• fungi
  • Background: The impact of gene annotation quality on functional and comparative genomics makes gene prediction an important process, particularly in non-model species, including many fungi. (edu.au)
  • In phytopathogenic fungi, the expression of hundreds of small secreted protein (SSP)-encoding genes is induced upon primary infection of plants while no or a low level of expression is observed during vegetative growth. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Specific inhibition of gene expression by RNAi has been shown to be suitable for a multitude of phytopathogenic filamentous fungi. (beds.ac.uk)
  • From a biotechnological perspective, silencing of fungal genes by generating siRNAs in the host provides a novel strategy for the development of broad fungi-resistance strategies in plants and other organisms. (beds.ac.uk)
  • In this study, we developed a real time PCR method as a simple, rapid and reliable tool to detect and quantify fungal abundance using the β-actin gene, which is known to appear as a single-copy gene in fungi. (frontiersin.org)
  • Fungi tend to be composed of soft tissues, making fossilization difficult and the discovery of fungal fossils incredibly rare. (wikipedia.org)
  • It makes use of a large database that also holds detailed, curated, information for all sequences of viruses, viroids and satellites of plants, fungi and protozoa that are complete or that contain at least one complete gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • The term carotene (also carotin, from the Latin carota, "carrot") is used for many related unsaturated hydrocarbon substances having the formula C40Hx, which are synthesized by plants but in general cannot be made by animals (with the exception of some aphids and spider mites which acquired the synthesizing genes from fungi). (wikipedia.org)
  • The only animals known to produce carotenoids are aphids and spider mites, which acquired the ability and genes from fungi or it is produced by endosymbiotic bacteria in whiteflies. (wikipedia.org)
  • The process is regulated by specialized chemical signaling and by changes in gene expression of both the host and AM fungi. (wikipedia.org)
  • ITS1 is located between 18S and 5.8S rRNA genes, while ITS2 is between 5.8S and 26S (in plants, or 28S in animals and fungi) rRNA genes. (wikipedia.org)
  • The ITS region is the most widely sequenced DNA region in molecular ecology of fungi and has been recommended as the universal fungal barcode sequence. (wikipedia.org)
  • Infection
  • For most people, a fungal infection like athlete's foot means a simple trip to the drugstore and a reminder to bring shower shoes to the gym. (medicalxpress.com)
  • Their work suggests why treatments for fungal infection sometimes fail, and it gives weight to a genetic theory of infectious diseases, which proposes that a single genetic defect can cause an otherwise healthy person to become severely ill from a minor infection-be it viral, bacterial or fungal. (medicalxpress.com)
  • Casanova and his team say that further research on CARD9 will examine its exact role in human anti-fungal immunity, tracing the signaling pathways in different cell types that give an individual the ability to fight off an infection. (medicalxpress.com)
  • Expressing an RNAi construct in maize kernels that targets the gene for alpha-amylase in Aspergillus flavus resulted in suppression of alpha-amylase ( amy1 ) gene expression and decreased fungal growth during in situ infection resulting in decreased aflatoxin production. (springer.com)
  • A quantitatively different expression of SSP-encoding genes compared to plant infection was also detected. (semanticscholar.org)
  • pathogens
  • The whole of creation was then subjected to a negative turn of events, including the emergence of fungal pathogens that cause death and disease in plants and animals. (icr.org)
  • Recently, several new studies were published showing how fungal pathogens adapted to their hosts through large-scale genomic changes involving a type of genome degradation marked by gene losses. (icr.org)
  • Broekaert, Willem 2004-10-06 00:00:00 The plant defensin PDF1.2 has previously been shown to accumulate systemically via a salicylic acid-independent pathway in leaves of Arabidopsis upon challenge by fungal pathogens. (deepdyve.com)
  • Challenge of the transgenic plants with the fungal pathogens Alternaria brassicicola and Botrytis cinerea resulted in both local and systemic induction of the reporter gene. (deepdyve.com)
  • pathway in lea ves of Arabi dopsis upon challenge by fungal pathogens. (deepdyve.com)
  • colonization
  • Here, we demonstrate that maize inbred B104 expressing an RNAi construct targeting the A. flavus alpha-amylase gene amy1 effectively reduces amy1 gene expression resulting in decreased fungal colonization and aflatoxin accumulation in kernels. (springer.com)
  • The necessary components for the colonization of Glomeromycota include, the host's fine root system, proper development of intracellular arbuscular structures, and a well-established external fungal mycelium. (wikipedia.org)
