• genetics
  • In honoring Campbell, ASM officials cited his "exceptional insights and achievements in the field of molecular genetics - a career of groundbreaking research that has had a profound influence on several fields, including molecular cloning and gene therapy. (wikipedia.org)
  • metabolism
  • In the presence of toluene, menadione reduced TodS activity whereas toluene did not stimulate activity in the presence of menadione.The opposing effects of menadione on glucose and toluene metabolism may be partially responsible for the interwoven regulation of both catabolic pathways.This work provides mechanistic detail on how complex sensor kinases integrate different types of signal molecules. (nih.gov)
  • Although initially discovered by regulating carbohydrate metabolism, the CRP-cAMP complex controls a major regulatory network in Gram-negative bacteria, including a broad subset of genes spread into different functional categories of the cell. (nih.gov)
  • The novel antiterminator structure consists of two small hairpins with highly conserved terminal loop residues, both features being essential for successful antitermination.Despite the unrelatedness of the species in which they are found, the majority of the ANTAR-associated genes are thematically related to nitrogen management.These data suggest that the central tenets for gene regulation by ANTAR antitermination occur widely in nature to specifically control nitrogen metabolism. (nih.gov)
  • These data suggest that the central tenets for gene regulation by ANTAR antitermination occur widely in nature to specifically control nitrogen metabolism. (nih.gov)
  • This regulation controls parts of the sulfur metabolism of marine bacteria. (wikipedia.org)
  • In some rhizobia, the nif genes are located on plasmids called 'sym plasmids' (sym = symbiosis) which contain genes related to nitrogen fixation and metabolism, while the chromosomes contain most of the housekeeping genes of the bacteria. (wikipedia.org)
  • Humans
  • Research has shown that the activity of gene profiles or gene programs can be affected by the physical and social environments that humans inhabit. (wikipedia.org)
  • Genome
  • Epigenetics most often denotes changes in a chromosome that affect gene activity and expression, but can also be used to describe any heritable phenotypic change that does not derive from a modification of the genome, such as prions. (wikipedia.org)
  • The dormant form of the lambda genome was called the 'prophage' Study of phage lambda over the next 50 years provided valuable insights into virus life cycles, the regulation and expression of genetic material, and the mechanism of integration and excision of genetic material into chromosomal locations. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, riboswitch transcripts subsequently modulate the expression of a gene located elsewhere in the genome. (wikipedia.org)
  • These methods can also quickly uncover single-nucleotide polymorphisms, insertions and deletions by mapping unassembled reads against a well annotated reference genome, and thus provide a list of possible gene differences that may be the basis for any functional variation among strains. (wikipedia.org)
  • Shortly thereafter, a series of papers were published by Youssef Idaghdour and his colleagues looking at the role of environmental factors on gene expression throughout the genome where they found that only 5% of the variation in genomic expression was attributable to genetic factors (i.e. sequence variation in the genome) whereas, as much as half was due to the living environment of the individual, either urban or rural. (wikipedia.org)
  • The genome of an organism contains anywhere from a few hundred to thousands of different genes, all encoding a singular product or more. (wikipedia.org)
  • upstream regions
  • Consequently, the new KS based method proposed here, which assigns P -values to fixed length upstream regions, provides a fast and accurate approach for predicting bacterial transcription targets. (frontiersin.org)
  • DNA sequencing of vraSR, saeSR, mgrA, rot, and merR regulatory genes and upstream regions did not reveal any differences between VSSA and hVISA/VISA despite transcriptional changes suggesting mutations in these loci may be linked to resistance in these strains. (nih.gov)
  • For example, comparative analysis of upstream regions of several genes expected to be co-regulated led to the description of the S-box (now the SAM-I riboswitch), the THI-box (a region within the TPP riboswitch), the RFN element (now the FMN riboswitch) and the B12-box (a part of the cobalamin riboswitch), and in some cases experimental demonstrations that they were involved in gene regulation via an unknown mechanism. (wikipedia.org)
  • Infection
  • A reliable normalization of the data, using several reference genes, is critical for an accurate quantification of gene expression.The two most stable genes (ABF-0017965 (lpxC) and ABF-0020529 (yafS) were successfully used for normalization of RT-qPCR data.We have identified at least two genes, lpxC (ABF-0017965) and yafS (ABF-0020509), whose expressions are stable in a wide range of growth conditions and during infection. (nih.gov)
  • We measured the expression of these reference gene candidates using quantitative RT-PCR in 50 different experimental conditions, mimicking the environment encountered by the bacteria in their host and directly during the infection process in planta. (nih.gov)
  • We have identified at least two genes, lpxC (ABF-0017965) and yafS (ABF-0020509), whose expressions are stable in a wide range of growth conditions and during infection. (nih.gov)
  • In a macrophage model of infection the changes in cell surface structures in hVISA/VISA strains were associated with significantly reduced NF-kappaB activation resulting in reduced TNF-alpha and IL-1beta expression. (nih.gov)
