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  • fungi
  • Fungi and animals, including humans, have a lot in common when it comes to the arrangement of genes that determine their sex, according to new work by Howard Hughes Medical Institute geneticists at the Duke University Medical Center . (news-medical.net)
  • In fungi, sexual identity is determined by so-called "mating type loci," genes located in a contiguous region of the genome, but which typically do not span an entire chromosome. (news-medical.net)
  • Earlier work found that this sex-determining region is unusually large in C. neoformans compared to other fungi, containing a series of more than 20 genes. (news-medical.net)
  • Methods and compositions are provided for the efficient in vivo diversification of gene-products in filamentous fungi, starting from (but not limited to) two or more copies of a single gene constituent. (google.com)
  • Reproduction regulated by mating types is especially prevalent in fungi. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mating in fungi Mating of yeast Mating-type region Neurospora crassa Saccharomyces cerevisiae Yoder, O.C. (wikipedia.org)
  • Fungi have the capacity to produce many diverse secondary metabolites, and over 300 fungal secondary metabolites are described as mycotoxins. (asmscience.org)
  • We suggest that, although rare, imperfect fungi may genuinely be present in nature and that certain human activities, combined with the genetic flexibility that is a hallmark of the fungal kingdom, might favor the evolution of asexuality under certain conditions. (asmscience.org)
  • PPATH 502 Plant Disease Diagnosis (3) Field and laboratory techniques used in diagnosing plant diseases caused by various types of pathogens with emphasis on fungi. (psu.edu)
  • Mating in fungi is a complex process governed by mating types. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mating between isogamous fungi may consist only of a transfer of nuclei from one cell to another. (wikipedia.org)
  • Fungi within Zygomycota form progametangia with suspensors during mating Fungi within Ascomycota form ascogonium and antheridium with trichogyne bridge Typical mating fusion of two compatible monokaryons in Basidiomycota A zygomycete hypha grows towards a compatible mate and they both form a bridge, called a progametangia, by joining at the hyphal tips via plasmogamy. (wikipedia.org)
  • The process is regulated by specialized chemical signaling and by changes in gene expression of both the host and AM fungi. (wikipedia.org)
  • In addition, mating type gene homologues and a putative sex hormone-sensing pathway were detected in these fungi. (wikipedia.org)
  • Sexual selection can occur within fungi if there is a limiting number of a certain type of gamete. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although different sexes are not present within fungi, sexual selection can act due to the presence of different sex roles as well as different mating types as most fungi are hermaphroditic. (wikipedia.org)
  • Competition can occur within fungi as it does in plants and animals if an inequality in the ability to access one sex role or mating type is present. (wikipedia.org)
  • nuclei
  • Chiasmata near the ends hold the homologs together and ensure proper disjunction at anaphase I. Spindles at the second division are precisely repositioned pairwise to ensure that two nuclei of opposite mating type are enclosed in each ascospore, rendering it self-fertile. (genetics.org)
  • Sequences in the region of suppressed crossing over exhibit heteroallelism (heterozygosity), even when sibling nuclei from the same wild-type isolate are compared. (genetics.org)
  • In contrast, the autosomes recombine freely and sibling nuclei of opposite mating type from each wild-type isolate exhibit nearly complete homoallelism (homozygosity) along the autosomes. (genetics.org)
  • First, the multicellular haploid mating partners are fertilized in their entirety, each cell being a gamete that simultaneously can behave as a female, i.e. contributing the cytoplasm to a zygote by accepting nuclei, and a male gamete, i.e. only donating nuclei to the zygote. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • We show that competition among the two nuclei of the dikaryon for such 'extramarital affairs' may lead to genomic conflict by favouring genes beneficial at the level of the nucleus, but deleterious at that of the dikaryon. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • The life cycle phase is thus predominantly haploid, however, interestingly, upon mating, the nuclei do not immediately fuse: karyogamy is delayed until the very onset of meiosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • They carry both mating types, but in separate nuclei in the same individual. (wikipedia.org)