  • genetics
  • She was Professor Emeritus of Fungal Genetics in the Department of Plant Science at the University of Oxford, and was known for her genetic and molecular analysis of the mushroom Coprinus cinereus and Coprinus lagopus. (wikipedia.org)
  • Casselton was a Fellow of St Cross College Oxford from 1993 to 2003, and was appointed Professor of Fungal Genetics at Oxford in 1997. (wikipedia.org)
  • She was appointed Commander of the Order of the British Empire (CBE) in the 2012 Birthday Honours for services to fungal genetics and international science. (wikipedia.org)
  • fungus
  • When the researchers compared the genome of this fungus to the fungus from which they believed it was derived, they claimed that it "lost 2,324 genes in relation to the acquisition of obligate biotrophy. (icr.org)
  • So how could a loss of genes contribute to this fungus becoming a renegade parasite living off its human host? (icr.org)
  • 2014. Comparative Genomics Suggests That the Human Pathogenic Fungus Pneumocystis jirovecii Acquired Obligate Biotrophy through Gene Loss. (icr.org)
  • 2014. Gene Loss Rather Than Gene Gain Is Associated with a Host Jump from Monocots to Dicots in the Smut Fungus Melanopsichium pennsylvanicum. (icr.org)
  • Host-induced gene silencing, whereby the host crop produces siRNA molecules targeting crucial genes in the invading fungus and targeting the gene for degradation, has shown to be promising in its ability to inhibit fungal growth and decrease aflatoxin contamination. (springer.com)
  • Molecular identification of M. oryzae AVR genes will tremendously facilitate race identification of blast fungus and help rapid and effective deployment of R genes in rice cultivation. (plantcell.org)
  • In this regard, insertional mutagenesis in a diploid background appears as the most suitable method to identify essential genes in filamentous fungus. (genetics.org)
  • This study demonstrates for the first time the in vivo interference phenomenon in the pathogenic fungus Fusarium verticillioides , in which expression of an individual fungal transgene was specifically abolished by inoculating mycelial cells in transgenic tobacco plants engineered to express siRNAs from a dsRNA corresponding to the particular transgene. (beds.ac.uk)
  • As in aphids, the genes for carotene synthesis appear to have been acquired through horizontal gene transfer from a fungus. (wikipedia.org)
  • species
  • Sets of homologous protein sequences are rarely complete with respect to the fungal species of interest and are often small or unreliable, especially when closely related species have not been sequenced or annotated in detail. (edu.au)
  • In some species such as Leptosphaeria maculans, this coordinated in-planta upregulation of SSP-encoding genes expression relies on an epigenetic control but the signals triggering gene expression in-planta are unknown. (semanticscholar.org)
  • pl. ectomycorrhizas or ectomycorrhizae, abbreviated EcM) is a form of symbiotic relationship that occurs between a fungal symbiont and the roots of various plant species. (wikipedia.org)
  • Recently it was shown that Glomus species contain 51 genes encoding all the tools necessary for meiosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • novel
  • An alternative strategy for finding novel antifungal targets might be in the identification of genes that are essential for fungal growth under in vitro growth conditions ( R eich 2000 ). (genetics.org)
  • Conclusions: We demonstrate the success of a novel method of incorporating RNA-seq data into GHMM fungal gene prediction. (edu.au)
  • mycorrhizal
  • This implies that mycorrhizal genes must have been present in the common ancestor of land plants, and that they must have been vertically inherited since plants colonized land. (wikipedia.org)
  • A fully developed arbuscular mycorrhizal structure facilitates the two-way movement of nutrients between the host and mutualistic fungal partner. (wikipedia.org)
  • lineages
  • Remarkably, the capture of syncytin or syncytin-like genes has occurred independently, from different groups of endogenous retroviruses, in diverse mammalian lineages. (wikipedia.org)
  • sequences
  • Transcripts were apparent for some gene copies, but, in most cases, the endogenous sequences lacked the residues necessary for normal viral functioning. (blogspot.com)
  • Our approach capitalises on the high quality of fungal transcript assemblies by incorporating predictions made directly from transcript sequences. (edu.au)
  • In addition to the universal ITS1+ITS4 primers used by many labs, several taxon-specific primers have been described that allow selective amplification of fungal sequences (e.g., see Gardes & Bruns 1993 paper describing amplification of basidiomycete ITS sequences from mycorrhiza samples). (wikipedia.org)
  • elegans
  • The genetic interference phenomenon [RNA interference (RNAi)] was described in Caenorhabditis elegans in which double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) induces individual sequence-specific posttranscriptional gene silencing. (beds.ac.uk)
