• Proteins
  • Because amino acids of proteins that are functionally important are locally clustered in domains, mutations in multiple tumors that are functionally important to the development of cancer cluster in the linear sequence of relevant genes, allowing inference of relevance and function even in cases without three-dimensional protein structure. (yale.edu)
  • A transposon contains genetic sequences that encode for proteins that mediate its own movement, but can also carry genes for additional proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 1987, Plant Genetic Systems (Ghent, Belgium), founded by Marc Van Montagu and Jeff Schell, was the first company to genetically engineer insect-resistant (tobacco) plants by incorporating genes that produced insecticidal proteins from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt). (wikipedia.org)
  • Their experiments showed that new genes could be, for the first time, introduced into the mammalian germline with the potential to increase disease resistance, enhance growth, and produce vital proteins like blood-clotting factors needed by hemophiliacs. (wikipedia.org)
  • If genes do not produce the right proteins in a correct way, a child can have a genetic disorder. (wikipedia.org)
  • genomes
  • As Jian, Rivera and Lake (1999) put it: "Increasingly, studies of genes and genomes are indicating that considerable horizontal transfer has occurred between prokaryotes" (see also Lake and Rivera, 2007). (wikipedia.org)
  • Current researchers have developed gene transfer systems on the basis of conservative transposition which can integrate new DNA in both invertebrates and vertebrate genomes. (wikipedia.org)
  • vitro
  • Using complementary DNA (cDNA) microarray technology to examine in vitro and in vivo global cellular gene expression profiles in the rat brain, cultured human astrocytes and human neuronal cells after viral transduction, host antiviral responses were observed. (wikipedia.org)
  • Gene electrotransfer was first described in the 1980s and since then due to its ease of application and efficiency become a routine method for introducing foreign genes into bacterial, yeast, plant, and animal cells in vitro and into different tissues, including muscle, tumors, liver, and skin in vivo. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mechanisms involved in gene electrotransfer using high- and low-voltage pulses -An in vitro study, Bioelectrochemistry 74:265-271 Aihara H, Miyazaki J (1998). (wikipedia.org)
  • These techniques have been conserved to the present day and form the foundation for all experimentation with the mammalian embryo - including transgenic, embryonic stem cell, human in vitro fertilization, mammalian cloning, and knockout technology. (wikipedia.org)
  • Dendritic Cells
  • Advances in understanding the role of dendritic cells (DCs) as the major antigen (Ag)-presenting cell type of the immune system combined with the recent development of methods for the ex vivo expansion of human DCs have opened the possibility for the transfer of tumor Ags to DCs with a view toward tumor immunotherapy. (openrepository.com)
  • evolutionary
  • We are making algorithmic advances in clustering across discrete linear sequences that facilitate maximum likelihood inference of model-averaged clustering in discrete linear sequences of somatic amino acid replacement mutations appearing within mutated genes, and applying evolutionary theory to the repeated evolution of cancer in whole-exome sequence data sets to reveal the level of clonal natural selection for cancer drivers. (yale.edu)
  • In the mid-1980s, Syvanen predicted that lateral gene transfer existed, had biological significance, and was involved in shaping evolutionary history from the beginning of life on Earth. (wikipedia.org)
  • 2005) observe, "additional evidence suggests that gene transfer might also be an important evolutionary mechanism in protist evolution. (wikipedia.org)
  • somatic
  • First, we are applying maximum likelihood approaches that we have developed for model-averaged clustering in discrete linear sequences to somatic amino acid replacement mutations appearing within mutated genes. (yale.edu)
  • novel
  • Transformation is often used in laboratories to insert novel genes into bacteria for experiments or for industrial or medical applications. (wikipedia.org)
  • mutations
  • NEI and NEI-supported researchers have found that LCA2 is caused by mutations in the RPE65 gene, which produces a protein with the same name that is vital for vision. (bio-medicine.org)
  • successfully
  • Introductory chapters review the delivery methods presented, discussing their advantages and disadvantages, how they have been used successfully for gene delivery, and the future of their technology. (springer.com)
  • The baculoviral genome has a large capacity for foreign gene insert with up to 38 kb have been tried successfully. (wikipedia.org)
  • liposomes
  • FuGene 6 and modified cationic liposomes are two non-viral gene delivery methods that have so far been utilized for gene delivery to cartilage. (wikipedia.org)
  • Liposomes have shown to be an appropriate candidate for gene delivery, where cationic liposomes are made to facilitate the interaction with the cell membranes and nucleic acids. (wikipedia.org)
  • laboratory
