• genetics
  • In honoring Campbell, ASM officials cited his "exceptional insights and achievements in the field of molecular genetics - a career of groundbreaking research that has had a profound influence on several fields, including molecular cloning and gene therapy. (wikipedia.org)
  • Genetic
  • instead, non-genetic factors cause the organism's genes to behave (or "express themselves") differently. (wikipedia.org)
  • The dormant form of the lambda genome was called the 'prophage' Study of phage lambda over the next 50 years provided valuable insights into virus life cycles, the regulation and expression of genetic material, and the mechanism of integration and excision of genetic material into chromosomal locations. (wikipedia.org)
  • Shortly thereafter, a series of papers were published by Youssef Idaghdour and his colleagues looking at the role of environmental factors on gene expression throughout the genome where they found that only 5% of the variation in genomic expression was attributable to genetic factors (i.e. sequence variation in the genome) whereas, as much as half was due to the living environment of the individual, either urban or rural. (wikipedia.org)
  • Genetic expression is far from random, allowing the differentiation and specialization of different cell types with identical genomes. (wikipedia.org)
  • metabolism
  • Although initially discovered by regulating carbohydrate metabolism, the CRP-cAMP complex controls a major regulatory network in Gram-negative bacteria, including a broad subset of genes spread into different functional categories of the cell. (nih.gov)
  • The novel antiterminator structure consists of two small hairpins with highly conserved terminal loop residues, both features being essential for successful antitermination.Despite the unrelatedness of the species in which they are found, the majority of the ANTAR-associated genes are thematically related to nitrogen management.These data suggest that the central tenets for gene regulation by ANTAR antitermination occur widely in nature to specifically control nitrogen metabolism. (nih.gov)
  • These data suggest that the central tenets for gene regulation by ANTAR antitermination occur widely in nature to specifically control nitrogen metabolism. (nih.gov)
  • This regulation controls parts of the sulfur metabolism of marine bacteria. (wikipedia.org)
  • In some rhizobia, the nif genes are located on plasmids called 'sym plasmids' (sym = symbiosis) which contain genes related to nitrogen fixation and metabolism, while the chromosomes contain most of the housekeeping genes of the bacteria. (wikipedia.org)
  • Genome
  • The expression plasmid based on pDSK5191 was constructed by incorporating the upstream and downstream regions of the pscAB gene cluster on the C. tepidum genome, since these regions were considered to include a constitutive promoter and a ρ-independent terminator, respectively. (nih.gov)
  • On the other hand, pDSK5191-6xhis-pscAB, which incorporated the gene cluster of 6xhis-pscA and pscB, produced approximately four times more of the photosynthetic reaction center complex with His-tagged PscA as compared with that expressed in the genome by the conventional natural transformation method. (nih.gov)
  • Epigenetics most often denotes changes in a chromosome that affect gene activity and expression, but can also be used to describe any heritable phenotypic change that does not derive from a modification of the genome, such as prions. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, riboswitch transcripts subsequently modulate the expression of a gene located elsewhere in the genome. (wikipedia.org)
  • These methods can also quickly uncover single-nucleotide polymorphisms, insertions and deletions by mapping unassembled reads against a well annotated reference genome, and thus provide a list of possible gene differences that may be the basis for any functional variation among strains. (wikipedia.org)
  • The regulation of this gene is more complex than most other genes in the E. coli genome, as FIS is an important protein which regulates expression of other genes. (wikipedia.org)
  • encode
  • Although MG1655 does not encode a T7 RNA polymerase gene, the pde genes were expressed from a fortuitous promoter at sufficiently high levels to partially restore the swimming defect of MG1655 ΔyhjH in semi-solid agar. (nih.gov)
  • chromosome
  • On the other hand, the specific adsorption of the His-tagged RC complex was observed in the case of the C. tepidum 6HA strain (Figure 4, trace 3), whose authentic pscA gene on the chromosome was replaced with the 6xhis-pscA gene (see Materials and Methods). (nih.gov)
  • His most prominent discovery was the proposal of the "Campbell model" of virus insertion, where viral DNA is inserted into the host chromosome, becoming covalently bonded to the bacterial DNA, and then remains dormant until activation. (wikipedia.org)
  • It contains a total of 20 nif genes located on the chromosome in a 24-Kb region. (wikipedia.org)
  • Humans
  • Research has shown that the activity of gene profiles or gene programs can be affected by the physical and social environments that humans inhabit. (wikipedia.org)
  • Listeria
  • Bacterial examples include: Bartonella henselae Francisella tularensis Listeria monocytogenes Salmonella Typhi Brucella Legionella Mycobacterium Nocardia Rhodococcus equi Yersinia Neisseria meningitidis Fungal examples include: Histoplasma capsulatum. (wikipedia.org)
  • A riboswitch in Listeria monocytogenes regulates the expression of its downstream gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • upstream regions
