• pathogens
  • The whole of creation was then subjected to a negative turn of events, including the emergence of fungal pathogens that cause death and disease in plants and animals. (icr.org)
  • Recently, several new studies were published showing how fungal pathogens adapted to their hosts through large-scale genomic changes involving a type of genome degradation marked by gene losses. (icr.org)
  • Hydrolytic enzymes such as chitinases and glucanases are implicated in plant defense responses against fungal pathogens. (edu.au)
  • Genes encoding these enzymes have been used to genetically engineer plants to enhance their protection against fungal pathogens. (edu.au)
  • Activity was determined by measuring reducing sugars in the fungal supernatants against cell wall preparations of six economically important plant pathogens. (edu.au)
  • Thus, a common NHR mechanism is operative in Arabidopsis against both hemibiotrophic oomycetes and necrotrophic fungal pathogens that are pathogenic to soybean. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Identification and further characterization of the PSS1 gene would provide further insights into a new form of nonhost resistance in Arabidopsis, which could be utilized in improving resistance of soybean to two serious pathogens. (biomedcentral.com)
  • fungi
  • Here, we provide direct evidence of integration by sequencing across host-virus gene boundaries and carry out phylogenetic analyses of fungal hosts and totivirids (dsRNA viruses of fungi and protozoans). (blogspot.com)
  • Background: The impact of gene annotation quality on functional and comparative genomics makes gene prediction an important process, particularly in non-model species, including many fungi. (edu.au)
  • In phytopathogenic fungi, the expression of hundreds of small secreted protein (SSP)-encoding genes is induced upon primary infection of plants while no or a low level of expression is observed during vegetative growth. (semanticscholar.org)
  • The aims of this research project were to isolate chitinolytic and glucanolytic fungi from soil and to clone the genes encoding for chitinase and glucanase enzymes. (edu.au)
  • To achieve these aims, fungi with activity against chitin and glucan were isolated, the activity quantified by colorimetric and inhibition assays and gene fragments with homology to known chitinase and glucanase genes were isolated and their sequences determined. (edu.au)
  • Analysis of gene families indicated that M. perniciosa have similar amounts of carboxylesterases and repertoires of plant cell wall degrading enzymes as other hemibiotrophic fungi. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Fungi tend to be composed of soft tissues, making fossilization difficult and the discovery of fungal fossils incredibly rare. (wikipedia.org)
  • According to molecular and phylogenetic analyses of fungal lineages, it appears that EcM fungi have evolved multiple times from humus and wood saprotrophic ancestors, with little reversion. (wikipedia.org)
  • It makes use of a large database that also holds detailed, curated, information for all sequences of viruses, viroids and satellites of plants, fungi and protozoa that are complete or that contain at least one complete gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • The term carotene (also carotin, from the Latin carota, "carrot") is used for many related unsaturated hydrocarbon substances having the formula C40Hx, which are synthesized by plants but in general cannot be made by animals (with the exception of some aphids and spider mites which acquired the synthesizing genes from fungi). (wikipedia.org)
  • The only animals known to produce carotenoids are aphids and spider mites, which acquired the ability and genes from fungi or it is produced by endosymbiotic bacteria in whiteflies. (wikipedia.org)
  • The process is regulated by specialized chemical signaling and by changes in gene expression of both the host and AM fungi. (wikipedia.org)
  • ITS1 is located between 18S and 5.8S rRNA genes, while ITS2 is between 5.8S and 26S (in plants, or 28S in animals and fungi) rRNA genes. (wikipedia.org)
  • The ITS region is the most widely sequenced DNA region in molecular ecology of fungi and has been recommended as the universal fungal barcode sequence. (wikipedia.org)
  • spores
  • Briefly, the disease begins when fungal spores germinate and infect meristematic tissues, developing into monokaryotic biotrophic hyphae without clamp connections that slowly occupy the intercellular space. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Fungal spores, introduced into wounds in the tree caused by the beetles, invade the xylem or vascular system. (wikipedia.org)
  • Spores are commonly dispersed by fungal and plant burrowing herbivore partners, but some air dispersal capabilities are also known. (wikipedia.org)
  • species
  • Sets of homologous protein sequences are rarely complete with respect to the fungal species of interest and are often small or unreliable, especially when closely related species have not been sequenced or annotated in detail. (edu.au)