  • The 1940s produced the first pictures of bacterial viruses using electron microscopy produced the first photos of bacterial viruses, and research on the mechanism of infection and reproduction dramatically increased. (wikipedia.org)
  • In conditions of social stress however, the up-regulation of pro-inflammatory gene expression prepares the body to better deal with bodily injury and bacterial infection which is more likely under conditions of social stress either through hostile human contact, or increased predatory vulnerability due to separation from the social group. (wikipedia.org)
  • Concurrently, the down-regulation of anti-viral gene expression leaves the individual more vulnerable to viral infection such as the flu and the common cold. (wikipedia.org)
  • related to nitrogen
  • Despite the unrelatedness of the species in which they are found, the majority of the ANTAR-associated genes are thematically related to nitrogen management. (nih.gov)
  • The nif genes can be found on bacterial chromosomes, but in symbiotic bacteria they are often found on plasmids or symbiosis islands with other genes related to nitrogen fixation (such as the nod genes). (wikipedia.org)
  • chromosome
  • His most prominent discovery was the proposal of the "Campbell model" of virus insertion, where viral DNA is inserted into the host chromosome, becoming covalently bonded to the bacterial DNA, and then remains dormant until activation. (wikipedia.org)
  • It contains a total of 20 nif genes located on the chromosome in a 24-Kb region. (wikipedia.org)
  • polymerase
  • Only once this region has been bound with the appropriate set of TFs, and in the proper order, can RNA polymerase bind and begin transcribing the gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • molecule
  • When the stochastic expression of the circuit generates large amounts of FliZ, this molecule exerts positive feedback on flhDC expression, upregulating the flagellar cascade and FliZ-dependent hemolysin genes. (nih.gov)
  • In order for the bacteria to use quorum sensing constitutively, they must possess three characteristics: to secrete a signaling molecule, an autoinducer, to detect the change in concentration of signaling molecules, and to regulate gene transcription as a response. (wikipedia.org)
  • The aptamer directly binds the small molecule, and the expression platform undergoes structural changes in response to the changes in the aptamer. (wikipedia.org)
  • Expression platforms typically turn off gene expression in response to the small molecule, but some turn it on. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Latin prefix cis means "on this side", i.e. on the same molecule of DNA as the gene(s) to be transcribed. (wikipedia.org)
  • Contrastingly, enhancers influence transcription of genes on the same molecule of DNA and can be found upstream, downstream, within the introns, or even relatively far away from the gene they regulate. (wikipedia.org)
  • This DNA sequence is bound by the lac repressor, which, in turn, prevents transcription of the adjacent genes on the same DNA molecule. (wikipedia.org)
  • To summarize, cis-regulatory elements are present on the same molecule of DNA as the gene they regulate whereas trans-regulatory elements can regulate genes distant from the gene from which they were transcribed. (wikipedia.org)
  • functional
  • Note that genes belonging to the functional class 'hypothetical, unclassified, unknown' (137 genes) are not represented in this figure. (nih.gov)
  • Antisense oligodeoxynucleotides (oligos) are widely used for functional studies of both prokaryotic and eukaryotic genes. (nih.gov)
  • The combination of the structure-based antisense design and extension of the lacZ assay to include gene fusions will be applicable to high-throughput gene functional screening, and to the identification of new drug targets in pathogenic microbes. (nih.gov)
  • Out of these, we retained 10 genes representing different functional categories, different levels of expression (low, medium, and high) and with no systematic variation in expression correlating with growth conditions. (nih.gov)
  • metabolic
  • Our work suggests that the metabolic sensor CRP-cAMP plays a role in coupling the expression of type 1 fimbriae to environmental conditions, thereby also affecting subsequent attachment and colonization of host tissues. (nih.gov)
  • Prior to the discovery of riboswitches, the mechanism by which some genes involved in multiple metabolic pathways were regulated remained mysterious. (wikipedia.org)
  • biofilm formation
  • The c-di-GMP-inducible exopolysaccharide causes cell aggregation in minimal medium and impairs bacterial migration in semi-solid agar, however, it does not promote biofilm formation on abiotic surfaces. (nih.gov)
  • The numerous chemoreceptors and chemotaxis-like gene clusters of Geobacter appear to be responsible for a diverse set of signaling functions in addition to chemotaxis, including gene regulation and biofilm formation, through functionally and spatially distinct signaling pathways. (nih.gov)
  • rpoS
  • This study also suggests that the downregulation of the rmf and rpoS genes may be indicative of the mechanism by which OPP causes decreases in cell viability in P. aeruginosa. (nih.gov)
  • disinfectants
  • The exopolysaccharide also greatly enhances bacterial tolerance to commonly used disinfectants as well as desiccation, which may contribute to survival of L. monocytogenes on contaminated food products and in food-processing facilities. (nih.gov)
  • promoter
  • The sequences of predicted promoter elements suggest that the alternative sigma factors sigma28 and sigma54 play a role in regulating the Geobacter chemotaxis gene expression. (nih.gov)
