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  • genomes
  • The success in identifying a lipase gene inducible with olive oil and the suitability of the functional screening and bioinformatic survey carried out herein, support the premise that the strategy can be used in other microorganisms with sequenced genomes to search for true lipases, or other enzymes belonging to large protein families. (mdpi.com)
  • they appear to have been transferred from β-lactam producing bacteria [ 13 - 15 ], unlike the IAT-encoding penDE gene, which contains three introns and seems to have been recruited from the fungal genomes. (beds.ac.uk)
  • Infection
  • For most people, a fungal infection like athlete's foot means a simple trip to the drugstore and a reminder to bring shower shoes to the gym. (medicalxpress.com)
  • Their work suggests why treatments for fungal infection sometimes fail, and it gives weight to a genetic theory of infectious diseases, which proposes that a single genetic defect can cause an otherwise healthy person to become severely ill from a minor infection-be it viral, bacterial or fungal. (medicalxpress.com)
  • Casanova and his team say that further research on CARD9 will examine its exact role in human anti-fungal immunity, tracing the signaling pathways in different cell types that give an individual the ability to fight off an infection. (medicalxpress.com)
  • There are a number of reasons that can contribute to a person getting a fungal infection and these include having a depressed immune system, poor circulation, prolonged use of antibiotics, and coming into contact with contaminated water. (brighthub.com)
  • It is possible that genetic mutation s may put individuals at increased risk of contracting a fungal infection. (brighthub.com)
  • Expressing an RNAi construct in maize kernels that targets the gene for alpha-amylase in Aspergillus flavus resulted in suppression of alpha-amylase ( amy1 ) gene expression and decreased fungal growth during in situ infection resulting in decreased aflatoxin production. (springer.com)
  • fungi
  • When both these genes are functioning normally Dectin-1 senses the presence of fungi and prompts the immune cells to send signals and mount a response. (brighthub.com)
  • The scientists discovered that if there is a mutation in any one of these genes then the body struggles to control the fungi. (brighthub.com)
  • Background: The impact of gene annotation quality on functional and comparative genomics makes gene prediction an important process, particularly in non-model species, including many fungi. (edu.au)
  • Fungi tend to be composed of soft tissues, making fossilization difficult and the discovery of fungal fossils incredibly rare. (wikipedia.org)
  • It makes use of a large database that also holds detailed, curated, information for all sequences of viruses, viroids and satellites of plants, fungi and protozoa that are complete or that contain at least one complete gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • The term carotene (also carotin, from the Latin carota, "carrot") is used for many related unsaturated hydrocarbon substances having the formula C40Hx, which are synthesized by plants but in general cannot be made by animals (with the exception of some aphids and spider mites which acquired the synthesizing genes from fungi). (wikipedia.org)
  • The only animals known to produce carotenoids are aphids and spider mites, which acquired the ability and genes from fungi or it is produced by endosymbiotic bacteria in whiteflies. (wikipedia.org)
  • The process is regulated by specialized chemical signaling and by changes in gene expression of both the host and AM fungi. (wikipedia.org)
  • ITS1 is located between 18S and 5.8S rRNA genes, while ITS2 is between 5.8S and 26S (in plants, or 28S in animals and fungi) rRNA genes. (wikipedia.org)
  • The ITS region is the most widely sequenced DNA region in molecular ecology of fungi and has been recommended as the universal fungal barcode sequence. (wikipedia.org)
  • colonization
  • Similar to many plant pathogens, Z. tritici possesses three catalase-peroxidase genes that are known to detoxify H2O2 accumulated in the foliage during colonization. (wur.nl)
  • This coincides with an important switch from a biotrophic to a necrotrophic lifestyle during pathogenesis suggesting that this gene is likely required to overcome H2O2-dependant defence responses during colonization. (wur.nl)