  • chromosome
  • Other researchers have found that the human Y chromosome -- and the functionally-related gene clusters it contains -- has a similar history, characterized by the "sequential capture of genes" on four separate occasions, Heitman said. (news-medical.net)
  • Certain sex-determination genes occur in palindromic orientations -- head-to-head or tail-to-tail repeats of particular sequences -- which would make such intra-chromosomal repair possible, a pattern also found on the human Y chromosome, according to Heitman. (news-medical.net)
  • isolate
  • Remarkably, a total of 1.68 Mb regions, comprising 316 candidate effector genes, were present in Ina168 but absent in the assembled sequence of isolate 70-15. (plantcell.org)
  • For example, the maize gene Ht1 does not confer resistance against a Race 1 isolate, while genes Ht2 and/or Ht3 do. (wikipedia.org)
  • In contrast, genes Ht2 and HtN do not confer resistance against a Race 2N isolate, while gene Ht1 does. (wikipedia.org)
  • These entities are temporarily designated NAm1 (the rare type, which includes a famous experimental isolate designated "the Downs strain") and NAm2 (the common type). (wikipedia.org)
  • sequences
  • The present invention relates to the field of directed evolution nucleic acids, or gene shuffling, and discloses novel methods and compositions for introducing diversity into polynucleotide and polypeptide sequences. (google.com)
  • The objective of this study was to evaluate the population distribution of O. sinensis from geographically diverse regions of the Tibetan Plateau based on nrDNA ITS and MAT1-2-1 gene sequences. (biomedcentral.com)
  • spores
  • A British study determined that Aspergillus- and Penicillium-type spores were the most prevalent in the indoor air of residential properties, and exceeded outdoor levels. (wikipedia.org)
  • Spores are commonly dispersed by fungal and plant burrowing herbivore partners, but some air dispersal capabilities are also known. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, symptoms of infection show distinct manifestations in different plant parts: whole plant - seedling blight affects the whole plant, leaf discoloration and mycelial growth, black fungal spores and lesions appear on inflorescences and glumes, and grain covered with very dark brown to black mycelium which gives a characteristic charcoal appearance due to the production of conidia. (wikipedia.org)
  • sexual
  • After crossing the resulting transformant(s), sexual progeny can then be selected which contain the mutated gene, and subsequently screened for a desired product. (google.com)
  • In temperate populations, in contrast, there was low genetic diversity, high amounts of linkage disequilibrium, and a single dominant mating type, which suggests infrequent sexual mating. (wikipedia.org)
  • Sexual fruiting bodies (perithecia) can only be formed when two cells of different mating type come together (see Figure). (wikipedia.org)
  • Nitrogen starvation appears to be necessary for expression of genes involved in sexual development. (wikipedia.org)
  • putative
  • This large-scale study found significantly more presence/absence polymorphisms than nucleotide polymorphisms among 1032 putative secreted protein genes. (plantcell.org)
  • regulators
  • Ahmed YL, Gerke J, Park HS, Bayram Ö, Neumann P et al (2013) The velvet family of fungal regulators contains a DNA-binding domain structurally similar to NF-κB. (springer.com)
  • mycelia
  • Another possibility may arise from somatic fusion: there are multicellular life-styles where there are few if any physical barriers to the intermingling of cells (for example: sponges, fungal mycelia) and even among organisms that have evolved physical integuments representing a first line of defense against invasion, opportunities for cellular exchange occur. (wikipedia.org)
  • Heterothallic fertilization occurs once two haploid mycelia (homokaryons) of different mating types have made contact. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cochliobolus
  • Cochliobolus carbonum is divided into at least five different races based on pathogenicity, particularly lesion types on corn leaves. (wikipedia.org)
  • mycelium
  • The necessary components for the colonization of Glomeromycota include, the host's fine root system, proper development of intracellular arbuscular structures, and a well-established external fungal mycelium. (wikipedia.org)
  • Molecular
  • She was Professor Emeritus of Fungal Genetics in the Department of Plant Science at the University of Oxford, and was known for her genetic and molecular analysis of the mushroom Coprinus cinereus and Coprinus lagopus. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mating types are molecular mechanisms that regulate compatibility in sexually reproducing eukaryotes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Nomenclature