  • Verification of eQRNA/RNAz predictions by Northern hybridization and RACE mapping led to the identification of eight previously unknown genes, with recognizable promoter and termination signatures, expressing small transcripts. (wikipedia.org)
  • While characterizing the outer membrane porin ompC in E.coli, some of the ompC promoter clones observed were capable of repressing the expression of other membrane porin such as ompF. (wikipedia.org)
  • It has been found that a single gene can contain multiple promoter sites. (wikipedia.org)
  • DNA TATA box Pribnow box SOS box CAAT box CCAAT box Operator (biology) Upstream activation sequence RNA List of cis-regulatory RNA elements Polyadenylation signals, mRNA AU-rich element, mRNA Other Regulation of gene expression cis-regulatory module Gene regulatory network Operon Promoter Trans-acting factor Rfam Transterm Butler JE, Kadonaga JT (October 2002). (wikipedia.org)
  • sRNAs
  • Rhizobial adaptations to soil and plant cell environments require the coordinate expression of complex gene networks in which sRNAs are expected to participate. (wikipedia.org)
  • Major
  • The genomes of G. sulfurreducens, G. metallireducens, and G. uraniireducens contain multiple (approximately 70) homologs of chemotaxis genes arranged in several major clusters (six, seven, and seven, respectively). (nih.gov)
  • structural
  • A plasmid bearing the blaU structural gene and the blaA-blaB regulatory region was constructed and shown to confer on an S. lividans host the capacity to produce inducible beta-lactamase. (uliege.be)
  • in these processes, bacterial DNA binding proteins have an architectural role, maintaining structural integrity as transcription, recombination, replication, or any other DNA-dependent process proceeds. (wikipedia.org)
  • The genomic features may include the DNA sequence, genes, gene order, regulatory sequences, and other genomic structural landmarks. (wikipedia.org)
  • phenotypes
  • Heterogeneity in the expression of various bacterial genes has been shown to result in the presence of individuals with different phenotypes within clonal bacterial populations. (nih.gov)
  • As one example, quorum sensing (QS) enables bacteria to restrict the expression of specific genes to the high cell densities at which the resulting phenotypes will be most beneficial. (wikipedia.org)
  • transcriptome
  • Based on the transcriptome results multiple genes were sequenced and innate immune system stimulation was assessed in the VSSA and hVISA/VISA pairs. (nih.gov)
  • The sum total of genes expressed into RNA in a particular population of cells is referred to as the transcriptome. (wikipedia.org)
  • mRNA
  • Here, we present a detailed in vitro analysis of SR1, a sRNA of Bacillus subtilis that is involved in regulation of arginine catabolism by basepairing with its target, ahrC mRNA. (nih.gov)
  • Later on, this transcript, denoted micF, was found to be an asRNA of ompF and capable of downregulating the expression of ompF under stress by forming a duplex with the ompF mRNA. (wikipedia.org)
  • phenotypic
  • For numerous reasons, including organizational maintenance, energy conservation, and generating phenotypic variance, it is important that genes are only expressed when they are needed. (wikipedia.org)
  • bacterium
  • He testified that whenever the gene(s) for each of the 35 components were mutated, the bacterium lacked motility. (wikipedia.org)
  • Examples of nif gene structure and regulation in different diazotrophs include: Klebsiella pneumoniae-a free-living anaerobic nitrogen-fixing bacterium. (wikipedia.org)
  • Thus
  • Thus, these genes are considered suitable for use as reference genes for the normalization of real-time RT-qPCR data of the two main pectinolytic phytopathogenic bacteria D. dadantii and P. atrosepticum and, probably, of other Enterobacteriaceae. (nih.gov)
  • It can thus be concluded that the S. cacaoi blaL and blaU genes are controlled by the same regulatory system. (uliege.be)
  • The lac operator is, thus, considered to "act in cis" on the regulation of the nearby genes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Comparative
  • In 1986, the first comparative genomic study at a larger scale was published, comparing the genomes of varicella-zoster virus and Epstein-Barr virus that contained more than 100 genes each. (wikipedia.org)
  • Streptococcus
  • Biochemical studies reveal that the domain is a glucosyltransferase, and it catalyses the transfer of glucose to the branch point of the hexasaccharide O-linked to the serine-rich repeat of the bacterial adhesin, Fap1 of Streptococcus parasanguinis. (nih.gov)
  • Adherence to host cells is important in microbial colonization of a mucosal surface, and Streptococcus pneumoniae adherence was significantly enhanced by expression of an extracellular pilus composed of three subunits, RrgA, RrgB and RrgC. (nih.gov)
  • clusters
  • Gene positioning provides further evidence that the group A and B homologs bind to MCPs containing the C-terminal pentapeptide: these homologs are located in che clusters with pentapeptide-containing MCPs (Figure 1). (nih.gov)
  • compounds
  • en] The production of beta-lactamase in Streptomyces cacaoi, which contains two beta-lactamase-encoding genes, blaL and blaU, is inducible by beta-lactam compounds. (uliege.be)
  • species
  • The two genes have been cloned independently in S. lividans TK24, a beta-lactamase-negative species. (uliege.be)
  • Many species of bacteria use quorum sensing to coordinate gene expression according to the density of their local population. (wikipedia.org)
  • It can occur within a single bacterial species, as well as between diverse species. (wikipedia.org)