  • Here, we demonstrate that maize inbred B104 expressing an RNAi construct targeting the A. flavus alpha-amylase gene amy1 effectively reduces amy1 gene expression resulting in decreased fungal colonization and aflatoxin accumulation in kernels. (springer.com)
  • The necessary components for the colonization of Glomeromycota include, the host's fine root system, proper development of intracellular arbuscular structures, and a well-established external fungal mycelium. (wikipedia.org)
  • fungus
  • When the researchers compared the genome of this fungus to the fungus from which they believed it was derived, they claimed that it "lost 2,324 genes in relation to the acquisition of obligate biotrophy. (icr.org)
  • So how could a loss of genes contribute to this fungus becoming a renegade parasite living off its human host? (icr.org)
  • 2014. Comparative Genomics Suggests That the Human Pathogenic Fungus Pneumocystis jirovecii Acquired Obligate Biotrophy through Gene Loss. (icr.org)
  • 2014. Gene Loss Rather Than Gene Gain Is Associated with a Host Jump from Monocots to Dicots in the Smut Fungus Melanopsichium pennsylvanicum. (icr.org)
  • The gene codifying 526309 was expressed when the fungus grew in a medium with olive oil as carbon source. (mdpi.com)
  • Host-induced gene silencing, whereby the host crop produces siRNA molecules targeting crucial genes in the invading fungus and targeting the gene for degradation, has shown to be promising in its ability to inhibit fungal growth and decrease aflatoxin contamination. (springer.com)
  • Molecular identification of M. oryzae AVR genes will tremendously facilitate race identification of blast fungus and help rapid and effective deployment of R genes in rice cultivation. (plantcell.org)
  • In this regard, insertional mutagenesis in a diploid background appears as the most suitable method to identify essential genes in filamentous fungus. (genetics.org)
  • As in aphids, the genes for carotene synthesis appear to have been acquired through horizontal gene transfer from a fungus. (wikipedia.org)
  • Molecular
  • As we discover more of these single-gene, inborn immune system defects, we can give susceptible individuals with a family history of the disease a chance to prevent it, through molecular diagnosis and genetic counseling, as well as targeted treatments that restore a poor immune response ," says Casanova, who is senior attending physician at the Rockefeller University Hospital. (medicalxpress.com)
  • She was Professor Emeritus of Fungal Genetics in the Department of Plant Science at the University of Oxford, and was known for her genetic and molecular analysis of the mushroom Coprinus cinereus and Coprinus lagopus. (wikipedia.org)
  • pathogens
  • The whole of creation was then subjected to a negative turn of events, including the emergence of fungal pathogens that cause death and disease in plants and animals. (icr.org)
  • Recently, several new studies were published showing how fungal pathogens adapted to their hosts through large-scale genomic changes involving a type of genome degradation marked by gene losses. (icr.org)
  • Barley stripe mosaic virus-mediated tools for investigating gene function in cereal plants and their pathogens: virus-induced gene silencing, host-mediated gene silencing, and virus-mediated overexpression of heterologous protein. (semanticscholar.org)
  • genetics
  • Casselton was a Fellow of St Cross College Oxford from 1993 to 2003, and was appointed Professor of Fungal Genetics at Oxford in 1997. (wikipedia.org)
  • She was appointed Commander of the Order of the British Empire (CBE) in the 2012 Birthday Honours for services to fungal genetics and international science. (wikipedia.org)
  • Candida
  • The Radboud team found a mutation in gene called Dectin-1 and this was linked to an increased susceptibility to vaginal infections by Candida. (brighthub.com)
  • eukaryotes
  • Our findings reveal that horizontal gene transfer can result in novel gene formation in eukaryotes despite miniaturized genomic targets and a need for co-option of reverse transcriptase. (blogspot.com)
  • In eukaryotes, genes encoding ribosomal RNA and spacers occur in tandem repeats that are thousands of copies long, each separated by regions of non-transcribed DNA termed intergenic spacer (IGS) or non-transcribed spacer (NTS). (wikipedia.org)
  • effector
  • Remarkably, a total of 1.68 Mb regions, comprising 316 candidate effector genes, were present in Ina168 but absent in the assembled sequence of isolate 70-15. (plantcell.org)
