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  • alleles
  • A total of 674 isolates were examined for the presence of Avr alleles AvrLm1 , AvrLm2 , AvrLm3 , AvrLm4 , AvrLm6 , AvrLm7 , AvrLm9 , AvrLepR1 , AvrLepR2 and AvrLmS using a set of differential host genotypes carrying known resistance genes or PCR amplification of AvrLm1 , AvrLm6 and AvrLm4 - Lm7 . (gc.ca)
  • Furthermore, loci are assumed to be biallelic (that is, with exactly two alleles present), although extensions for multiallelic frequency spectra exist. (wikipedia.org)
  • Calculating the frequency spectrum from observed sequence data requires one to be able to distinguish the ancestral and derived (mutant) alleles, often by comparing to an outgroup sequence. (wikipedia.org)
  • A*2402 appears to have evolved from A*23 alleles by a process of gene conversion. (wikipedia.org)
  • protein
  • Previous studies show that variations in the RANTES gene affect RANTES protein production, hence altering host immunity. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Merrow's lab often uses techniques such as the insertion of Luciferase gene fusions or Green Fluroescent Protein to visualize oscillations of RNA levels, protein abundance, or protein modifications within the cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • In simple terms, the protein produced by the ATM gene recognizes that there is a break in DNA, recruits other proteins to fix the break, and stops the cell from making new DNA until the repair is complete. (wikipedia.org)
  • susceptibility
  • Other studies evaluating more markers, that could potentially modulate RANTES gene transcription alongside other genetic modifiers of malaria susceptibility, may provide further explanations to these less dramatic findings. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Susceptibility to pulmonary tuberculosis: host genetic deficiency in tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) gene and tumor necrosis factor receptor 2 (TNFR2)," International Journal of Mycobacteriology , vol. 5, Supplement 1, pp. (hindawi.com)
  • The Amish are protected against many types of cancer both through their lifestyle-there is very little tobacco or alcohol use and limited sexual partners-and through genes that may reduce their susceptibility to cancer. (wikipedia.org)
  • sequences
  • The frq gene can be activated from two distinct cis-acting sequences in its promoter, a distal site, the clock-box, used in the context of circadian regulation, and a site close to the principal transcription start site that is used for light-induced expression (the proximal light-regulatory element or PLRE). (wikipedia.org)
  • Homologous recombination frequencies of targeting vectors harboring mu opioid receptor gene sequences have also been compared in embryonic stem cells derived from these strains. (deepdyve.com)
  • For example, the search space of a gene would be all possible nucleotide sequences. (wikipedia.org)
  • traits
  • With an increase in the number of candidate genes for important traits in livestock, effective strategies for incorporating such genes into selection programmes are increasingly important. (unl.edu)
  • clock gene
  • The success of this strategy and of the cloning of a clock gene sparked interest in further research and understanding of the N. crassa circadian clock. (wikipedia.org)
  • These experiments were the first to manipulate the expression of a clock gene through means that did not themselves affect the clock and established that autoregulatory negative feedback giving rise to cyclical clock gene expression lay at the core of the circadian oscillator. (wikipedia.org)
  • loci
  • Donovan, David M. 2014-02-20 00:00:00 Chromosomal regions near the mu opioid receptor gene are implicated in morphine preference by quantitative trait loci studies. (deepdyve.com)
  • He is the first to show mathematically that in the presence of gene interaction natural selection always tends to enhance the linkage intensity between genetic loci or maintain the same linkage relationship. (wikipedia.org)
  • Loci contributing to the frequency spectrum are assumed to be independently changing in frequency. (wikipedia.org)
  • circadian
  • While she was a professor of Chronobiology at University of Groningen, Merrow led Sub-Project 4: Novel Clock Genes and Principles within EUCLOCK, a European organization of researchers interested in entrainment of circadian clocks. (wikipedia.org)
  • nuclear
  • Using time-lapse microscopy, we found that Crz1 exhibited short bursts of nuclear localization (~2 minutes) that occurred stochastically in individual cells and propagated to the expression of downstream genes. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Back cross increases nuclear gene frequency His observations were 1. (wikipedia.org)
  • molecular
  • Molecular analysis of the JAZF1-JJAZ1 gene fusion by RT-PCR and fluorescence in situ hybridization in endometrial stromal neoplasms. (semanticscholar.org)
