• species
  • You've never heard of it because it only infects bugs: millions upon millions of species of insects, spiders, centipedes and other arthropods all around the globe. (eurekalert.org)
  • All species of life are able to develop in different ways by varying the genes they express, ultimately becoming different shapes, sizes, colors and sexes. (mdtmag.com)
  • They found that the genes were rapidly evolving in the genomes of both species, even though only one produced a caste system. (mdtmag.com)
  • Two years later, with the same group he studied centipede species named Lithobius forficatus and discovered that only one of the 22 inferred tRNA genes provides a completely paired aminoacyl acceptor stem. (wikipedia.org)
  • During the 2004 study of 4 species (A. armillatus, S. tulumensis, H. macracantha and A. americanus) it was revealed that the gene arrangements of mtDNA shows that the species belong to Branchiura group. (wikipedia.org)
  • Or83b has homologs in other insect species . (wikipedia.org)
  • In some species of insect, drawing blood meals is a behavior not normally witnessed that could be brought on by a sudden lack of avoidance of vertebrate odor. (wikipedia.org)
  • The natural movement of genes across species, often called horizontal gene transfer or lateral gene transfer, can also occur with rice through gene transfer mediated by natural vectors. (wikipedia.org)
  • Autosomic genes usually have the same mode of transmission in sexually reproducing species due to the fairness of Mendelian segregation, but conflicts among alleles of autosomic genes may arise when an allele cheats during gametogenesis (segregation distortion) or eliminates embryos that don't contain it (lethal maternal effects). (wikipedia.org)
  • Orphan genes differ in that they are lineage-specific with no known history of shared duplication and rearrangement outside of their specific species or clade. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 2003, a study of Caenorhabditis briggsae and related species compared over 2000 genes. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 2005, Wilson examined 122 bacterial species to try to examine whether the large number of orphan genes in many species was legitimate. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 2011, a comprehensive genome-wide study of the extent and evolutionary origins of orphan genes in plants was conducted in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana " Genes can be tentatively classified as orphans if no orthologous proteins can be found in nearby species. (wikipedia.org)
  • Phylostratigraphy generates a phylogenetic tree in which the homology is calculated between all genes of a focal species and the genes of other species. (wikipedia.org)
  • The term "orphan" is sometimes used only for the youngest phylostratum containing only a single species, but when interpreted broadly as a taxonomically-restricted gene, it can refer to all but the oldest phylostratum, with the gene orphaned within a larger clade. (wikipedia.org)
  • The primary active ingredient in neem is azadirachtin, a steroid-like tetranortriterpenoid, that exhibits a wide range of bioactivity to hundreds of phytophagous insect species from different orders. (wikipedia.org)
  • Drosophila
  • f seems to be developmentally regulated, like a lot of Drosophila genes," says Blissard. (innovations-report.com)
  • Scott et al, 2004), and very few transgenic lines ofnon-Drosophila insects have been made, using heterologous promoters. (allindianpatents.com)
  • The best known of these are from the Drosophila ActinSC (ActSC) and ubi-p(53E (Pub) genes. (allindianpatents.com)
  • However, basic genome research on this insect is still far behind compared with other model organisms such as Drosophila melanogaster , and assignment of fundamental information such as genome sequences, ESTs, BAC contigs, mutant phenotypes, and chromosomal locations on detailed linkage maps is an urgent priority. (genetics.org)
  • Phylogenetic analyses show at least 2 rounds of gene duplication at the base of the metazoan radiation, as well as several losses, gave rise to 2 cryptochrome (cry) gene families in insects, a Drosophila-like cry1 gene family and a vertebrate-like cry2 family. (umassmed.edu)
  • In the central clock residing in the brain of Drosophila melanogaster , the CYCLE (CYC)/CLOCK (CLK) heterodimer acts as a positive regulator of the transcription of period ( per ), timeless ( tim ) and other output genes, whereas the PER/TIM heterodimer acts as a negative regulator of CYC/CLK activity. (beds.ac.uk)
  • When mutating the Or83b gene, larval Drosophila do not travel towards an area of ethyl acetate which is an important odorant related to rotting fruit . (wikipedia.org)
  • His work there focused on the molecular characterization of segmentation genes in Drosophila. (wikipedia.org)