  • 1 ] demonstrated that RNAi abolished expression of targeted genes in C. elegans by injecting dsRNA. (beds.ac.uk)
  • Molecular
  • As we discover more of these single-gene, inborn immune system defects, we can give susceptible individuals with a family history of the disease a chance to prevent it, through molecular diagnosis and genetic counseling, as well as targeted treatments that restore a poor immune response ," says Casanova, who is senior attending physician at the Rockefeller University Hospital. (medicalxpress.com)
  • Several resistance genes in wheat have been identified, yet the molecular mechanisms of resistance are unknown. (deepdyve.com)
  • Among the differentially expressed genes was a protein disulfide isomerase (PDI), which is well known as a molecular chaperone and component of signal-transduction pathways in animal systems but had not been implicated previously in plant defense response. (deepdyve.com)
  • resistance genes in wheat ha ve been identified, yet th e molecular mechanisms of resist ance are unknow n. (deepdyve.com)
  • pathways
  • As it turns out, 42% of the missing genes were involved in amino acid and purine metabolism-standard biochemical pathways that are built-in to most creatures. (icr.org)
  • First, essentiality of the A. fumigatus AfFKS1 gene, encoding the catalytic subunit of the β-(1,3)-glucan synthase complex, was assessed by inactivating one allele of AfFKS1 in a diploid strain of A. fumigatus obtained using adequate selectable markers in spore color and nitrate utilization pathways and by performing haploidization under conditions that select for the occurrence of the disrupted allele. (genetics.org)
  • The biosynthetic pathways of fungal aromatic polyketides usually involve a set of successive enzymes, in which a non-reductive polyketide synthase iteratively catalyzes the essential assembly of simple building blocks into (often polycyclic) aromatic compounds. (uni-bielefeld.de)
  • quantify
  • In this research, quantitative real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT PCR) was used to quantify gene expression variations in the biofilm. (utexas.edu)
  • A comparative threshold method was employed to quantify the relative gene expression of the target gene to a housekeeping gene (18S rRNA). (utexas.edu)
  • qPCR
  • The ribosomal structural gene from maize and A. flavus beta - tubulin gene showed no reaction could be detected by SYBR qPCR when amplification was attempted using A. flavus - GFP and maize cDNA, respectively (data not shown). (springer.com)
  • Both results correlated well, revealing that Perlite plaster was the most suitable insulation material, showing the lowest fungal CFU and qPCR values. (frontiersin.org)
  • In addition, the potential of qPCR was tested in other materials of cultural heritage, as old parchments, showing to be a suitable method for measuring fungal abundance in these delicate materials. (frontiersin.org)
  • uORFs
  • Although they are called untranslated regions, and do not form the protein-coding region of the gene, uORFs located within the 5' UTR can be translated into peptides. (wikipedia.org)
  • Approximately 50% of human genes contain uORFs in their 5'UTR, and when present, these cause reductions in protein expression. (wikipedia.org)
  • ribosomal
  • Supplementary material 2 (PNG 11 kb) Supplemental Fig. S2 Quantitative PCR analysis showing the relative expression levels of the A. flavus beta-tubulin gene normalized to the maize ribosomal protein L10 gene, GRMZM2G024838. (springer.com)
  • Internal transcribed spacer (ITS) refers to the spacer DNA situated between the small-subunit ribosomal RNA (rRNA) and large-subunit rRNA genes in the chromosome or the corresponding transcribed region in the polycistronic rRNA precursor transcript. (wikipedia.org)
  • Saccharomyces
  • Stringent benchmarking against high-confidence annotation subsets showed CodingQuarry predicted 91.3% of Schizosaccharomyces pombe genes and 90.4% of Saccharomyces cerevisiae genes perfectly. (edu.au)
  • Transcripts
  • Results: CodingQuarry is a highly accurate, self-training GHMM fungal gene predictor designed to work with assembled, aligned RNA-seq transcripts. (edu.au)
  • Correct predictions are made despite transcript assembly problems, including those caused by overlap between the transcripts of adjacent gene loci. (edu.au)
  • Self-complementary RNA transcripts form a double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) that triggers a sequence-specific mRNA degradation, in a process known as RNA interference (RNAi), leading to gene silencing. (beds.ac.uk)
  • expression
  • The objective of this research was to assess the utility of the qRT-PCR tool for linking microscale gene expression to macroscale bioreactor performance and optimization. (utexas.edu)
  • A portion of a key gene involved in ethylbenzene metabolism (ElHDO - homogentisate dioxygenase) was isolated and its gene expression monitored as a function of substrate feed, nutrient concentration and transient loading conditions. (utexas.edu)
