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  • encode
  • These genes, and the proteins they encode, are important new potential targets for novel drugs that could selectively cut off a tumor's blood supply without affecting the blood vessels of healthy tissues, overcoming one of the major concerns of current anticancer therapies targeted at blood vessel growth. (nih.gov)
  • Proneural genes encode transcription factors of the basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) class which are responsible for the development of neuroectodermal progenitor cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Proneural genes encode a group of bHLH proteins that play crucial roles in controlling cell fate in a variety of tissue types. (wikipedia.org)
  • They serve to encode large numbers of genes at a time. (wikipedia.org)
  • genome
  • Causality in the regulatory genome: The reasons why genes are expressed when and where they are in the spatial domains of the developing organism are revealed in network "architecture," that is, in the total aggregate pattern of regulatory linkages. (pnas.org)
  • mutation
  • It is the first time that a mutation in the S1PR gene family has been associated with human disease," said Dr. Suzanne Leal , director of the Center for Statistical Genetics at Baylor and a professor of molecular and human genetics at the College. (bcm.edu)
  • A missense mutation is a change in a single nucleotide in a gene that results in the cell making a different amino acid, thus changing the protein and effect of the gene itself. (bcm.edu)
  • However, not everyone who inherits a mutation in the BRCA2 gene will develop cancer. (nih.gov)
  • At least one mutation in the PSEN1 gene has been found to cause hidradenitis suppurativa, a chronic skin disease characterized by recurrent boil-like lumps (nodules) under the skin that develop in hair follicles. (nih.gov)
  • The identified mutation deletes a single DNA building block (nucleotide) from the PSEN1 gene, written as 725delC. (nih.gov)
  • Studies suggest that the PSEN1 gene mutation that causes hidradenitis suppurativa has a different effect on γ-secretase function than the mutations that cause early-onset Alzheimer disease. (nih.gov)
  • These differences may explain why no single PSEN1 gene mutation has been reported to cause the signs and symptoms of both diseases. (nih.gov)
  • The most common mutation in FAP is a deletion of five building blocks of DNA (nucleotides) in the APC gene. (nih.gov)
  • Although most people with FAP will develop colorectal cancer, the number of polyps and the time frame in which they become cancerous depend on the location of the mutation in the APC gene. (nih.gov)
  • A certain mutation in the APC gene (unrelated to Turcot syndrome) is found in approximately 6 percent of people with Ashkenazi (eastern and central European) Jewish heritage. (nih.gov)
  • At least one mutation in the ATP1A2 gene can cause alternating hemiplegia of childhood. (nih.gov)
  • The known ATP1A2 gene mutation associated with this condition replaces a single protein building block (amino acid) in Na+/K+ ATPase: the amino acid threonine is replaced with the amino acid asparagine at protein position 378 (written as Thr378Asn or T378N). (nih.gov)
  • mutations
  • Researchers have identified more than 1,800 mutations in the BRCA2 gene. (nih.gov)
  • Many of the same BRCA2 gene mutations that increase the risk of breast cancer (described above) also increase the risk of ovarian cancer. (nih.gov)
  • Women with BRCA2 gene mutations have an approximately 12 to 25 percent chance of developing ovarian cancer in their lifetimes, as compared with 1.6 percent in the general population. (nih.gov)
  • More than 30 inherited BRCA2 gene mutations have been found to increase the risk of prostate cancer. (nih.gov)
  • BRCA2 gene mutations likely reduce the BRCA2 protein's ability to repair DNA, allowing potentially damaging mutations to persist in various other genes. (nih.gov)
  • Inherited mutations in the BRCA2 gene also increase the risk of several other types of cancer, including pancreatic cancer and an aggressive form of skin cancer called melanoma. (nih.gov)
  • More than 150 PSEN1 gene mutations have been identified in patients with early-onset Alzheimer disease, a degenerative brain condition that begins before age 65. (nih.gov)
