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  • somatic
  • Gene transfer can be targeted to somatic (body) or germ (egg and sperm) cells. (mybiosource.com)
  • In somatic gene transfer the recipient's genome is changed, but the change will not be passed on to the next generation. (mybiosource.com)
  • Reversal of pathology in murine mucopolysaccharidosis type VII by somatic cell gene transfer. (springer.com)
  • We are making algorithmic advances in clustering across discrete linear sequences that facilitate maximum likelihood inference of model-averaged clustering in discrete linear sequences of somatic amino acid replacement mutations appearing within mutated genes, and applying evolutionary theory to the repeated evolution of cancer in whole-exome sequence data sets to reveal the level of clonal natural selection for cancer drivers. (yale.edu)
  • First, we are applying maximum likelihood approaches that we have developed for model-averaged clustering in discrete linear sequences to somatic amino acid replacement mutations appearing within mutated genes. (yale.edu)
  • Proteins
  • It has become an indispensable tool for gene cloning, the study of gene function and regulation and the production of small amounts of recombinant proteins for analysis and verification. (mybiosource.com)
  • Such animals are used to study gene function and expression, model human diseases, produce recombinant proteins in their milk and other fluids, and to improve the quality of livestock herds and other domestic species. (mybiosource.com)
  • Because amino acids of proteins that are functionally important are locally clustered in domains, mutations in multiple tumors that are functionally important to the development of cancer cluster in the linear sequence of relevant genes, allowing inference of relevance and function even in cases without three-dimensional protein structure. (yale.edu)
  • A transposon contains genetic sequences that encode for proteins that mediate its own movement, but can also carry genes for additional proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 1987, Plant Genetic Systems (Ghent, Belgium), founded by Marc Van Montagu and Jeff Schell, was the first company to genetically engineer insect-resistant (tobacco) plants by incorporating genes that produced insecticidal proteins from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt). (wikipedia.org)
  • If genes do not produce the right proteins in a correct way, a child can have a genetic disorder. (wikipedia.org)
  • genomes
  • As Jian, Rivera and Lake (1999) put it: "Increasingly, studies of genes and genomes are indicating that considerable horizontal transfer has occurred between prokaryotes" (see also Lake and Rivera, 2007). (wikipedia.org)
  • Current researchers have developed gene transfer systems on the basis of conservative transposition which can integrate new DNA in both invertebrates and vertebrate genomes. (wikipedia.org)
  • vitro
  • Gene electrotransfer was first described in the 1980s and since then due to its ease of application and efficiency become a routine method for introducing foreign genes into bacterial, yeast, plant, and animal cells in vitro and into different tissues, including muscle, tumors, liver, and skin in vivo. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mechanisms involved in gene electrotransfer using high- and low-voltage pulses -An in vitro study, Bioelectrochemistry 74:265-271 Aihara H, Miyazaki J (1998). (wikipedia.org)
  • bacteria
  • The fourth mechanism of gene transfer in bacteria is mediated by complete cell fusion, and occurs in several genera of bacteria including Bacillus and Streptomyces. (mybiosource.com)
  • Horizontal gene transfer is the primary mechanism for the spread of antibiotic resistance in bacteria, plays an important role in the evolution of bacteria that can degrade novel compounds such as human-created pesticides and in the evolution, maintenance, and transmission of virulence. (wikipedia.org)
  • Genes responsible for antibiotic resistance in one species of bacteria can be transferred to another species of bacteria through various mechanisms such as F-pilus, subsequently arming the antibiotic resistant genes' recipient against antibiotics, which is becoming medically challenging to deal with. (wikipedia.org)
  • Transformation is often used in laboratories to insert novel genes into bacteria for experiments or for industrial or medical applications. (wikipedia.org)
  • genome
  • The technology has contributed to understand the functions of the many genes discovered in the genome projects (functional genomics). (mybiosource.com)
  • The baculoviral genome has a large capacity for foreign gene insert with up to 38 kb have been tried successfully. (wikipedia.org)
  • Grafting of one plant to another can transfer chloroplasts (organelles in plant cells that conduct photosynthesis), mitochondrial DNA, and the entire cell nucleus containing the genome to potentially make a new species. (wikipedia.org)
  • The transposase coding region of these transposons is replaced by a gene of interest intended to be integrated into the genome. (wikipedia.org)
  • Molecular
  • During this time, Nabel became known for her research in the fields of vascular biology and molecular cardiology, and for her gene transfer studies of the cardiovascular system. (wikipedia.org)
  • mutations
  • Two groups of investigators have reported independently on their initial observations from Phase I clinical trials of gene transfer for Leber congenital amaurosis (LCA) caused by mutations in the RPE65 gene. (nih.gov)
  • pathology
  • Gene transfer strategies for medical management of the Osteoarthritis have attracted the attention of scientists due to the complex pathology of this chronic disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • successfully
  • Introductory chapters review the delivery methods presented, discussing their advantages and disadvantages, how they have been used successfully for gene delivery, and the future of their technology. (springer.com)
  • liposomes
  • Effective gene transfer to solid tumors using different nonviral gene delivery techniques: Electroporation, liposomes, and integrin-targeted vector, Cancer Gene Ther 9:399-406 Heller R, Jaroszeski M, Atkin A, Moradpour D, Gilbert R, Wands J, Nicolau C (1996). (wikipedia.org)
  • Liposomes have shown to be an appropriate candidate for gene delivery, where cationic liposomes are made to facilitate the interaction with the cell membranes and nucleic acids. (wikipedia.org)
  • donor
  • RESULTS: Antisense gene transfer resulted in markedly downregulation of B7.1 in the donor livers, attenuated acute immune rejection against liver allografts, prolonged the survival time of rats, and decreased the number of infiltrating CD4+ and CD8+ cells in livers. (biomedsearch.com)
  • transposon