  • JAZF1/JJAZ1 gene fusion in endometrial stromal sarcomas: molecular analysis by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction optimized for paraffin-embedded tissue. (semanticscholar.org)
  • known
  • However, through segregation analysis, probable genotypes can be assigned to individuals that themselves were not tested, using known genotypes on relatives and a starting (presumed) gene frequency. (unl.edu)
  • Gene is a particular sequence of nucleotides along a molecule of DNA which represents a functional unit of inheritance, and it is not known to subdivide (Rieger et al. (dagris.info)
  • Frequency of known gene rearrangements in endometrial stromal tumors. (semanticscholar.org)
  • But it is not known in general how the expression levels of target genes are coordinated, allowing them to be regulated together, despite diverse promoter architectures 3 . (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • bias
  • Genes may also endow individuals with certain types of transmission bias (described below). (wikipedia.org)
  • hence
  • Genes constrain the brain's structure and, hence, the ability of the brain to acquire and store culture. (wikipedia.org)
  • sequence
  • This work describes 9.3 kb of DNA sequence surrounding exons 2 and 3 of the murine mu opioid receptor gene from both 129/Sv and C57BL/6 strains. (deepdyve.com)
  • High
  • A24 is at very high frequencies in Austronesia and certain indigenous peoples of the Arctic, North America, South America and West Pacific Rim. (wikipedia.org)
  • results
  • These results suggest that FM regulation of localization bursts may be a general control strategy utilized by the cell to coordinate multi-gene responses to external signals. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • The results of their experiments led them to the one gene-one enzyme hypothesis, in which they postulated that every enzyme was encoded with its own gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • mutation
  • A mutation is caused by a unexpected change in the gene frequency. (glogster.com)
  • Thirty-three Menkes patients in whom no mutation had been detected with standard diagnostic tools were screened for exon duplications in the ATP7A gene. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Duplications in the ATP7A gene are estimated from our material to be the disease causing mutation in 4% of the Menkes disease patients. (biomedcentral.com)
  • selection
  • Selection pressure from the race-specific resistance genes carried in canola cultivars has probably played a significant role in the current Avr profile, which may have also contributed to the recent increase in blackleg observed in western Canada. (gc.ca)
  • pool
  • Because of a smaller gene pool, some groups have increased incidences of certain inheritable conditions. (wikipedia.org)
  • expression
  • Using an analytic model, we found that this frequency modulation (FM) of bursts ensures proportional expression of multiple target genes across a wide dynamic range of expression levels, independent of promoter characteristics. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Cells sense extracellular signals and respond by regulating the expression of target genes 1 , 2 , 3 . (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • We find that Crz1 dynamics connect the encoding of signals and the coordination of target gene expression. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • result
  • The recombination frequency between three genes A, B, and C located on the same chromosome is obtained as follows: A and C - 28% A and B - 18% B and C - 10% Based on the result, which two genes are closest to each other? (openstudy.com)
  • responsible
  • A-T is caused by a defect in the ATM gene, which is responsible for managing the cell's response to multiple forms of stress including double-strand breaks in DNA. (wikipedia.org)
  • small
  • With random sampling, even when a small proportion of a line was genotyped (0·10), the gene frequency of the population was well estimated from the across-line mean. (unl.edu)
  • single
  • Ibrahim, Ibrahim M 2017-05-10 00:00:00 AbstractThrombophilia may be anticipated by single or combined hereditary defects in encoding genes factor V, Prothrombin, and MTHFR. (deepdyve.com)
  • allele frequencies
  • As a reminder, the ANI seem to have been rather like Europeans in their allele frequencies, or at least far closer to Europeans than they were to the ASI (it seems that they compared ANI with Western Europeans). (gnxp.com)
  • Genetic studies shows that much of the Sherpa populating has allele frequencies which are often found in other Tibeto-Burman regions, in tested genes, the strongest affinity was for Tibetan population sample studies done in Xizang Tibetan Autonomous Region. (wikipedia.org)
  • A 2016 study of Sherpas in China suggested that a small portion of Sherpas and Tibetans allele frequencies originated from separate ancient populations, which was estimated to have remained somewhat distributed for 11,000 to 7,000 years. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mutations