  • The gene was first isolated and studied in Drosophila by Jeffrey C. Hall's laboratory at Brandeis University in 1998, and has been found to function as a neuromodulator and coupling factor in controlling circadian rhythms. (wikipedia.org)
  • In Drosophila, the pdf gene is intronless and is located at 97B on the third chromosome. (wikipedia.org)
  • Six alleles of this gene have been reported and are found in dorsal lateral neurons and the ventral lateral neurons in the Drosophila brain and also in some abdominal ganglion neurons. (wikipedia.org)
  • This latter option is supported by research in Drosophila showing that young genes are more likely go extinct. (wikipedia.org)
  • proteins
  • Scientists had shown that some other viral genes were probably copied from host cells, but the origin of so-called fusion proteins, like F, has remained a mystery. (innovations-report.com)
  • Blissard and Lung found messenger RNA (mRNA) copies of the gene in fruit fly cells, as well as F proteins--both products unlikely to arise if f were a piece of "junk DNA" left over from a long-departed retrovirus. (innovations-report.com)
  • Indeed, they found that the f gene stays quiet until the third and final stage of a maggot s development, then begins to produce F proteins, which persist into adulthood. (innovations-report.com)
  • Expression or transient expression of cell cycle arresting genes is described for "metabolic engineering", i.e. regulating expression of desirable proteins, and it is mentioned that a transcriptional "squelching" effect by the VP16 transactivator domain may be lethal for the host cell, even at moderate expression levels (Berger et al. (allindianpatents.com)
  • Despite their relatively recent origin, orphan genes may encode functionally important proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • BMAL1, according to genome-wide profiling, is estimated to target more than 150 sites in the human genome, including all of the clock genes and genes encoding for proteins that regulate metabolism. (wikipedia.org)
  • After the PER and CRY proteins have accumulated to sufficient levels, they interact by their PAS motifs to form a large repressor complex that travels into the nucleus to inhibit the transcriptional activity of the CLOCK:BMAL1 heterodimer This inhibits the transcription of Per and Cry genes, and causes protein levels of PER and CRY drop. (wikipedia.org)
  • populations
  • Then the extracted DNA was used to amplify genes for the identification of the microbial populations in the samples. (lbl.gov)
  • Though its actual function is still a mystery, the broadly expressed Or83b has been conserved across highly divergent insect populations across 250 million years of evolution. (wikipedia.org)
  • By cloning orthologs of Or83b, performing in situ hybridization of the clones, and by creating transgenic flies with orthologs of mosquitos, medflies, and moths, the function of Or83b was determined to be conserved across highly divergent insect populations . (wikipedia.org)
  • They have modified three populations of rice by over expressing the genes OsNAS1, OsNAS2 or OsNAS3. (wikipedia.org)
  • There has been growing interest in the agricultural sector in using plant and botanical insecticides as alternatives to restore a biologically base equilibrium in insect populations. (wikipedia.org)
  • social insects
  • Genes essential to producing the developmental differences displayed by social insects evolve more rapidly than genes governing other aspects of organismal function, a new study has found. (mdtmag.com)
  • A new study of the genomes of social insects provides insight into the evolution of the genes involved in this developmental plasticity. (mdtmag.com)
  • Social insects exhibit a sophisticated social structure in which queens reproduce and workers engage in tasks related to brood-rearing and colony defense. (mdtmag.com)
  • By investigating the evolution of genes associated with castes, sexes and developmental stages of the invasive fire ant Solenopsis invicta , the researchers explored how social insects produce such a diversity of form and function from genetically similar individuals. (mdtmag.com)
  • Social insects provided the perfect test subjects because they can develop into such dramatically different forms," said Goodisman. (mdtmag.com)
  • Ghiselin (1969, 1974) and David Hull (1976, 1978) asserted that complex or high level social insects are individuals rather than being like organisms. (wikipedia.org)
  • Within the colonies of social insects such as ants, dynamic social recognition systems make their advanced societies possible. (wikipedia.org)
  • in ants and other social insects the label is a signature mixture of long-chain hydrocarbons (cuticular hydrocarbons, CHCs). (wikipedia.org)
  • Phylogeny