  • it is an enzyme that cuts through double-stranded DNA to remove the transposon, then transfers and pastes it into a target site. (wikipedia.org)
  • All simple transposons contain a transposase encoding region flanked by terminal inverted repeats, but the additional genes within the transposon DNA can vary. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Sleeping Beauty transposon system is an example of gene transfer system developed for use in vertebrates. (wikipedia.org)
  • cells
  • In 1944 Oswald Avery established that the substance transferred between cells was DNA. (mybiosource.com)
  • There are a number of factors that can influence the efficiency of gene electrotransfer, such as: temperature, parameters of electric pulses, DNA concentration, electroporation buffer used, cell size and the ability of cells to express transfected genes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Gene transfer into mouse lyoma cells by electroporation in high electric fields, EMBO J 7:841-845 Drury L (1996). (wikipedia.org)
  • A virus infects the human by inserting its gene directly into his cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Function
  • Proof-of-concept' studies in animal models of LCA demonstrated gene transfer techniques to be safe, effective, and long-lasting in restoring visual function. (nih.gov)
  • No conclusions can be made at present as to whether gene transfer will restore visual function in people with LCA or impede further progression of the disease. (nih.gov)
  • To be effective, a gene delivery technology must not interfere with normal cellular function. (wikipedia.org)
  • Brinster and longtime collaborator Richard Palmiter pioneered techniques to transfer foreign genes into mammals, and they utilized these methods to elucidate the activity and function of genes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Erwin Wagner's studies are focused in the area of gene function in both healthy and pathological states. (wikipedia.org)
  • developmental
  • The 35th N:osbach Colloquium "The Impact of Gene Transfer Techniques in Eukaryotic CeU Biology" brought together a number of speakers interested in various aspects of cellular and developmental biology and over 600 other scientists, who listened to the lectures and participated in the lively discussions. (springer.com)
  • mainly
  • The related genes were mainly those associated with innate immunity, including several of the genes involved in Toll-like receptor signaling pathway and cytokine-cytokine receptor interaction. (wikipedia.org)
  • manipulation
  • Now, and for some time to corne, these contri- butions and the resulting increase in our understanding of life will be the main result of gene manipulation. (springer.com)
  • clinical
  • These Phase I clinical trials are designed as a preliminary assessment of the safety of gene transfer techniques in treating people with LCA. (nih.gov)
  • These insights will enable investigators to refine the gene transfer techniques and will provide the preliminary information needed to design the Phase II and Phase III clinical trials that are necessary to determine both safety and effectiveness in a rigorous way. (nih.gov)
  • Also first phase I clinical trial of gene electrotransfer in patients with metastatic melanoma was reported. (wikipedia.org)
  • There are currently several ongoing clinical studies of gene electrotransfer, where safety, tolerability and effectiveness of immunization with DNA vaccine, which is administered by the electric pulses is monitored. (wikipedia.org)
  • vaccines
  • Currently, flu vaccines are produced in specialized chicken eggs, but that technique does not allow for speedy mass vaccinations. (wikipedia.org)
  • several
  • Nonetheless, several of the reported observations suggest that gene transfer may be exerting modest effects in some of the treated individuals. (nih.gov)
  • effective
  • Since gene electrotransfer is very simple, rapid and highly effective technique it first became very convenient replacement for other transformation procedures. (wikipedia.org)
  • widely
  • E-Infrastructure serves to the download probabilistic models for nonlinear partial differential equations and construct processed for important performance recovered by the FoodStress, most commonly fear that varies to find widely essential genes of guidelines. (pd19.org)
  • nuclear
  • In the cells of extant organisms, the vast majority of the proteins present in the mitochondria (numbering approximately 1500 different types in mammals) are coded for by nuclear DNA, but the genes for some, if not most, of them are thought to have originally been of bacterial origin, having since been transferred to the eukaryotic nucleus during evolution. (wikipedia.org)
  • In October 2003, researchers succeeded in cloning two laboratory rats by nuclear transfer. (wikipedia.org)
  • sperm
  • Dr. Jacques Cohen, an embryologist of the Institute, discovered a technique called the cytoplasmic transfer in 1996 in which the contents of a fertile egg from a donor are injected into the infertile egg of the patient who has undergone unsuccessful attempts of IVF along with the sperm. (wikipedia.org)
  • Some in vitro fertilization techniques, particularly injecting a sperm into an oocyte, may interfere with this. (wikipedia.org)
  • Sperm-mediated gene transfer (SMGT) is a transgenic technique that transfers genes based on the ability of sperm cells to spontaneously bind to and internalize exogenous DNA and transport it into an oocyte during fertilization to produce genetically modified animals.1 Exogenous DNA refers to DNA that originates outside of the organism. (wikipedia.org)
  • These barriers allow for protection against the threat that every fertilization event could become a potentially mutagenic one.4 Transgenic animals have been produced successfully using gene transfer techniques such as sperm-mediated gene transfer. (wikipedia.org)
  • cell
  • This previously unidentified progenitor occurs as a temporally discrete population during ES cell differentiation, and differs from the preceding and succeeding populations in gene expression and differentiation potential, with the unique ability to form surface ectoderm in response to BMP4 signalling. (biologists.org)
  • This is such a popular technique that it has added a new dimension to the fields of molecular biology, cell biology, and biochemistry. (wikipedia.org)
  • common
  • Huntington's disease) to common multi-factorial disorders (e.g. hypertension) that result from the interactions between inherited gene variants and environmental factors, including chemical , physical, biological, social, infectious, behavioural or nutritional factors. (pharmaceuticalconferences.com)
  • material
  • Energy transfer in material solids is driven primarily by differences in intensive thermodynamic quantities such as pressure and temperature. (xonl.de)