives the hostile intracellular environment of the macrophage involves upregulation of expression of genes involved in responses to oxidative stress. (wikipedia.org)
  • genomes
  • Sex (see box 1 for our definition of sex) starts with fusion between gametes, which brings the genomes of different organisms together in a single zygote and thereby introduces competition between homologous genes for transmission to offspring. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • Similarly, cytoplasmic genes, such as mitochondrial or chloroplast genomes, usually are passed on via the female lineage only. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • Competition occurs between entities within the same category, such as between homologous genes, or between different mitochondrial genomes. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • By contrast, there can only be conflict between entities of different categories within an individual, such as between the nuclear and mitochondrial genomes, or between non-homologous genes within a nuclear genome. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • yeast
  • Under standard nomenclature, MAT1-1 (which may informally be called MAT1) encodes for a regulatory protein with a high motility-group (HMG) DNA-binding motif, while MAT1-2 (informally called MAT2) encodes for a protein with an alpha box motif, as in the yeast mating type MATα1. (wikipedia.org)
  • spores
  • Spores are commonly dispersed by fungal and plant burrowing herbivore partners, but some air dispersal capabilities are also known. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, symptoms of infection show distinct manifestations in different plant parts: whole plant - seedling blight affects the whole plant, leaf discoloration and mycelial growth, black fungal spores and lesions appear on inflorescences and glumes, and grain covered with very dark brown to black mycelium which gives a characteristic charcoal appearance due to the production of conidia. (wikipedia.org)
  • It makes hyphae during mating, and eventually creates basidiospores at the end of the hyphae before producing spores. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cryptococcus
  • Cryptococcus neoformans is an encapsulated fungal organism and it can cause disease in apparently immunocompetent, as well as immunocompromised, hosts. (wikipedia.org)
  • genus
  • Abstract Background The fungal genus Aspergillus is of critical importance to humankind. (openaire.eu)
  • The genome sequences of eight aspergilli have already been explored to investigate aspects of fungal biology, raising questions about evolution and specialization within this genus. (openaire.eu)
  • sexual
  • After crossing the resulting transformant(s), sexual progeny can then be selected which contain the mutated gene, and subsequently screened for a desired product. (google.com)
  • Furthermore, during sexual reproduction, an individual transmits its genome not as a single entity but as different fractions, i.e. different sets of genes that replicate together (referred to as co-replicons [ 2 ]), which can be subject to different transmission rules. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • In temperate populations, in contrast, there was low genetic diversity, high amounts of linkage disequilibrium, and a single dominant mating type, which suggests infrequent sexual mating. (wikipedia.org)
  • Sexual fruiting bodies (perithecia) can only be formed when two cells of different mating type come together (see Figure). (wikipedia.org)
  • Regulation
  • With respect to the regulation of aflatrem biosynthesis, researchers have shown that the gene called veA, previously shown to control aflatoxin and sclerotial production in A. parasiticus was found to not only be necessary for the production of aflatoxins B 1 and B 2 and sclerotia, but also regulated the synthesis of the mycotoxins cyclopiazonic acid and aflatrem. (asmscience.org)
  • New tools for genomewide gene profiling and functional analysis will surely reveal additional information on aflatoxin production and the regulation of the process. (asmscience.org)
  • crassa
  • To test these alternatives, the mating-type chromosomes were introgressed reciprocally between N. tetrasperma and N. crassa . (genetics.org)
  • highly conserved
  • The central motifs of the cAMP signal transduction pathway are highly conserved in eukaryotes, allowing diverse cell types to respond to different environmental stresses. (asmscience.org)
  • populations
  • The incorporation of genes into the gene pool of one population from one or more other populations. (apsnet.org)
  • The development of fungicide-resistant fungal populations represents a major challenge for the agrochemical and agri-food sectors, which threatens food supply and security. (readbyqxmd.com)
  • mycelium
  • The necessary components for the colonization of Glomeromycota include, the host's fine root system, proper development of intracellular arbuscular structures, and a well-established external fungal mycelium. (wikipedia.org)
  • organism
  • The set of genes possessed by an individual organism. (apsnet.org)
  • Duplicated genes may be introduced into the organism and are present either in tandem, or at separate ectopic locations within the genome of the fungus. (google.com)
  • diploid
  • Outcrossing, through complementation, could provide the benefit of masking recessive deleterious mutations in genes that function in the dikaryon and/or diploid stage of the life cycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • resistance
  • For each gene determining resistance in the host, there is a corresponding gene in the parasite with which it specifically interacts. (apsnet.org)
  • For example, the maize gene Ht1 does not confer resistance against a Race 1 isolate, while genes Ht2 and/or Ht3 do. (wikipedia.org)
  • In contrast, genes Ht2 and HtN do not confer resistance against a Race 2N isolate, while gene Ht1 does. (wikipedia.org)
  • Race 1, which overcomes the Ht1 resistance gene, was originally discovered in Hawaii in 1973. (wikipedia.org)
  • fungus
  • However, fungal meningitis and encephalitis, especially as a secondary infection for AIDS patients, are often caused by C. neoformans, making it a particularly dangerous fungus. (wikipedia.org)
  • infection
  • Our goals were to further annotate the A. apis reference genome and to identify genes that are candidates for being differentially expressed during host infection versus axenic culture. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Ulocladium botrytis has been implicated in some cases of human fungal nail infection. (wikipedia.org)
  • Th1-type cell-mediated immunity (CMI) is required for clearance of a fungal infection. (wikipedia.org)
  • The skin, respiratory tract, gastrointestinal tract, and the genital-urinary tract induced inflammation are common bodily regions of fungal infection. (wikipedia.org)
  • Studies have shown that hosts with higher levels of immune response cells such as monocytes/macrophages, dendritic cells, and invariant natural killer (iNK) T-cells exhibited greater control of fungal growth and protection against systemic infection. (wikipedia.org)
  • putative
  • This large-scale study found significantly more presence/absence polymorphisms than nucleotide polymorphisms among 1032 putative secreted protein genes. (plantcell.org)
  • autosomes
  • To accomplish this nuclear packaging, crossing over is suppressed in the mating-type bivalent (but not in the autosomes), ensuring that mat A and mat a will segregate at the first division of meiosis. (genetics.org)
  • analyses
  • Association analyses of these 316 genes revealed three novel AVR genes, AVR-Pia , AVR-Pii , and AVR-Pik/km/kp , corresponding to five previously known AVR genes, whose products are recognized inside rice cells possessing the cognate R genes. (plantcell.org)
  • deleterious
  • We show that competition among the two nuclei of the dikaryon for such 'extramarital affairs' may lead to genomic conflict by favouring genes beneficial at the level of the nucleus, but deleterious at that of the dikaryon. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • genome sequence
  • To isolate novel avirulence genes from M. oryzae , we examined DNA polymorphisms of secreted protein genes predicted from the genome sequence of isolate 70-15 and looked for an association with AVR activity. (plantcell.org)
  • phenotype
  • Fitness, a key factor in the emergence of new fungal threats, is a relative feature of genotype, phenotype, environmental conditions and the fitness of other organisms occupying the same environment. (royalsocietypublishing.org)