  • species
  • Sets of homologous protein sequences are rarely complete with respect to the fungal species of interest and are often small or unreliable, especially when closely related species have not been sequenced or annotated in detail. (edu.au)
  • Recently it was shown that Glomus species contain 51 genes encoding all the tools necessary for meiosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • novel
  • All this research should pave the way for the development of novel therapeutics to boost host response where the genes are failing. (brighthub.com)
  • To isolate novel avirulence genes from M. oryzae , we examined DNA polymorphisms of secreted protein genes predicted from the genome sequence of isolate 70-15 and looked for an association with AVR activity. (plantcell.org)
  • An alternative strategy for finding novel antifungal targets might be in the identification of genes that are essential for fungal growth under in vitro growth conditions ( R eich 2000 ). (genetics.org)
  • Conclusions: We demonstrate the success of a novel method of incorporating RNA-seq data into GHMM fungal gene prediction. (edu.au)
  • mycorrhizal
  • This implies that mycorrhizal genes must have been present in the common ancestor of land plants, and that they must have been vertically inherited since plants colonized land. (wikipedia.org)
  • A fully developed arbuscular mycorrhizal structure facilitates the two-way movement of nutrients between the host and mutualistic fungal partner. (wikipedia.org)
  • characterization
  • In order to identify the gene(s) encoding the protein responsible for the lipolytic activity, in silico identification and characterization of triacylglycerol lipases from T. harzianum is reported for the first time. (mdpi.com)
  • lineages
  • Remarkably, the capture of syncytin or syncytin-like genes has occurred independently, from different groups of endogenous retroviruses, in diverse mammalian lineages. (wikipedia.org)
  • sequences
  • Transcripts were apparent for some gene copies, but, in most cases, the endogenous sequences lacked the residues necessary for normal viral functioning. (blogspot.com)
  • Our approach capitalises on the high quality of fungal transcript assemblies by incorporating predictions made directly from transcript sequences. (edu.au)
  • In addition to the universal ITS1+ITS4 primers used by many labs, several taxon-specific primers have been described that allow selective amplification of fungal sequences (e.g., see Gardes & Bruns 1993 paper describing amplification of basidiomycete ITS sequences from mycorrhiza samples). (wikipedia.org)
  • chromosome
  • When combined with the data from two powdery mildew phenotypic screens a QTL peak spanning the REN1 gene on chromosome 13 of KV was identified. (sun.ac.za)
  • Genomic analysis of these heterozygous diploids led in particular to the identification of an essential A. fumigatus gene encoding an SMC-like protein resembling one in Schizosacccharomyces pombe involved in chromosome condensation and cohesion. (genetics.org)
  • Internal transcribed spacer (ITS) refers to the spacer DNA situated between the small-subunit ribosomal RNA (rRNA) and large-subunit rRNA genes in the chromosome or the corresponding transcribed region in the polycistronic rRNA precursor transcript. (wikipedia.org)
  • obligate
  • They also state, "These gene losses constitute a unique combination of characteristics which are hallmarks of both obligate biotrophs and animal parasites. (icr.org)
  • Transcripts
  • Results: CodingQuarry is a highly accurate, self-training GHMM fungal gene predictor designed to work with assembled, aligned RNA-seq transcripts. (edu.au)
  • Correct predictions are made despite transcript assembly problems, including those caused by overlap between the transcripts of adjacent gene loci. (edu.au)
  • synthesis
  • In bacteria, uORFs are called leader peptides, and were originally discovered on the basis of their impact on the regulation of genes involved in the synthesis or transport of amino acids. (wikipedia.org)
  • biosynthetic
  • We have conducted an investigation to characterize the ial gene and to determine the role of the IAL protein in the penicillin biosynthetic pathway. (beds.ac.uk)
  • The biosynthetic pathways of fungal aromatic polyketides usually involve a set of successive enzymes, in which a non-reductive polyketide synthase iteratively catalyzes the essential assembly of simple building blocks into (often polycyclic) aromatic compounds. (uni-bielefeld.de)