  • Under standard nomenclature, MAT1-1 (which may informally be called MAT1) encodes for a regulatory protein with a high motility-group (HMG) DNA-binding motif, while MAT1-2 (informally called MAT2) encodes for a protein with an alpha box motif, as in the yeast mating type MATα1. (wikipedia.org)
  • conidium
  • Fertilization occurs once the conidium of a different mating type makes contact with the trichogyne, a structure of the protoperithecium. (wikipedia.org)
  • diploid
  • Outcrossing, through complementation, could provide the benefit of masking recessive deleterious mutations in genes that function in the dikaryon and/or diploid stage of the life cycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • Regulation
  • With respect to the regulation of aflatrem biosynthesis, researchers have shown that the gene called veA, previously shown to control aflatoxin and sclerotial production in A. parasiticus was found to not only be necessary for the production of aflatoxins B 1 and B 2 and sclerotia, but also regulated the synthesis of the mycotoxins cyclopiazonic acid and aflatrem. (asmscience.org)
  • New tools for genomewide gene profiling and functional analysis will surely reveal additional information on aflatoxin production and the regulation of the process. (asmscience.org)
  • oxidative
  • Light exposure, oxidative growth conditions, fungal volatiles and nutrient availability (sugars and zinc) affect the production of these toxins. (wikipedia.org)
  • In order to survive in the hostile intracellular environment of the macrophage, one of the responses of C. neoformans is to upregulate genes employed in responses to oxidative stress. (wikipedia.org)
  • nuclear
  • To accomplish this nuclear packaging, crossing over is suppressed in the mating-type bivalent (but not in the autosomes), ensuring that mat A and mat a will segregate at the first division of meiosis. (genetics.org)
  • The products of these nuclear divisions (still in pairs of unlike mating type, i.e. (wikipedia.org)
  • analyses
  • Association analyses of these 316 genes revealed three novel AVR genes, AVR-Pia , AVR-Pii , and AVR-Pik/km/kp , corresponding to five previously known AVR genes, whose products are recognized inside rice cells possessing the cognate R genes. (plantcell.org)
  • fungi
  • Fungi and animals, including humans, have a lot in common when it comes to the arrangement of genes that determine their sex, according to new work by Howard Hughes Medical Institute geneticists at the Duke University Medical Center . (news-medical.net)
  • In fungi, sexual identity is determined by so-called "mating type loci," genes located in a contiguous region of the genome, but which typically do not span an entire chromosome. (news-medical.net)
  • Earlier work found that this sex-determining region is unusually large in C. neoformans compared to other fungi, containing a series of more than 20 genes. (news-medical.net)
  • Methods and compositions are provided for the efficient in vivo diversification of gene-products in filamentous fungi, starting from (but not limited to) two or more copies of a single gene constituent. (google.com)
  • Reproduction regulated by mating types is especially prevalent in fungi. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mating in fungi Mating of yeast Mating-type region Neurospora crassa Saccharomyces cerevisiae Yoder, O.C. (wikipedia.org)
  • Fungi have the capacity to produce many diverse secondary metabolites, and over 300 fungal secondary metabolites are described as mycotoxins. (asmscience.org)
  • We suggest that, although rare, imperfect fungi may genuinely be present in nature and that certain human activities, combined with the genetic flexibility that is a hallmark of the fungal kingdom, might favor the evolution of asexuality under certain conditions. (asmscience.org)
  • PPATH 502 Plant Disease Diagnosis (3) Field and laboratory techniques used in diagnosing plant diseases caused by various types of pathogens with emphasis on fungi. (psu.edu)
  • Mating in fungi is a complex process governed by mating types. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mating between isogamous fungi may consist only of a transfer of nuclei from one cell to another. (wikipedia.org)
  • Fungi within Zygomycota form progametangia with suspensors during mating Fungi within Ascomycota form ascogonium and antheridium with trichogyne bridge Typical mating fusion of two compatible monokaryons in Basidiomycota A zygomycete hypha grows towards a compatible mate and they both form a bridge, called a progametangia, by joining at the hyphal tips via plasmogamy. (wikipedia.org)