  • Consequently, the new KS based method proposed here, which assigns P -values to fixed length upstream regions, provides a fast and accurate approach for predicting bacterial transcription targets. (frontiersin.org)
  • DNA sequencing of vraSR, saeSR, mgrA, rot, and merR regulatory genes and upstream regions did not reveal any differences between VSSA and hVISA/VISA despite transcriptional changes suggesting mutations in these loci may be linked to resistance in these strains. (nih.gov)
  • For example, comparative analysis of upstream regions of several genes expected to be co-regulated led to the description of the S-box (now the SAM-I riboswitch), the THI-box (a region within the TPP riboswitch), the RFN element (now the FMN riboswitch) and the B12-box (a part of the cobalamin riboswitch), and in some cases experimental demonstrations that they were involved in gene regulation via an unknown mechanism. (wikipedia.org)
  • Molecular
  • Up-regulation of genes associated with the "cell wall stimulon" and mutations in the vraSR operon have both been implicated in the development of resistance, however the molecular mechanisms of resistance are not completely understood. (nih.gov)
  • This expression system, based on conjugative plasmid, would be applicable to general molecular biological studies of green sulfur bacteria. (nih.gov)
  • Infection
  • A reliable normalization of the data, using several reference genes, is critical for an accurate quantification of gene expression.The two most stable genes (ABF-0017965 (lpxC) and ABF-0020529 (yafS) were successfully used for normalization of RT-qPCR data.We have identified at least two genes, lpxC (ABF-0017965) and yafS (ABF-0020509), whose expressions are stable in a wide range of growth conditions and during infection. (nih.gov)
  • We measured the expression of these reference gene candidates using quantitative RT-PCR in 50 different experimental conditions, mimicking the environment encountered by the bacteria in their host and directly during the infection process in planta. (nih.gov)
  • We have identified at least two genes, lpxC (ABF-0017965) and yafS (ABF-0020509), whose expressions are stable in a wide range of growth conditions and during infection. (nih.gov)
  • In a macrophage model of infection the changes in cell surface structures in hVISA/VISA strains were associated with significantly reduced NF-kappaB activation resulting in reduced TNF-alpha and IL-1beta expression. (nih.gov)
  • The 1940s produced the first pictures of bacterial viruses using electron microscopy produced the first photos of bacterial viruses, and research on the mechanism of infection and reproduction dramatically increased. (wikipedia.org)
  • In conditions of social stress however, the up-regulation of pro-inflammatory gene expression prepares the body to better deal with bodily injury and bacterial infection which is more likely under conditions of social stress either through hostile human contact, or increased predatory vulnerability due to separation from the social group. (wikipedia.org)
  • Concurrently, the down-regulation of anti-viral gene expression leaves the individual more vulnerable to viral infection such as the flu and the common cold. (wikipedia.org)
  • Adhesins
  • CnaB domains, first identified in S. aureus (28), are commonly found in cell-surface adhesins and are thought to form a stalk presenting the ligand-binding domain away from the bacterial cell surface (29). (nih.gov)
  • related to nitrogen
  • Despite the unrelatedness of the species in which they are found, the majority of the ANTAR-associated genes are thematically related to nitrogen management. (nih.gov)
  • regulates
  • The expression platform is what regulates gene expression. (wikipedia.org)
  • A TPP riboswitch in Neurospora crassa (a fungus) controls alternative splicing to conditionally produce an Upstream Open Reading Frame (uORF), thereby affecting the expression of downstream genes A TPP riboswitch in plants modifies splicing and alternative 3'-end processing A riboswitch in Clostridium acetobutylicum regulates an adjacent gene that is not part of the same mRNA transcript. (wikipedia.org)
  • It also regulates its own expression (autoregulation). (wikipedia.org)
  • Rhodospirillum rubrum-a free-living anaerobic photosynthetic bacterium which, in addition to the transcriptional controls described above, regulates expression of the nif genes also in a metabolic way through a reversible ADP-ribosylation of a specific arginine residue in the nitrogenase complex. (wikipedia.org)
  • R. capsulatus regulates nif gene expression through nifA in the same manner described before, but it uses a different nifA activator which initiates the NtrC. (wikipedia.org)
  • polymerase
  • However, NMR studies show that in the DNA-bound state, two domains tumble separately and an REC-DBD interaction is transiently populated in solution.Reporter gene analyses of PmrA variants with altered interface residues suggest that the interface is not crucial for supporting gene expression.We propose that REC-DBD interdomain dynamics and the DBD-DBD interface help PmrA interact with RNA polymerase holoenzyme to activate downstream gene transcription. (nih.gov)
  • We propose that REC-DBD interdomain dynamics and the DBD-DBD interface help PmrA interact with RNA polymerase holoenzyme to activate downstream gene transcription. (nih.gov)
  • Expression of this fis operon is negatively regulated by Fis in vivo and purified Fis can prevent stable complex formation by RNA polymerase at the fis promoter in vitro. (wikipedia.org)
  • cultures were grown
  • Bacterial cultures were grown in LB medium at 37°C to mid-log phase. (nih.gov)