  • pathways
  • As it turns out, 42% of the missing genes were involved in amino acid and purine metabolism-standard biochemical pathways that are built-in to most creatures. (icr.org)
  • First, essentiality of the A. fumigatus AfFKS1 gene, encoding the catalytic subunit of the β-(1,3)-glucan synthase complex, was assessed by inactivating one allele of AfFKS1 in a diploid strain of A. fumigatus obtained using adequate selectable markers in spore color and nitrate utilization pathways and by performing haploidization under conditions that select for the occurrence of the disrupted allele. (genetics.org)
  • researchers
  • The researchers focused on a particular gene, CARD9, because previous studies of other fungal infections had found a defect on the gene to be the cause. (medicalxpress.com)
  • By studying their DNA the researchers found that there was a common recurrent mutation in a gene called CARD9. (brighthub.com)
  • protein
  • Supplementary material 2 (PNG 11 kb) Supplemental Fig. S2 Quantitative PCR analysis showing the relative expression levels of the A. flavus beta-tubulin gene normalized to the maize ribosomal protein L10 gene, GRMZM2G024838. (springer.com)
  • We have termed this gene ial because it encodes a protein with high similarity to IAT (IAL for IAT-Like). (beds.ac.uk)
  • This large-scale study found significantly more presence/absence polymorphisms than nucleotide polymorphisms among 1032 putative secreted protein genes. (plantcell.org)
  • The encoding gene was expressed in Escherichia coli Rosetta-gami (DE3) and the recombinant protein with His(6)-tag was purified to electrophoretic homogeneity. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • In these cases, protein homology-based evidence fails to correctly annotate many genes, or significantly improve ab initio predictions. (edu.au)
  • This shows that a high quality annotation can be achieved without relying on protein homology or a training set of genes. (edu.au)
  • Although they are called untranslated regions, and do not form the protein-coding region of the gene, uORFs located within the 5' UTR can be translated into peptides. (wikipedia.org)
  • Approximately 50% of human genes contain uORFs in their 5'UTR, and when present, these cause reductions in protein expression. (wikipedia.org)
  • ribosomal
  • The ribosomal structural gene from maize and A. flavus beta - tubulin gene showed no reaction could be detected by SYBR qPCR when amplification was attempted using A. flavus - GFP and maize cDNA, respectively (data not shown). (springer.com)
  • Saccharomyces
  • Stringent benchmarking against high-confidence annotation subsets showed CodingQuarry predicted 91.3% of Schizosaccharomyces pombe genes and 90.4% of Saccharomyces cerevisiae genes perfectly. (edu.au)
  • substrate
  • A portion of a key gene involved in ethylbenzene metabolism (ElHDO - homogentisate dioxygenase) was isolated and its gene expression monitored as a function of substrate feed, nutrient concentration and transient loading conditions. (utexas.edu)
  • In batch experiments, qRT-PCR effectively described changes in relative gene target expression numbers (TN) as a function of substrate mixtures and nutrient concentrations. (utexas.edu)
  • regulation
  • Since the regulation of gene expression is critical in the proper function of cells, this is an area of study that needs to be investigated further. (wikipedia.org)
  • infections
  • But in very rare cases, fungal infections can spread below the skin's surface and onto the lymph nodes, bones, digestive tract or even the brain. (medicalxpress.com)
  • What Makes People Get Fungal Infections? (brighthub.com)
  • There are many different types of unpleasant fungal infections that afflict humans. (brighthub.com)
  • Why do People Get Fungal Infections? (brighthub.com)
  • These people had been afflicted by recurrent fungal infections, which proved to be fatal in some cases. (brighthub.com)
  • Further proof of this was obtained from animal models where mice lacking either of these genes were susceptible to fungal infections. (brighthub.com)
  • Mice response to fungal infections had previously been studied and known, and the mechanisms are the same in humans. (brighthub.com)
  • interactions
  • Understanding the function of M. oryzae effectors, their host targets, and AVR-R gene interactions is important to devise effective means to control the disease. (plantcell.org)
  • expression