  • In batch experiments, qRT-PCR effectively described changes in relative gene target expression numbers (TN) as a function of substrate mixtures and nutrient concentrations. (utexas.edu)
  • However, this method may not be well suited to describe the effect of operational modifications which cause only small gene expression changes due to its low sensitivity under such conditions. (utexas.edu)
  • Impact of biotic and abiotic factors on the expression of fungal effector-encoding genes in axenic growth conditions. (semanticscholar.org)
  • In the present study, biotic and abiotic factors that may relieve suppression of SSP-encoding gene expression during axenic growth of L. maculans were investigated. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Some abiotic factors (temperature, pH) could have a limited effect on SSP gene expression. (semanticscholar.org)
  • To identify host genes involved in the resistance response, expression profiles of the wheat line Tadinia (containing the Stb4 gene for resistance) and the susceptible line Yecora Rojo, non-inoculated or inoculated with M. graminicola, were compared by differential-display polymerase chain reaction (DD-PCR). (deepdyve.com)
  • Cellular boundaries play a pivotal role in this integration by maintaining a level of cell autonomy while enabling communication between cells for coordinated gene expression and metabolism. (beds.ac.uk)
  • The 3' UTR plays a critical role in translation termination as well as post-transcriptional gene expression. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is important to consider that mutations in 3' untranslated regions have the potential to alter the expression of several genes that may appear unrelated. (wikipedia.org)
  • chromosome
  • Genomic analysis of these heterozygous diploids led in particular to the identification of an essential A. fumigatus gene encoding an SMC-like protein resembling one in Schizosacccharomyces pombe involved in chromosome condensation and cohesion. (genetics.org)
  • targets
  • Furthermore, identification and analysis of M. oryzae AVR genes will help to elucidate fungal mechanisms of pathogenesis and shed light on the mechanisms involved in coevolution of fungal effectors and their host targets. (plantcell.org)
  • plants
  • Treatment of the transgenic plants with either jasmonates or the active oxygen generating compound paraquat strongly induced the reporter gene. (deepdyve.com)
  • These three genes could be sequenced from all major clades of modern land plants, including liverworts, the most basal group, and phylogeny of the three genes proved to agree with then current land plant phylogenies. (wikipedia.org)
  • HAPs have also been overexpressed in several transgenic plants as a potential alternative method of phytase production for the animal feed industry and very recently, the HAP phytase gene from E. coli has been successfully expressed in a transgenic pig. (wikipedia.org)
  • induction
  • Rapid induction of a protein disulfide isomerase and defense-related genes in wheat in response. (deepdyve.com)
  • In contrast, a wheat lipoxygenase was down-regulated in the resistant lines at time points corresponding with peak induction of the PR genes. (deepdyve.com)
  • In contrast, neither salicylate nor its functional analogues 2,6-dichloroisonicotinic acid and 1,2,3-benzothiodiazole-7-carbothioic acid S-methyl ester resulted in reporter gene induction. (deepdyve.com)
  • degradation
  • Now it looks like we can add gene loss (an aspect of genome degradation) as a key part of the creationist model-explaining genetic mechanisms that underlie the curse on creation. (icr.org)
  • genome
  • Therefore, we used genome resequencing of Ina168, an M. oryzae isolate that contains nine AVR genes. (plantcell.org)
  • rRNA
  • In bacteria and archaea, ITS is located between the 16S and 23S rRNA genes. (wikipedia.org)
  • ITS1 corresponds to the ITS in bacteria and archaea, while ITS2 originated as an insertion that interrupted the ancestral 23S rRNA gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • genomic
  • However, significant plasmid and genomic DNA rearrangements were observed at many of the identified genomic loci where plasmid integration had occurred, thus suggesting that the use of electroporation to build libraries of A. fumigatus insertional mutants has relatively limited value and cannot be used in an exhaustive search of essential genes. (genetics.org)
  • contrast
  • In contrast, two types of cellular stresses induced by antibiotics (cycloheximide, phleomycin) activated strongly the transcription of SSP genes. (semanticscholar.org)
  • processes
  • AVR-Pia and AVR-Pii have evolved by gene gain/loss processes, whereas AVR-Pik/km/kp has evolved by nucleotide substitutions and gene gain/loss. (plantcell.org)
  • occurs
  • In Bacteria and Archaea, the ITS occurs in one to several copies, as do the flanking 16S and 23S genes. (wikipedia.org)