  • He studied the mechanisms of sympatric speciation of cichlids in crater lakes, hybrid speciation of sculpins in the Rhine system and was the first to show a sister group relationship between crustaceans and insects in the phylogeny of arthropods. (wikipedia.org)
  • genome
  • have been performed, and our knowledge of silkworm genes and genome sequence has dramatically increased. (genetics.org)
  • We showed that codominant and conserved markers could be established by conformation-sensitive gel electrophoresis of PCR products amplified from single-copy genes and unique genome sequences differing at the nucleotide level without the need for additional manipulation ( Y asukochi 1999 ). (genetics.org)
  • 5 January Scientists from the US and UK have mapped the genome of the bowhead whale and identified genes responsible for its 200-year lifespan, the longest of any mammal. (wikipedia.org)
  • Intragenomic conflict refers to the evolutionary phenomenon where genes have phenotypic effects that promote their own transmission in detriment of the transmission of other genes that reside in the same genome. (wikipedia.org)
  • The selfish gene theory postulates that natural selection will increase the frequency of those genes whose phenotypic effects cause their transmission to new organisms, and most genes achieve this by cooperating with other genes in the same genome to build an organism capable of reproducing and/or helping kin to reproduce. (wikipedia.org)
  • The tight linkage between these loci is crucial, so these genes usually lie on low-recombination regions of the genome. (wikipedia.org)
  • Transposons are autonomous replicating genes that encode the ability to move to new positions in the genome and therefore accumulate in the genomes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Orphan genes were first discovered when the yeast genome-sequencing project began in 1996. (wikipedia.org)
  • Orphan genes accounted for an estimated 26% of the yeast genome, but it was believed that these genes could be classified with homologues when more genomes were sequenced. (wikipedia.org)
  • infection
  • These viruses actually generate two types of infectious particles, Blissard explains: one type specialized to infect gut cells, and another that spreads infection in other parts of the insect. (innovations-report.com)
  • A differential fluorescence induction (DFI) approach was applied to identify genes that are up-regulated in the bacterium after infection of the insect host Galleria mellonella . (biomedcentral.com)
  • We conclude that signals for the regulation of those genes or operons induced in P. luminescens upon insect infection may represent a wide variety of compounds that make up the insect host. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Video image analysis was found to be a sensitive method for rapid detection and semiquantitative measurement of luc gene expression in baculovirus infected cells and for monitoring virus infection in larval tissues. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Among the chewing insects, infection by mycorrhizae can actually benefit specialist feeders even if it negatively affects generalists. (wikipedia.org)
  • The overall pattern of effects on insect herbivores seems to support this, with generalist mesophyll feeders experiencing negative effects of host infection, although phloem feeders appear to be affected little by fungal defenses. (wikipedia.org)
  • CRY1
  • Previous studies have shown that insect CRY1 is photosensitive, whereas photo-insensitive CRY2 functions to potently inhibit clock-relevant CLOCK:CYCLE-mediated transcription. (umassmed.edu)
  • Via its BHLH domain, this heterodimer binds to E-box response elements in the promoter regions of Per (Per1 and Per2) and Cry genes (Cry1 and Cry2). (wikipedia.org)
  • phytophagous
  • In exchange for carbohydrate energy resources, the fungus provides benefits to the plant which can include increased water or nutrient uptake and protection from phytophagous insects, birds or mammals. (wikipedia.org)
  • The terpenes and alkaloids are inducible defenses which act similarly to defensive compounds produced by plants and are highly toxic to a wide variety of phytophagous insects as well as mammalian herbivores. (wikipedia.org)
  • genomes
  • At some point, perhaps after retroviruses had sprinkled host genomes with multiple copies of the f gene, a baculovirus picked it up through recombination. (innovations-report.com)
  • Unlike retroviruses, baculoviruses don t insert their genes into their hosts genomes. (innovations-report.com)
  • At the time, gene duplication was considered the only serious model of gene evolution and there were few sequenced genomes for comparison, so a lack of detectable homologues was thought to be most likely due to a lack of sequencing data and not due to a true lack of homology. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, orphan genes continued to persist as the quantity of sequenced genomes grew, eventually leading to the conclusion that orphan genes are ubiquitous to all genomes. (wikipedia.org)