  • Comprehensive and cutting-edge, Gene Delivery to Mammalian Cells, volumes 1 and 2, offers biomedical specialists in industry and academia an unrivaled collection of reliable methods for the chemical, physical, and viral delivery of genes to mammalian cells, all prepared to save laboratory time and ensure experimental success. (springer.com)
  • stem cells
  • Following this conditioning, the gene-modified and untreated stem cells are infused back into the patient. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • The first step in developing gene transfer for treatment of thalassemia is to develop a safe and effective method to obtain blood stem cells from thalassemia patients. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Wagner's worked focused on the genetic control of mouse development working to develop techniques allowing the micro-injection of DNA into fertilized eggs as well as the development of gene transfer technologies into stem cells and mice. (wikipedia.org)
  • antibiotic
  • Genes responsible for antibiotic resistance in one species of bacteria can be transferred to another species of bacteria through various mechanisms such as F-pilus, subsequently arming the antibiotic resistant genes' recipient against antibiotics, which is becoming medically challenging to deal with. (wikipedia.org)
  • plasmid
  • Electroporation mediated delivery of a plasmid coding gene for interleukin-12 (pIL-12) was performed and safety, tolerability and therapeutic effect were monitored. (wikipedia.org)
  • transposon
  • it is an enzyme that cuts through double-stranded DNA to remove the transposon, then transfers and pastes it into a target site. (wikipedia.org)
  • All simple transposons contain a transposase encoding region flanked by terminal inverted repeats, but the additional genes within the transposon DNA can vary. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Sleeping Beauty transposon system is an example of gene transfer system developed for use in vertebrates. (wikipedia.org)
  • clinical
  • Now the gene-transfer technique is being tested for safety in people in a phase 1 clinical research study conducted by the University of Pennsylvania and the University of Florida with support from the National Eye Institute of the National Institutes of Health. (bio-medicine.org)
  • Also first phase I clinical trial of gene electrotransfer in patients with metastatic melanoma was reported. (wikipedia.org)
  • There are currently several ongoing clinical studies of gene electrotransfer, where safety, tolerability and effectiveness of immunization with DNA vaccine, which is administered by the electric pulses is monitored. (wikipedia.org)
  • pathology
  • Gene transfer strategies for medical management of the Osteoarthritis have attracted the attention of scientists due to the complex pathology of this chronic disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • enzyme
  • The three steps to form a new phosphodiester bond during ligation are: enzyme adenylylation, adenylyl transfer to DNA, and nick sealing. (wikipedia.org)
  • Human
  • In this study, we examined the feasibility of Ag transfer to cultured human DCs using the host range-restricted avipoxvirus, fowlpoxvirus (FWPV). (openrepository.com)
  • We conclude that host range-restricted FWPV can be used efficiently to transfer Ag genes to human DCs ex vivo and may have a role in the development of tumor immunotherapy protocols. (openrepository.com)
  • During the 1960s, Brinster pioneered the development of techniques to manipulate mouse embryos-his techniques have made the mouse the major genetic model for understanding the basis of human biology and disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • The idea is to remove all the dangerous genes in the virus and inject the healthy human genes. (wikipedia.org)
  • mainly
  • The related genes were mainly those associated with innate immunity, including several of the genes involved in Toll-like receptor signaling pathway and cytokine-cytokine receptor interaction. (wikipedia.org)
  • Nucleus
  • The DNA molecule is left free in the nucleus of the host cell, and the instructions in this extra DNA molecule are transcribed just like any other gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • cell
  • She developed gene transfer techniques to investigate the pathophysiology of vascular cell growth and designed models of biologics combined with devices to treat vascular disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • In addition, BacMam has been found to have inherent flexibility over stable cell lines, which has contributed to its adoption as a standard gene transfer technique. (wikipedia.org)
  • If this host cell divides later, its descendants will all contain the new genes. (wikipedia.org)
  • If the gene happens to be one regulating cell division, uncontrolled cell division (i.e., cancer) can occur. (wikipedia.org)
  • The only difference is that these extra genes are not replicated when the cell is about to undergo cell division so the descendants of that cell will not have the extra gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • transgenesis
  • This transcontinental collaboration constructed a body of work that formed the foundation for a generation of scientific progress in genetic modification via transgenesis, homologous recombination or "knock-out" techniques, and cloning. (wikipedia.org)