  • Mutations in the PSEN1 gene are the most common cause of early-onset Alzheimer disease, accounting for up to 70 percent of cases. (nih.gov)
  • Almost all PSEN1 gene mutations change single building blocks of DNA (nucleotides) in a particular segment of the PSEN1 gene. (nih.gov)
  • Several mutations in the APC gene have been found in people with a type of aggressive but noncancerous (benign) growth called a desmoid tumor. (nih.gov)
  • APC gene mutations typically cause formation of desmoid tumors in the abdomen, but these tumors can also occur in other parts of the body. (nih.gov)
  • Although APC -related desmoid tumors are commonly associated with a form of colon cancer called familial adenomatous polyposis (described below), APC gene mutations can cause tumors in individuals without this inherited disease. (nih.gov)
  • More than 700 mutations in the APC gene have been identified in families with the classic and attenuated types of familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP). (nih.gov)
  • Mutations in the APC gene are also responsible for a disorder called Turcot syndrome, which is closely related to familial adenomatous polyposis. (nih.gov)
  • Approximately two-thirds of people with Turcot syndrome have mutations in the APC gene. (nih.gov)
  • Somatic mutations in the APC gene may be involved in the development of a small percentage of stomach (gastric) cancers. (nih.gov)
  • More than 30 mutations in the ATP1A2 gene have been identified in people with familial hemiplegic migraine type 2 (FHM2). (nih.gov)
  • ATP1A2 gene mutations can also cause sporadic hemiplegic migraine. (nih.gov)
  • Drosophila
  • Later on, in the 1970s, the achaete-scute complex, a complex of genes that are involved in regulating the early steps of neural development in Drosophila, were identified[by whom? (wikipedia.org)
  • They are grouped in distinct families on the basis of closer sequence similarities in the bHLH domain: Genes of the ASC and Ngn families, and possibly members of the family of ato homologues, have a similar proneural function in vertebrates to that of their Drosophila counterparts, whereas other neural bHLH genes are involved in specifying neuronal fates or in neuronal differentiation, but have no proneural role. (wikipedia.org)
  • Orthologous genes exist throughout the Metazoa, including extensive study of the ectopic expression in Drosophila using murine Pax6. (wikipedia.org)
  • The halloween genes are a set of genes identified in Drosophila melanogaster that influence embryonic development. (wikipedia.org)
  • Induces
  • In islets, induces type B pancreatic cell proliferation through up-regulation of genes that activate cell cycle, as well as genes that cause degradation of the CDKN1A (By similarity). (nih.gov)
  • Vaccination with irradiated granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF)-secreting gene-transduced cancer vaccines induces tumoricidal immune responses. (aacrjournals.org)
  • expression
  • By comparing the gene expression profiles of endothelial cells from regenerating liver to those derived from tumor-bearing livers, the researchers found 13 distinct genes that were selectively overexpressed (turned on to a greater degree than other genes) during disease-related angiogenesis. (nih.gov)
  • Beta-catenin helps control the activity (expression) of particular genes and promotes the growth and division (proliferation) of cells and the process by which cells mature to carry out specific functions (differentiation). (nih.gov)
  • Upon catecholamines stimulation, regulates gene expression that controls oxidative metabolism in skeletal muscle (By similarity). (nih.gov)
  • Proneural bHLH transcription factors, not only drive neurogenesis by activating the expression of a cascade of neuronal genes, but they inhibit the expression of glial genes. (wikipedia.org)
  • clusters
  • The proneural genes are expressed in groups of cells (proneural clusters) from which one progenitor cell - typically the one in the middle - will be singled out, leading to the formation of many different types of neurons in the central and peripheral nervous systems. (wikipedia.org)