  • CRY2
  • Here, we extended the transcriptional repressive function of insect CRY2 to 2 orders--Hymenoptera (the honeybee Apis mellifera and the bumblebee Bombus impatiens) and Coleoptera (the red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum). (umassmed.edu)
  • By mapping the functional data onto a cryptochrome/6-4 photolyase gene tree, we find that the transcriptional repressive function of insect CRY2 descended from a light-sensitive photolyase-like ancestral gene, probably lacking the ability to repress CLOCK:CYCLE-mediated transcription. (umassmed.edu)
  • expression
  • The present invention relates to insect expression systems comprising a promoter. (allindianpatents.com)
  • Since the tTA gene is encoded on the multicistronic expression unit itself, little or no tTA is expressed under repressive conditions. (allindianpatents.com)
  • Surprisingly, it has now been found that it is possible to employ a positive feedback mechanism both to enhance the effect of an insect promoter, as well as to control its expression. (allindianpatents.com)
  • Thus, in a first aspect, the present invention provides an insect gene expression system, comprising at least one gene to be expressed and at least one promoter therefor, wherein a product of a gene to be expressed serves as a positive transcriptional control factor for the at least one promoter, and whereby the product, or the expression of the product, is controllable. (allindianpatents.com)
  • Is the Subject Area "Gene expression" applicable to this article? (plos.org)
  • So it looks like metamorphosis evolved in insects by restricting the expression of the broad gene to a short but intense period of change at the transition from larva to pupa. (biologynews.net)
  • A substance called juvenile hormone is present at each step of nymph development in insects that do not experience complete metamorphosis, and the researchers found that juvenile hormone correlates with the expression of the broad gene during the nymphal stage. (biologynews.net)
  • Expression of ichnovirus genes in parasitized lepidopteran hosts leads to immune suppression and is essential for successful parasitization. (kent.ac.uk)
  • The expression patterns of juvenile hormone-regulated genes and the application of juvenile hormone analogue suggested that neither ovarian development itself nor a downstream cascade of juvenile hormone secretion, were disturbed by period and cycle RNAi. (beds.ac.uk)
  • These RNAi also had opposite effects on juvenile hormone-regulated gene expression. (beds.ac.uk)
  • Luc gene expression driven by baculovirus regulatory elements was detected by enzyme and photometric assays. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Expression of these genes was studied and compared with changes in the ecdysteroid titre that controls transition from the larval to pupal stage. (biochemsoctrans.org)
  • He cloned and characterized the segmentation gene ''hunchback'' and he developed the "whole mount" in situ hybridization technology that is nowadays used as the general standard technology for the spatial and temporal analysis of gene expression in embryos. (wikipedia.org)
  • horizontal gene tra
  • Orphan genes may arise through a variety of mechanisms, such as horizontal gene transfer, duplication and rapid divergence, and de novo origination, and may act at different rates in insects, primates, and plants. (wikipedia.org)
  • Orphan genes arise from multiple sources, predominantly through de novo origination, duplication and rapid divergence, and horizontal gene transfer. (wikipedia.org)
  • organisms
  • However, to address commonalties of developmental mechanisms, what is really needed is a method to assess and compare gene function in divergent organisms. (wiley.com)
  • novo
  • De novo genes were once thought to be a near impossibility due to the complex and potentially fragile intricacies of creating and maintaining functional polypeptides, but research from the past 10 years or so has found multiple examples of de novo genes, some of which are associated with important biological processes, particularly testes function. (wikipedia.org)
  • mutations
  • This requires mutations eliminating gene function. (wiley.com)
  • BMAL1 has also been identified as a candidate gene for susceptibility to hypertension, diabetes, and obesity, and mutations in BMAL1 have been linked to infertility, gluconeogenesis and lipogenesis problems, and altered sleep patterns. (wikipedia.org)
  • evolution
  • The researchers also found that these fast-evolving genes exhibited elevated rates of evolution even before they were recruited to produce diverse forms of an organism. (mdtmag.com)