  • In some species such as Leptosphaeria maculans, this coordinated in-planta upregulation of SSP-encoding genes expression relies on an epigenetic control but the signals triggering gene expression in-planta are unknown. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Western Australia has over 4000 endemic plant species and a largely unknown fungal biota. (edu.au)
  • Twenty four chitinolytic and glucanolytic fungal isolates were identified by growing them on chitin-containing media to select for those species that utilised chitin/glucan as a carbon source. (edu.au)
  • Genes encoding proteins involved in retrotransposition, reactive oxygen species (ROS) resistance, drug efflux transport and cell wall degradation were identified. (biomedcentral.com)
  • pl. ectomycorrhizas or ectomycorrhizae, abbreviated EcM) is a form of symbiotic relationship that occurs between a fungal symbiont and the roots of various plant species. (wikipedia.org)
  • The disease affects all species of elm native to North America and Europe, but many Asiatic species have evolved anti-fungal genes and are resistant. (wikipedia.org)
  • Recently it was shown that Glomus species contain 51 genes encoding all the tools necessary for meiosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • genetics
  • We have evaluated the usefulness of parasexual genetics in the identification of genes essential for the growth of the human fungal pathogen Aspergillus fumigatus . (genetics.org)
  • She was Professor Emeritus of Fungal Genetics in the Department of Plant Science at the University of Oxford, and was known for her genetic and molecular analysis of the mushroom Coprinus cinereus and Coprinus lagopus. (wikipedia.org)
  • Casselton was a Fellow of St Cross College Oxford from 1993 to 2003, and was appointed Professor of Fungal Genetics at Oxford in 1997. (wikipedia.org)
  • She was appointed Commander of the Order of the British Empire (CBE) in the 2012 Birthday Honours for services to fungal genetics and international science. (wikipedia.org)
  • infection
  • For most people, a fungal infection like athlete's foot means a simple trip to the drugstore and a reminder to bring shower shoes to the gym. (medicalxpress.com)
  • Their work suggests why treatments for fungal infection sometimes fail, and it gives weight to a genetic theory of infectious diseases, which proposes that a single genetic defect can cause an otherwise healthy person to become severely ill from a minor infection-be it viral, bacterial or fungal. (medicalxpress.com)
  • A quantitatively different expression of SSP-encoding genes compared to plant infection was also detected. (semanticscholar.org)
  • In collaboration with our friends and colleagues in the Aberdeen Fungal Group, the UK and worldwide, we have examined the molecular and cellular responses of C. albicans to specific environmental signals such as oxidative, osmotic and nitrosative stresses, heat shock, changes in carbon source, and amino acid starvation, and defined the contributions of these individual adaptive response to infection. (abdn.ac.uk)
  • sequences
  • Transcripts were apparent for some gene copies, but, in most cases, the endogenous sequences lacked the residues necessary for normal viral functioning. (blogspot.com)
  • Our approach capitalises on the high quality of fungal transcript assemblies by incorporating predictions made directly from transcript sequences. (edu.au)
  • In addition to the universal ITS1+ITS4 primers used by many labs, several taxon-specific primers have been described that allow selective amplification of fungal sequences (e.g., see Gardes & Bruns 1993 paper describing amplification of basidiomycete ITS sequences from mycorrhiza samples). (wikipedia.org)
  • fungus
  • When the researchers compared the genome of this fungus to the fungus from which they believed it was derived, they claimed that it "lost 2,324 genes in relation to the acquisition of obligate biotrophy. (icr.org)
  • So how could a loss of genes contribute to this fungus becoming a renegade parasite living off its human host? (icr.org)
  • 2014. Comparative Genomics Suggests That the Human Pathogenic Fungus Pneumocystis jirovecii Acquired Obligate Biotrophy through Gene Loss. (icr.org)
  • 2014. Gene Loss Rather Than Gene Gain Is Associated with a Host Jump from Monocots to Dicots in the Smut Fungus Melanopsichium pennsylvanicum. (icr.org)
  • Molecular identification of M. oryzae AVR genes will tremendously facilitate race identification of blast fungus and help rapid and effective deployment of R genes in rice cultivation. (plantcell.org)
  • In this regard, insertional mutagenesis in a diploid background appears as the most suitable method to identify essential genes in filamentous fungus. (genetics.org)
  • As in aphids, the genes for carotene synthesis appear to have been acquired through horizontal gene transfer from a fungus. (wikipedia.org)
  • eukaryotes
  • In eukaryotes, genes encoding ribosomal RNA and spacers occur in tandem repeats that are thousands of copies long, each separated by regions of non-transcribed DNA termed intergenic spacer (IGS) or non-transcribed spacer (NTS). (wikipedia.org)
  • polymerase chain re