  • In neuroectoderm, neurogenic genes are required to single out cells from within proneural clusters to form neuronal precursors, leaving the remaining cells of proneural clusters to develop into epidermal cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • TAG clusters may have as few as two genes, with small clusters predominating, but may consist of hundreds of genes. (wikipedia.org)
  • An example are tandem clusters of rRNA encoding genes. (wikipedia.org)
  • mice
  • A team of researchers at the National Cancer Institute (NCI), part of the National Institutes of Health (NIH), has uncovered a set of genes that are turned on, or expressed, at high levels only in the blood vessels that feed tumors in mice and humans. (nih.gov)
  • found
  • Multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. (nih.gov)
  • the first homologue of the fly proneural genes to be found in mammals was mash1. (wikipedia.org)
  • Tandemly arrayed genes (TAGs) are a gene cluster created by tandem duplications, a process in which one gene is duplicated and the copy is found adjacent to the original. (wikipedia.org)
  • development
  • The Special Feature on gene regulatory networks in this issue of PNAS highlights an emerging field in the biosciences: gene regulatory networks that control animal development. (pnas.org)
  • Functional linkages between these particular genes, and their associated regulatory modules, define the core networks underlying development. (pnas.org)
  • Proneural genes have multiple functions in neural development. (wikipedia.org)
  • PAX6 (eyeless) is the most researched and appears throughout the literature as a "master control" gene for the development of eyes and sensory organs, certain neural and epidermal tissues as well as other homologous structures, usually derived from ectodermal tissues. (wikipedia.org)
  • group
  • The HLA-DPB1 gene belongs to a group of MHC genes called MHC class II. (nih.gov)
  • Genes Reunited was part of the group that was sold to Brightsolid in 2009. (wikipedia.org)
  • The cells within a cluster that express a proneural gene (called a proneural cluster) can be thought of as cells of an equivalence group. (wikipedia.org)
  • The disembodied gene (Cyp302a1) codes for a cytochrome P450 enzyme that adds a hydroxyl group to the carbon-22 position of 2,22,dE-ketotriol to make 2-deoxyecdysone. (wikipedia.org)
  • The shade gene (Cyp314a1) codes for a P450 enzyme responsible for adding a hydroxyl group to the 20C-position of ecdysone to make 20-hydroxyecdysone, the final step in the biosynthetic pathway. (wikipedia.org)
  • regulate
  • Proneural genes promote neurogenesis and inhibit gliogenesis but some neurogenic factors can regulate both of these processes, depending on the proneural genes concentration. (wikipedia.org)
  • patterns
  • They are essentially hardwired genomic regulatory codes, the role of which is to specify the sets of genes that must be expressed in specific spatial and temporal patterns. (pnas.org)
  • human
  • In a Phase I human gene therapy trial, eight immunocompetent prostate cancer (PCA) patients were treated with autologous, GM-CSF-secreting, irradiated tumor vaccines prepared from ex vivo retroviral transduction of surgically harvested cells. (aacrjournals.org)
  • These data suggest that both T-cell and B-cell immune responses to human PCA can be generated by treatment with irradiated, GM-CSF gene-transduced PCA vaccines. (aacrjournals.org)
  • experimental
  • It is most important to determine regulatory network architecture, and this can be done by experimental perturbation followed by measurement of the effects on function of many individual genes. (pnas.org)
  • Although some housekeeping genes (such as LDHA, NONO, PGK1, PPIH,) are expressed at relatively constant levels in most non-pathological situations, other housekeeping genes may vary depending on experimental conditions. (wikipedia.org)
  • single
  • Skinny Genes" was the first single from Eliza Doolittle, Doolittle's debut album. (wikipedia.org)
  • Skinny Genes" was later confirmed as her official debut single and was originally planned for release on 29 March 2010. (wikipedia.org)
  • A planned CD single release for "Skinny Genes" on 12 April 2010 failed to surface. (wikipedia.org)
  • Doolittle explained "Skinny Genes" to BBC Radio's Steve Lamacq: The single is something I made up in my head. (wikipedia.org)
  • Additionally, a single RNA gene may not be able to provide enough RNA, but tandem repeats of the gene allow sufficient RNA to be produced. (wikipedia.org)