  • These differentially expressed genes exhibited elevated rates of evolution, as predicted. (mdtmag.com)
  • To examine when the genes with elevated rates of evolution began to evolve rapidly, the researchers compared the rate of evolution of genes associated with the production of castes in the fire ant with the same genes in a wasp that does not have a caste system. (mdtmag.com)
  • This is one the most comprehensive studies of the evolution of genes involved in producing developmental differences," Goodisman noted. (mdtmag.com)
  • He is considered to be one of the founders of the new field of evolution of developmental processes (often called Evo-Devo) and he was the first editor in chief of the journal Development Genes and Evolution. (wikipedia.org)
  • The classic model of evolution is based on duplication, rearrangement, and mutation of genes with the idea of common descent. (wikipedia.org)
  • They proposed that these genes must be evolving too quickly to be detected and are consequently sites of very rapid evolution. (wikipedia.org)
  • novel
  • Lastly, several genes of unknown function were identified that may represent novel pathogenicity factors. (biomedcentral.com)
  • These novel genes may be sufficiently beneficial to be swept to fixation by selection. (wikipedia.org)
  • metamorphosis
  • New University of Washington research shows that a regulatory gene named broad, known to be necessary for development of insects that undergo complete metamorphosis, also is key for the maturation of insects that have incomplete metamorphosis. (biologynews.net)
  • Metamorphosis evolved in insects about 300 million years ago from ancestors of direct-developing insects such as grasshoppers. (biologynews.net)
  • Biologists know the broad gene regulates metamorphosis in flies and moths and is found only at the transition between their larval and pupal stages. (biologynews.net)
  • To understand how metamorphosis evolved in insects, the UW researchers examined how the broad gene functions in direct-developing insects, which don't have a pupal stage. (biologynews.net)
  • Normally an insect like the grasshopper that does not undergo complete metamorphosis goes through subtle physical changes during each of its nymphal stages as it progresses to adulthood. (biologynews.net)
  • This is the first time that anyone has seen the broad gene appear in the development of insects having incomplete metamorphosis," said Riddiford. (biologynews.net)
  • The developmental events occurring during moulting and metamorphosis of insects are controlled by precisely timed changes in levels of ecdysteroids, the moulting hormones. (biochemsoctrans.org)
  • His interest in science began in childhood with the cecropia moth-an insect made famous by Harvard biologist Carroll M. Williams, who used the moth in his pioneering work on the role of juvenile hormone in molting and metamorphosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • developmental
  • The study, which was conducted by researchers at the Georgia Institute of Technology and the University of Lausanne in Switzerland, showed that genes involved in creating different sexes, life stages and castes of fire ants and honeybees evolved more rapidly than genes not involved in these developmental processes. (mdtmag.com)
  • This was a totally unexpected finding because most theory suggested that genes involved in producing diverse forms of an organism would evolve rapidly specifically because they generated developmental differences," said Michael Goodisman, an associate professor in the School of Biology at Georgia Tech. "Instead, this study suggests that fast-evolving genes are actually predisposed to generating new developmental forms. (mdtmag.com)
  • In addition, genes that were differentially expressed in multiple contexts -- castes, sexes or developmental stages -- tended to evolve more rapidly than genes that were differentially expressed in only a single context. (mdtmag.com)
  • Gene product distribution is often used to infer developmental similarities and differences in animals with evolutionarily diverse body plans. (wiley.com)
  • hosts
  • Retroviruses, such as HIV, insert their own genes into their hosts DNA in order to replicate, and remnants of these invaders can be passed to descendants. (innovations-report.com)
  • A Vanderbilt biologist explains who cytoplasmic incompatibility allows the insect parasite Wolbachia to control its hosts' reproduction and how this can be used to combat insect-borne diseases. (eurekalert.org)
  • Since insects play a large role in spreading infectious blood borne diseases between humans, understanding how they locate their human hosts with their olfactory systems could lead to inhibiting their method of locating hosts. (wikipedia.org)