  • In this research, quantitative real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT PCR) was used to quantify gene expression variations in the biofilm. (utexas.edu)
  • The sensitivity and specificity of 18S rRNA polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in the detection of fungal aetiology of microbial keratitis was determined in thirty patients with clinical diagnosis of microbial keratitis. (biomedcentral.com)
  • colonization
  • The necessary components for the colonization of Glomeromycota include, the host's fine root system, proper development of intracellular arbuscular structures, and a well-established external fungal mycelium. (wikipedia.org)
  • mycorrhizal
  • This implies that mycorrhizal genes must have been present in the common ancestor of land plants, and that they must have been vertically inherited since plants colonized land. (wikipedia.org)
  • A fully developed arbuscular mycorrhizal structure facilitates the two-way movement of nutrients between the host and mutualistic fungal partner. (wikipedia.org)
  • lineages
  • Remarkably, the capture of syncytin or syncytin-like genes has occurred independently, from different groups of endogenous retroviruses, in diverse mammalian lineages. (wikipedia.org)
  • effectors
  • Understanding the function of M. oryzae effectors, their host targets, and AVR-R gene interactions is important to devise effective means to control the disease. (plantcell.org)
  • Furthermore, identification and analysis of M. oryzae AVR genes will help to elucidate fungal mechanisms of pathogenesis and shed light on the mechanisms involved in coevolution of fungal effectors and their host targets. (plantcell.org)
  • The wheat pathogen Stagonospora nodorum produces multiple necrotrophic effectors (also called host-selective toxins) that promote disease by interacting with corresponding host sensitivity gene products. (edu.au)
  • Susceptibility
  • Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms in the 3' UTR of another gene have also been associated with susceptibility to preterm birth. (wikipedia.org)
  • chromosome
  • Genomic analysis of these heterozygous diploids led in particular to the identification of an essential A. fumigatus gene encoding an SMC-like protein resembling one in Schizosacccharomyces pombe involved in chromosome condensation and cohesion. (genetics.org)
  • We mapped PSS1 to a region very close to the southern telomere of chromosome 3 that carries no known disease resistance genes. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Internal transcribed spacer (ITS) refers to the spacer DNA situated between the small-subunit ribosomal RNA (rRNA) and large-subunit rRNA genes in the chromosome or the corresponding transcribed region in the polycistronic rRNA precursor transcript. (wikipedia.org)
  • rRNA
  • A comparative threshold method was employed to quantify the relative gene expression of the target gene to a housekeeping gene (18S rRNA). (utexas.edu)
  • PCR was performed with primer pairs targeted to the 18S rRNA gene. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The PCR positive samples were identified by DNA sequencing of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region of the rRNA gene. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The 28S rRNA gene PCR evaluation was carried out by Anand et al. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The aim of this study is to evaluate a PCR method based on a new set of primers targeted to 18S rRNA gene for rapid detection of pan-fungal aetiology in microbial keratitis. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In bacteria and archaea, ITS is located between the 16S and 23S rRNA genes. (wikipedia.org)
  • ITS1 corresponds to the ITS in bacteria and archaea, while ITS2 originated as an insertion that interrupted the ancestral 23S rRNA gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • pathways
  • As it turns out, 42% of the missing genes were involved in amino acid and purine metabolism-standard biochemical pathways that are built-in to most creatures. (icr.org)
  • First, essentiality of the A. fumigatus AfFKS1 gene, encoding the catalytic subunit of the β-(1,3)-glucan synthase complex, was assessed by inactivating one allele of AfFKS1 in a diploid strain of A. fumigatus obtained using adequate selectable markers in spore color and nitrate utilization pathways and by performing haploidization under conditions that select for the occurrence of the disrupted allele. (genetics.org)
  • The biosynthetic pathways of fungal aromatic polyketides usually involve a set of successive enzymes, in which a non-reductive polyketide synthase iteratively catalyzes the essential assembly of simple building blocks into (often polycyclic) aromatic compounds. (uni-bielefeld.de)
  • uORFs
  • Although they are called untranslated regions, and do not form the protein-coding region of the gene, uORFs located within the 5' UTR can be translated into peptides. (wikipedia.org)
  • Approximately 50% of human genes contain uORFs in their 5'UTR, and when present, these cause reductions in protein expression. (wikipedia.org)