  • variants
  • Variants of the HLA-DPB1 gene are associated with immune reactions to beryllium, a metallic element that can be toxic. (nih.gov)
  • cells
  • For a more general list of housekeeping genes see housekeeping genes Reference genes are expressed in all cells of an organism under normal and patho-physiological conditions. (wikipedia.org)
  • From the same ectodermal cell types, neural or epidermal cells can develop based on interactions between proneural and neurogenic genes. (wikipedia.org)
  • particular
  • Researchers have identified hundreds of different versions (alleles) of the HLA-DPB1 gene, each of which is given a particular number (such as HLA-DPB1*03:01 ). (nih.gov)
  • function
  • Network substructure: Gene regulatory networks are inhomogeneous compositions of different kinds of subcircuits, each performing a specific kind of function. (pnas.org)
  • Proneural genes may function in analogous fashions in vertebrates and invertebrates, specifically they were implicated in early neurogenesis. (wikipedia.org)
  • important
  • The Generalist Genes Hypothesis has important implications for education, cognitive sciences and molecular genetics. (wikipedia.org)
  • different
  • Three different versions of extraskeletal myxoid chondrosarcomas (EMCs) are the result of reciprocal translocations between this gene and other genes. (nih.gov)
  • Neural bHLH genes have different functions depending on: the sensitivity to lateral inhibition, which determines if a cell becomes epidermal or neuronal, and whether the gene is expressed in the CNS before or after the terminal mitosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • common
  • Firstly, the same genes that influence common learning abilities (e.g., high reading aptitude) are also responsible for common learning disabilities (e.g., reading disability): they are strongly genetically correlated. (wikipedia.org)
  • represent
  • This is a list of recommended housekeeping genes that may be used for reference purposes: The following represent genes that should probably not be used for reference purposes:GUSB,RPLP0, and TFRC.GAPDH, HSP90, and β-actin. (wikipedia.org)
  • known
  • Genes Reunited, originally known as Genes Connected, is a genealogy website that was launched in the UK in 2003 as a sister-site to Friends Reunited. (wikipedia.org)
  • immune
  • Each MHC class II gene has many possible variations, allowing the immune system to react to a wide range of foreign invaders. (nih.gov)
  • Because the HLA-DPB1 gene is involved in the immune system, changes in it might be related to the autoimmune response and inflammation that damage the lungs, kidneys, and other organs. (nih.gov)
  • season
  • The show last aired on 11 November 2015 and ended with 26 episodes and Genes (season 2) started from Saturday 18 November 2015 at 8PM IST with new anchor Roja.This show is remake of Genes which is aired on ETV Telugu. (wikipedia.org)
  • Reference
  • Although the terms "housekeeping gene" and "reference gene" are used somewhat interchangeably, caution must be used in selecting genes for reference purposes. (wikipedia.org)
  • album
  • Genes, from 2003, is the first album released by Dave Couse since the breakup of A House in 1997. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, as the first move in a solo career, whose next step, the album The World Should Know, would be nominated for a couple of Meteor Awards, Genes was significant to Couse and to fans of A House who had been waiting to hear from him since 1997. (wikipedia.org)
  • Skinny Genes" was one of three tracks where Doolittle had worked with Prime and Woodcock for her debut album. (wikipedia.org)
  • Blue Genes is an album by The Three Sounds recorded for the Verve label in late 1962. (wikipedia.org)
  • complex
  • Using molecular tools it was possible to isolate the first four genes of this complex: achaete (ac), scute (sc), lethal of scute (lsc) and asense (ase). (wikipedia.org)
  • multiple
  • In order to provide the necessary ribosomes, multiple RNA polymerases must consecutively transcribe multiple rRNA genes. (wikipedia.org)
  • activity
  • Because heterodimerization is a prerequisite for DNA binding, factors that interfere with dimerization effectively act as passive repressors of proneural gene activity. (wikipedia.org)