  • The process is regulated by specialized chemical signaling and by changes in gene expression of both the host and AM fungi. (wikipedia.org)
  • In addition, mating type gene homologues and a putative sex hormone-sensing pathway were detected in these fungi. (wikipedia.org)
  • Sexual selection can occur within fungi if there is a limiting number of a certain type of gamete. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although different sexes are not present within fungi, sexual selection can act due to the presence of different sex roles as well as different mating types as most fungi are hermaphroditic. (wikipedia.org)
  • Competition can occur within fungi as it does in plants and animals if an inequality in the ability to access one sex role or mating type is present. (wikipedia.org)
  • nuclei
  • Chiasmata near the ends hold the homologs together and ensure proper disjunction at anaphase I. Spindles at the second division are precisely repositioned pairwise to ensure that two nuclei of opposite mating type are enclosed in each ascospore, rendering it self-fertile. (genetics.org)
  • Sequences in the region of suppressed crossing over exhibit heteroallelism (heterozygosity), even when sibling nuclei from the same wild-type isolate are compared. (genetics.org)
  • In contrast, the autosomes recombine freely and sibling nuclei of opposite mating type from each wild-type isolate exhibit nearly complete homoallelism (homozygosity) along the autosomes. (genetics.org)
  • First, the multicellular haploid mating partners are fertilized in their entirety, each cell being a gamete that simultaneously can behave as a female, i.e. contributing the cytoplasm to a zygote by accepting nuclei, and a male gamete, i.e. only donating nuclei to the zygote. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • We show that competition among the two nuclei of the dikaryon for such 'extramarital affairs' may lead to genomic conflict by favouring genes beneficial at the level of the nucleus, but deleterious at that of the dikaryon. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • The life cycle phase is thus predominantly haploid, however, interestingly, upon mating, the nuclei do not immediately fuse: karyogamy is delayed until the very onset of meiosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • They carry both mating types, but in separate nuclei in the same individual. (wikipedia.org)
  • chromosome
  • Other researchers have found that the human Y chromosome -- and the functionally-related gene clusters it contains -- has a similar history, characterized by the "sequential capture of genes" on four separate occasions, Heitman said. (news-medical.net)
  • Certain sex-determination genes occur in palindromic orientations -- head-to-head or tail-to-tail repeats of particular sequences -- which would make such intra-chromosomal repair possible, a pattern also found on the human Y chromosome, according to Heitman. (news-medical.net)
  • isolate
  • Remarkably, a total of 1.68 Mb regions, comprising 316 candidate effector genes, were present in Ina168 but absent in the assembled sequence of isolate 70-15. (plantcell.org)
  • For example, the maize gene Ht1 does not confer resistance against a Race 1 isolate, while genes Ht2 and/or Ht3 do. (wikipedia.org)
  • In contrast, genes Ht2 and HtN do not confer resistance against a Race 2N isolate, while gene Ht1 does. (wikipedia.org)
  • These entities are temporarily designated NAm1 (the rare type, which includes a famous experimental isolate designated "the Downs strain") and NAm2 (the common type). (wikipedia.org)
  • sequences
  • The present invention relates to the field of directed evolution nucleic acids, or gene shuffling, and discloses novel methods and compositions for introducing diversity into polynucleotide and polypeptide sequences. (google.com)
  • The objective of this study was to evaluate the population distribution of O. sinensis from geographically diverse regions of the Tibetan Plateau based on nrDNA ITS and MAT1-2-1 gene sequences. (biomedcentral.com)
  • spores
  • A British study determined that Aspergillus- and Penicillium-type spores were the most prevalent in the indoor air of residential properties, and exceeded outdoor levels. (wikipedia.org)
  • Spores are commonly dispersed by fungal and plant burrowing herbivore partners, but some air dispersal capabilities are also known. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, symptoms of infection show distinct manifestations in different plant parts: whole plant - seedling blight affects the whole plant, leaf discoloration and mycelial growth, black fungal spores and lesions appear on inflorescences and glumes, and grain covered with very dark brown to black mycelium which gives a characteristic charcoal appearance due to the production of conidia. (wikipedia.org)