  • Here we identify co-mutations in the DNA damage response (DDR) pathways of homologous recombination repair and mismatch repair (HRR-MMR) or HRR and base excision repair (HRR-BER) (defined as co-mut+) that are associated with increased TMB and neoantigen load and increased levels of immune gene expression signatures. (aacrjournals.org)
  • In fact, ESCO2 is the only known gene that has demonstrated RBS-causing mutations. (wikipedia.org)
  • Also, all individuals that have been cytogenetically diagnosed with Roberts syndrome have also had mutations in the ESCO2 gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • Her tests, extended haplotype homozygosity (EHH), the long-range haplotype (LRH) test, and cross population extended haplotype homozygosity (XP-EHH), are designed to detect advantageous mutations whose frequency in human populations has risen rapidly over the last 10,000 years. (wikipedia.org)
  • genetic
  • a. (10pts) If mating is random, how rapidly will genetic variability, as measured by the frequency of heterozygotes, be lost from this population? (coursehero.com)
  • With the exception of co-opted ERV loci such as syncytins , which could increase in frequency due to positive selection, we assume ERV loci become common by genetic drift, and the average time for a neutral allele to go to fixation is 4Ne generations (where Ne is the effective population size). (scienceblogs.com)
  • To help develop optimal therapies for tinnitus, it is necessary to characterize the genetic contributors to the pathophysiology and to design treatments at the level of the gene. (neurootology.org)
  • Later in the 2000's, post-genomic research in his laboratory established signature proteins in halophilic Archaea, and the function of many genes and genetic elements, including multiple replication origins, general transcription factors, and DNA repair systems. (wikipedia.org)
  • Its high frequency among Kosovo Albanians (46%) is most likely a consequence of genetic drift. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although its frequency is very high in Kosovo Albanians (46%) and Macedonian Romani (30%), this phenomenon is of a focal rather than a clinal nature, most likely being a consequence of genetic drift. (wikipedia.org)
  • replication
  • Polyamines are ubiquitous small molecules involved in many normal cellular functions, including transcribing and translating genes, regulating ion channels and cell-to-cell interactions, and powering cell growth and replication. (wikipedia.org)
  • When the first Archaeal genome, Methanococcus jannaschii, had been sequenced completely in 1996, it was found that the genes in the genome of Methanococcus jannaschii involved in DNA replication, transcription, and translation were more related to their counterparts in eukaryotes than to those in other prokaryotes. (wikipedia.org)
  • expression
  • Bio-Rad collaborated with Biogazelle, leaders in real-time PCR research, to design and experimentally validate PCR primers for gene expression assays across the human and mouse transcriptomes. (bio-rad.com)
  • The selected pathways were used to design panels of real-time PCR primers tailored for the top-ranked genes for differential gene expression analysis. (bio-rad.com)
  • Each gene target within a pathway was assigned a score based on the frequency of differential expression and its research significance. (bio-rad.com)
  • Reference genes are used in relative gene expression analysis to normalize for variation in the amount of input messenger RNA (mRNA) among samples. (bio-rad.com)
  • To ensure accurate quantitation, it is important to include one or more reference genes exhibiting constant expression levels under the experimental conditions. (bio-rad.com)
  • Many of these gene expression changes illustrated by gene microarray analysis may be secondary or even far distal to the primary changes determined by the actual oncogene or suppressor gene. (biomedcentral.com)
  • These phenotypes include the set of transformed states associated with aberrant gene expression, the set of differentiated states that have been defined as a result of stochastic gene expression and the distribution of cells between living and dead or growth inhibited. (biomedcentral.com)
  • These transcription factors have specific activator or repressor sequences of corresponding nucleotides that attach to specific promoters and regulate gene expression. (wikipedia.org)
  • R1a1
  • The conclusion was drawn on the basis of: i) presence of this haplogroup in many of the tribal populations such as, Saharia (present study) and Chenchu tribe in high frequency, ii) the highest ever reported presence of R1a* (ancestral haplogroup of R1a1*) in Kashmiri Pandits (Brahmins) and Saharia tribe, and iii) associated averaged phylogenetic ages of R1a* (~18,478 years) and R1a1* (~13,768 years) in India. (blogspot.com)
  • populations