  • In this research, quantitative real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT PCR) was used to quantify gene expression variations in the biofilm. (utexas.edu)
  • The objective of this research was to assess the utility of the qRT-PCR tool for linking microscale gene expression to macroscale bioreactor performance and optimization. (utexas.edu)
  • A comparative threshold method was employed to quantify the relative gene expression of the target gene to a housekeeping gene (18S rRNA). (utexas.edu)
  • However, this method may not be well suited to describe the effect of operational modifications which cause only small gene expression changes due to its low sensitivity under such conditions. (utexas.edu)
  • Fungal His-tagged nitrilase from Gibberella intermedia: gene cloning, heterologous expression and biochemical properties. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Research on fungal nitrilase gene expression will advance our understanding for its biological function of fungal nitrilase in nitrile hydrolysis. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • The 3' UTR plays a critical role in translation termination as well as post-transcriptional gene expression. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is important to consider that mutations in 3' untranslated regions have the potential to alter the expression of several genes that may appear unrelated. (wikipedia.org)
  • genome
  • Now it looks like we can add gene loss (an aspect of genome degradation) as a key part of the creationist model-explaining genetic mechanisms that underlie the curse on creation. (icr.org)
  • In silico analysis of the P. chrysogenum genome revealed the presence of a gene, Pc13g09140, initially described as paralogue of the IAT-encoding penDE gene. (beds.ac.uk)
  • Therefore, we used genome resequencing of Ina168, an M. oryzae isolate that contains nine AVR genes. (plantcell.org)
  • Functional
  • Despite their agronomical importance, little direct functional evidence for genes of pathogenicity and virulence is currently available because mutagenesis and transformation protocols are lacking. (semanticscholar.org)
  • ancestral
  • Our data suggest that like in A. nidulans , the ial and penDE genes might have been formed from a single ancestral gene that became duplicated during evolution, although a separate evolutive origin for the ial and penDE genes, is also discussed. (beds.ac.uk)
  • ITS1 corresponds to the ITS in bacteria and archaea, while ITS2 originated as an insertion that interrupted the ancestral 23S rRNA gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • plant
  • article{osti_1379648, title = {Identification of Glutaminyl Cyclase Genes Involved in Pyroglutamate Modification of Fungal Lignocellulolytic Enzymes}, author = {Wu, Vincent W. and Dana, Craig M. and Iavarone, Anthony T. and Clark, Douglas S. and Glass, N. Louise}, abstractNote = {The breakdown of plant biomass to simple sugars is essential for the production of second-generation biofuels and high-value bioproducts. (osti.gov)
  • This hyphal network aids in water and nutrient uptake often helping the host plant to survive adverse conditions, and in exchange, the fungal symbiont is provided with access to carbohydrates. (wikipedia.org)
  • 2010) investigated plant genes involved in communication with order Glomales fungal partners (DMI1, DMI3, IPD3). (wikipedia.org)
  • These three genes could be sequenced from all major clades of modern land plants, including liverworts, the most basal group, and phylogeny of the three genes proved to agree with then current land plant phylogenies. (wikipedia.org)
  • Spores are commonly dispersed by fungal and plant burrowing herbivore partners, but some air dispersal capabilities are also known. (wikipedia.org)
  • present
  • In the present study, a fungal nitrilase was cloned from the cDNA sequence of G. intermedia and successfully expressed in E. coli Rosetta-gami (DE3). (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • genomic
  • However, significant plasmid and genomic DNA rearrangements were observed at many of the identified genomic loci where plasmid integration had occurred, thus suggesting that the use of electroporation to build libraries of A. fumigatus insertional mutants has relatively limited value and cannot be used in an exhaustive search of essential genes. (genetics.org)
  • occurs
  • In Bacteria and Archaea, the ITS occurs in one to several copies, as do the flanking 16S and 23S genes. (wikipedia.org)