  • sexual
  • After crossing the resulting transformant(s), sexual progeny can then be selected which contain the mutated gene, and subsequently screened for a desired product. (google.com)
  • In temperate populations, in contrast, there was low genetic diversity, high amounts of linkage disequilibrium, and a single dominant mating type, which suggests infrequent sexual mating. (wikipedia.org)
  • Sexual fruiting bodies (perithecia) can only be formed when two cells of different mating type come together (see Figure). (wikipedia.org)
  • Nitrogen starvation appears to be necessary for expression of genes involved in sexual development. (wikipedia.org)
  • putative
  • This large-scale study found significantly more presence/absence polymorphisms than nucleotide polymorphisms among 1032 putative secreted protein genes. (plantcell.org)
  • regulators
  • Ahmed YL, Gerke J, Park HS, Bayram Ö, Neumann P et al (2013) The velvet family of fungal regulators contains a DNA-binding domain structurally similar to NF-κB. (springer.com)
  • mycelia
  • Another possibility may arise from somatic fusion: there are multicellular life-styles where there are few if any physical barriers to the intermingling of cells (for example: sponges, fungal mycelia) and even among organisms that have evolved physical integuments representing a first line of defense against invasion, opportunities for cellular exchange occur. (wikipedia.org)
  • Heterothallic fertilization occurs once two haploid mycelia (homokaryons) of different mating types have made contact. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cochliobolus
  • Cochliobolus carbonum is divided into at least five different races based on pathogenicity, particularly lesion types on corn leaves. (wikipedia.org)
  • mycelium
  • The necessary components for the colonization of Glomeromycota include, the host's fine root system, proper development of intracellular arbuscular structures, and a well-established external fungal mycelium. (wikipedia.org)
  • Molecular
  • She was Professor Emeritus of Fungal Genetics in the Department of Plant Science at the University of Oxford, and was known for her genetic and molecular analysis of the mushroom Coprinus cinereus and Coprinus lagopus. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mating types are molecular mechanisms that regulate compatibility in sexually reproducing eukaryotes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Nomenclature
  • Under standard nomenclature, MAT1-1 (which may informally be called MAT1) encodes for a regulatory protein with a high motility-group (HMG) DNA-binding motif, while MAT1-2 (informally called MAT2) encodes for a protein with an alpha box motif, as in the yeast mating type MATα1. (wikipedia.org)
  • conidium
  • Fertilization occurs once the conidium of a different mating type makes contact with the trichogyne, a structure of the protoperithecium. (wikipedia.org)
  • diploid
  • Outcrossing, through complementation, could provide the benefit of masking recessive deleterious mutations in genes that function in the dikaryon and/or diploid stage of the life cycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • Regulation
  • With respect to the regulation of aflatrem biosynthesis, researchers have shown that the gene called veA, previously shown to control aflatoxin and sclerotial production in A. parasiticus was found to not only be necessary for the production of aflatoxins B 1 and B 2 and sclerotia, but also regulated the synthesis of the mycotoxins cyclopiazonic acid and aflatrem. (asmscience.org)
  • New tools for genomewide gene profiling and functional analysis will surely reveal additional information on aflatoxin production and the regulation of the process. (asmscience.org)
  • oxidative
  • Light exposure, oxidative growth conditions, fungal volatiles and nutrient availability (sugars and zinc) affect the production of these toxins. (wikipedia.org)
  • In order to survive in the hostile intracellular environment of the macrophage, one of the responses of C. neoformans is to upregulate genes employed in responses to oxidative stress. (wikipedia.org)
  • nuclear
  • To accomplish this nuclear packaging, crossing over is suppressed in the mating-type bivalent (but not in the autosomes), ensuring that mat A and mat a will segregate at the first division of meiosis. (genetics.org)
  • The products of these nuclear divisions (still in pairs of unlike mating type, i.e. (wikipedia.org)
  • analyses
  • Association analyses of these 316 genes revealed three novel AVR genes, AVR-Pia , AVR-Pii , and AVR-Pik/km/kp , corresponding to five previously known AVR genes, whose products are recognized inside rice cells possessing the cognate R genes. (plantcell.org)