  • paper: they added two Pakistani populations who fit well in the ANI-ASI cline which most of the Indian groups mapped onto (some groups with "Eastern" origin in both Pakistan and India were discarded from the analysis), and their ANI frequency proportions seemed familiar to me. (gnxp.com)
  • While it is not yet known exactly what selective advantage is provided by this gene variant, the haplogroup D allele is thought to be positively selected in populations and to confer some substantial advantage that has caused its frequency to rapidly increase. (wikipedia.org)
  • high
  • Highest Level of Formal Schooling Frequency Percentage elementary school % high school % community college % university % Total % Annual Household Income before Taxes Frequency Percentage under $25, % $25,000 - $49, % $50,000-$74, % over $75, % Total % 1 Five participants refused to answer Thirty-seven percent of participants had a household income of $50,000 or more. (docplayer.net)
  • Masking of tinnitus is possible using high audio frequencies and low-frequency ultrasound. (neurootology.org)
  • On the high frequency side of the Q-branch the energy of rotational transitions is added to the energy of the vibrational transition. (wikipedia.org)
  • variant
  • In the parenthesis is the frequency for the derived (European-like) variant of SLC24A5 . (gnxp.com)
  • The lowest frequency of the derived variant of SLC24A5 I've seen for a South Asian population is ~30% for Sri Lankan Tamils , with ~50% for Sri Lankan Sinhalese. (gnxp.com)
  • relative
  • As promoters are typically immediately adjacent to the gene in question, positions in the promoter are designated relative to the transcriptional start site, where transcription of DNA begins for a particular gene (i.e., positions upstream are negative numbers counting back from -1, for example -100 is a position 100 base pairs upstream). (wikipedia.org)
  • levels
  • The five-person FRC was given the power to grant and deny licenses, and to assign frequencies and power levels for each licensee. (wikipedia.org)
  • When such transitions emit or absorb photons (electromagnetic radiation), the frequency is proportional to the difference in energy levels and can be detected by certain kinds of spectroscopy. (wikipedia.org)
  • regulatory
  • Outside of gene exons, there exist regulatory sequence motifs and motifs within the "junk", such as satellite DNA. (wikipedia.org)
  • Promoters represent critical elements that can work in concert with other regulatory regions (enhancers, silencers, boundary elements/insulators) to direct the level of transcription of a given gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • sequence
  • 5'-XXXXXXXPPPPPPXXXXXXPPPPPPXXXXGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGGXXXX-3' -35 -10 Gene to be transcribed for -10 sequence T A T A A T 77% 76% 60% 61% 56% 82% for -35 sequence T T G A C A 69% 79% 61% 56% 54% 54% Eukaryotic promoters are diverse and can be difficult to characterize, however, recent studies show that they are divided in more than 10 classes. (wikipedia.org)
  • clinical
  • However, several challenges such as defining the cut-off value, test platform uniformity, and low frequencies limit their broad clinical application. (aacrjournals.org)
  • often
  • Both men and women often experience problems with their bladders including urgency, frequency, incomplete bladder emptying, or an inability to pass urine (retention). (wikipedia.org)
  • years
  • For the past thirty years, cancer research has elucidated a family of genes that are integrally involved in the cancer process. (biomedcentral.com)
  • population
  • In order to define the complex behavior of a tumor cell population associated with these complex gene expressions, we have chosen to define entropies of apoptosis, cellular differentiation and survival or growth inhibition. (biomedcentral.com)
  • single
  • Marital Status Frequency Percentage single, never married 7 5.2% single, divorced / separated % single, widowed % married / cohabiting % Total % Most women were married. (docplayer.net)
  • region
  • In genetics, a promoter is a region of DNA that initiates transcription of a particular gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • Promoters are located near the transcription start sites of genes, on the same strand and upstream on the DNA (towards the 5' region of the sense strand). (wikipedia.org)
  • In Southeast Europe, the frequency of this haplogroup peaks at the region's southeastern edge and its variance peaks in the southwest of the region. (wikipedia.org)
  • Slavic migrations to the Balkans in the early Middle Ages contributed to the frequency and variance of I2a-P37.2 in the region. (wikipedia.org)
  • women
  • 5 Present Activities Frequency Percentage Homemaker % 1 Retired % 1 Volunteer Work % 1 Employed, Outside the Home % 1 Employed, Working from Home 9 6.7% 1 Caring for Someone Full-time 8 5.9% 1 Unemployed 7 5.2% 1 On Disability / Recovering from Illness 6 4.4% 1 Attending School 0 0.0% 1 1 Participants were asked to select all activities that apply Almost all of these women (95%) considered themselves to be homemakers. (docplayer.net)