  • Saccharomyces
  • Stringent benchmarking against high-confidence annotation subsets showed CodingQuarry predicted 91.3% of Schizosaccharomyces pombe genes and 90.4% of Saccharomyces cerevisiae genes perfectly. (edu.au)
  • Molecular
  • As we discover more of these single-gene, inborn immune system defects, we can give susceptible individuals with a family history of the disease a chance to prevent it, through molecular diagnosis and genetic counseling, as well as targeted treatments that restore a poor immune response ," says Casanova, who is senior attending physician at the Rockefeller University Hospital. (medicalxpress.com)
  • amino
  • ChiA, was 639 bp long, encoding 191 amino acids with identity to other chitinase genes. (edu.au)
  • expression
  • The objective of this research was to assess the utility of the qRT-PCR tool for linking microscale gene expression to macroscale bioreactor performance and optimization. (utexas.edu)
  • A portion of a key gene involved in ethylbenzene metabolism (ElHDO - homogentisate dioxygenase) was isolated and its gene expression monitored as a function of substrate feed, nutrient concentration and transient loading conditions. (utexas.edu)
  • In batch experiments, qRT-PCR effectively described changes in relative gene target expression numbers (TN) as a function of substrate mixtures and nutrient concentrations. (utexas.edu)
  • However, this method may not be well suited to describe the effect of operational modifications which cause only small gene expression changes due to its low sensitivity under such conditions. (utexas.edu)
  • In the present study, biotic and abiotic factors that may relieve suppression of SSP-encoding gene expression during axenic growth of L. maculans were investigated. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Some abiotic factors (temperature, pH) could have a limited effect on SSP gene expression. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Gene expression analysis indicates increased SnTox3 expression in tox1-6 compared to SN15. (edu.au)
  • The 3' UTR plays a critical role in translation termination as well as post-transcriptional gene expression. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is important to consider that mutations in 3' untranslated regions have the potential to alter the expression of several genes that may appear unrelated. (wikipedia.org)
  • resistance
  • and the analysis of genes determining resistance to fungicides. (bio.net)
  • The P. s ojae s usceptible ( pss ) 1 mutant was identified by screening a mutant population created in the Arabidopsis pen1-1 mutant that lacks penetration resistance against the non adapted barley biotrophic fungal pathogen, Blumeria graminis f. sp. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Three NHR genes, PEN1, PEN2 and PEN3 , required for penetration resistance of Arabidopsis against the non adapted barley biotrophic fungal pathogen, Blumeria graminis f. sp. (biomedcentral.com)
  • adaptation
  • They also state that the results are important in "highlighting that gene loss rather than gene gain is the hallmark of adaptation after the host jump to the dicot host. (icr.org)
  • genomic
  • However, significant plasmid and genomic DNA rearrangements were observed at many of the identified genomic loci where plasmid integration had occurred, thus suggesting that the use of electroporation to build libraries of A. fumigatus insertional mutants has relatively limited value and cannot be used in an exhaustive search of essential genes. (genetics.org)
  • hemibiotrophic
  • Arabidopsis pen1-1 mutant lacking the PEN1 gene is penetrated by the hemibiotrophic oomycete pathogen Phytophthora sojae, the causal organism of the root and stem rot disease in soybean. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Transcripts
  • Results: CodingQuarry is a highly accurate, self-training GHMM fungal gene predictor designed to work with assembled, aligned RNA-seq transcripts. (edu.au)
  • Correct predictions are made despite transcript assembly problems, including those caused by overlap between the transcripts of adjacent gene loci. (edu.au)
  • sensitivity
  • Statistical analysis revealed that the PCR to have a sensitivity of 90.9% and specificity of 94.7% in the detection of a fungal aetiology in microbial keratitis. (biomedcentral.com)
  • occurs
  • In Bacteria and Archaea, the ITS occurs in one to several copies, as do the flanking 16S and 23S genes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Major
  • These enzymes are responsible for the breakdown of chitin and glucan, two major components of the fungal cell walls. (edu.au)
  • These three genes could be sequenced from all major clades of modern land plants, including liverworts, the most basal group, and phylogeny of the three genes proved to agree with then current land plant phylogenies. (wikipedia.org)
  • human
  • In the first study, scientists examined the genome of the obligate biotroph Pneumocystis jirovecii , a fungal pathogen found in human lungs. (icr.org)
  • In 1980, a study was conducted on the 3' UTR of the duplicated human alpha-globin genes. (wikipedia.org)