  • bacterial
  • The two universities have applied for a patent on the potential use of these genes to genetically engineer either the bacterial parasite or the insects themselves to produce more effective methods for controlling the spread of insect-borne diseases like dengue and Zika and for reducing the ravages of agricultural pests. (eurekalert.org)
  • Functional
  • One example is a gene, called a segregation distorter, that "cheats" during meiosis or gametogenesis and thus is present in more than half of the functional gametes. (wikipedia.org)
  • promoters
  • A bioinformatics comparison of motifs similar to known promoters is a powerful tool for identifying regulated genes or operons. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Promoters active in insects can be enhanced by positive feedback mechanisms and associated with repressible lethal effects. (allindianpatents.com)
  • physiology
  • To date, the role of specific ichnovirus genes in alteration of host physiology has been unclear, and no cellular homologues have been described. (kent.ac.uk)
  • biologists
  • Biologists have known that Wolbachia have had this power for more than 40 years but only now have teams of biologists from Vanderbilt and Yale Universities identified the specific genes that confer this remarkable capability. (eurekalert.org)
  • enzymes
  • The final four sequential hydroxylations of steroid precursors into the active ecdysteroid of insects, 20E (20-hydroxyecdysone), are mediated by four cytochrome P450 (P450) enzymes, encoded by genes in the Halloween family. (biochemsoctrans.org)
  • adult
  • Microarray analyses revealed that many fire ant genes were regulated differently depending on whether the fire ant was male or female, queen or worker, and pupal or adult. (mdtmag.com)
  • It appears in the late embryonic stage and stays throughout nymphal life, then disappears when the insect transforms to an adult. (biologynews.net)
  • The change in chemical composition acts to deter herbivory by insects, grazing by ungulates and/or oviposition by adult insects. (wikipedia.org)
  • arise
  • The effects of these differences cost the whole colony as the colony must produce offspring that have genes suppressing the behaviors that allow conflict to arise. (wikipedia.org)
  • RNAi
  • Simultaneously, period RNAi caused the insect to avert diapause under a diapause-inducing photoperiod whereas cycle RNAi induced diapause under a diapause-averting photoperiod. (beds.ac.uk)
  • thesis
  • He and Pennington thought the students whose undergraduate thesis research involves three insects of economic significance would benefit from learning about Berkeley Lab's study of the role of the gut microbiome in mosquitoes through its Microbes to Biomes project. (lbl.gov)
  • Social Insect and the Individuality Thesis: Cohesion and the Colony as a Selectable Individual" (PDF). (wikipedia.org)
  • mosquitoes
  • If an insect was let loose in the wild, such as the millions of GM mosquitoes developed by Oxitec to be released in Brazil and Florida which are meant to control dengue fever (you can see a Youtube about the GM mosquitoes near the bottom of this article), humans could simply develop a 'kill switch' that would stop the GM mosquitoes from propagating. (naturalsociety.com)
  • If the GM insects are developed with the 'kill-switch,' what will happen to the non-GM mosquitoes that have interbred with them? (naturalsociety.com)
  • construct
  • With the goal of generating transplastomic plants with multiresistance against both phytopathogens and insects, a construct containing a monocistronic patterned gene stack was transformed into Nicotiana benthamiana plastids harbouring sweet potato sporamin , taro cystatin and chitinase from Paecilomyces javanicus . (wiley.com)
  • specific
  • Clones (18) were obtained exhibiting at least 2.5-fold induced fluorescence and regarded as specific responders to insect homogenate. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Orphans are a subset of taxonomically-restricted genes (TRGs), which are unique to a specific taxonomic level (e.g. plant-specific). (wikipedia.org)
  • The mechanics of this recognition is mediated by a mixture of specific signatures emanating from the individual, this mixture is a blend of hydrocarbons that emanate from the individual through the insects cuticles. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is also safer than synthetic pesticides, and is also selective towards specific insects. (wikipedia.org)
  • nocturnal
  • It has also been observed in the TTFL loop of nocturnal mice that transcription levels of the Bmal1 gene peak at CT18, during the mid-subjective night, anti-phase to the transcription levels of Per, Cry, and other clock control genes, which peak at CT6, during the mid-subjective day. (wikipedia.org)