  • Bacterial cultures were grown in LB medium at 37°C to an OD600nm of 0.05 before the addition of cAMP. (nih.gov)
  • lacZ were co-transformed with the pAhdIMRinC plasmid (only methylase gene is active), bacterial cultures were grown until OD600 0.5 and β-galactosidase activity was measured in three independent sets of experiments. (nih.gov)
  • swarming motility
  • After 20 minutes of exposure to 0.82 mM OPP, genes involved in the exhibition of swarming motility and anaerobic respiration were upregulated. (nih.gov)
  • Results from this study indicate that after 20 minutes of exposure to OPP, genes that have been linked to the exhibition of anaerobic respiration and swarming motility were upregulated. (nih.gov)
  • functional
  • Note that genes belonging to the functional class 'hypothetical, unclassified, unknown' (137 genes) are not represented in this figure. (nih.gov)
  • Antisense oligodeoxynucleotides (oligos) are widely used for functional studies of both prokaryotic and eukaryotic genes. (nih.gov)
  • The combination of the structure-based antisense design and extension of the lacZ assay to include gene fusions will be applicable to high-throughput gene functional screening, and to the identification of new drug targets in pathogenic microbes. (nih.gov)
  • Out of these, we retained 10 genes representing different functional categories, different levels of expression (low, medium, and high) and with no systematic variation in expression correlating with growth conditions. (nih.gov)
  • metabolic
  • Our work suggests that the metabolic sensor CRP-cAMP plays a role in coupling the expression of type 1 fimbriae to environmental conditions, thereby also affecting subsequent attachment and colonization of host tissues. (nih.gov)
  • Prior to the discovery of riboswitches, the mechanism by which some genes involved in multiple metabolic pathways were regulated remained mysterious. (wikipedia.org)
  • plasmid
  • For complementation purposes, plasmid pCBP68 (crp+) carrying the crp gene in the vector pLG338 (v.c.) was used. (nih.gov)
  • Therefore, the CD2831 gene was cloned under control of the inducible Ptet promoter on a plasmid, yielding pJKP041. (nih.gov)
  • Gene expression system in green sulfur bacteria by conjugative plasmid transfer. (nih.gov)
  • Plasmid stabilising toxin-antitoxin systems have been used as examples of selfish DNA as part of the gene centered view of evolution. (wikipedia.org)
  • biofilm formation
  • The c-di-GMP-inducible exopolysaccharide causes cell aggregation in minimal medium and impairs bacterial migration in semi-solid agar, however, it does not promote biofilm formation on abiotic surfaces. (nih.gov)
  • The numerous chemoreceptors and chemotaxis-like gene clusters of Geobacter appear to be responsible for a diverse set of signaling functions in addition to chemotaxis, including gene regulation and biofilm formation, through functionally and spatially distinct signaling pathways. (nih.gov)
  • disinfectants
  • The exopolysaccharide also greatly enhances bacterial tolerance to commonly used disinfectants as well as desiccation, which may contribute to survival of L. monocytogenes on contaminated food products and in food-processing facilities. (nih.gov)
  • Major
  • The genomes of G. sulfurreducens, G. metallireducens, and G. uraniireducens contain multiple (approximately 70) homologs of chemotaxis genes arranged in several major clusters (six, seven, and seven, respectively). (nih.gov)
  • regions
  • Two complementary computational screens, eQRNA and RNAz, were used to search for novel sRNA-encoding genes in the intergenic regions IGRs of S. meliloti. (wikipedia.org)
  • sRNAs
  • Rhizobial adaptations to soil and plant cell environments require the coordinate expression of complex gene networks in which sRNAs are expected to participate. (wikipedia.org)
  • transcriptome
  • Based on the transcriptome results multiple genes were sequenced and innate immune system stimulation was assessed in the VSSA and hVISA/VISA pairs. (nih.gov)
  • The sum total of genes expressed into RNA in a particular population of cells is referred to as the transcriptome. (wikipedia.org)
  • subunits
  • Adherence to host cells is important in microbial colonization of a mucosal surface, and Streptococcus pneumoniae adherence was significantly enhanced by expression of an extracellular pilus composed of three subunits, RrgA, RrgB and RrgC. (nih.gov)
  • Microscopy
  • In contrast, RrgA-positive strains with disrupted rrgB and rrgC genes exhibit wild-type adherence despite failure to produce pili by Western blot or immunoelectron microscopy. (nih.gov)
  • binds
  • The aptamer directly binds the small molecule, and the expression platform undergoes structural changes in response to the changes in the aptamer. (wikipedia.org)
  • Comparative
  • In 1986, the first comparative genomic study at a larger scale was published, comparing the genomes of varicella-zoster virus and Epstein-Barr virus that contained more than 100 genes each. (wikipedia.org)
  • Streptococcus
  • Biochemical studies reveal that the domain is a glucosyltransferase, and it catalyses the transfer of glucose to the branch point of the hexasaccharide O-linked to the serine-rich repeat of the bacterial adhesin, Fap1 of Streptococcus parasanguinis. (nih.gov)
  • patterns
  • Different bacterial gene expression patterns and attenuated host immune responses are associated with the evolution of low-level vancomycin resistance during persistent methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus bacteraemia. (nih.gov)
  • Borrelia burgdorferi contains one 16S and two tandem sets of 23S-5S ribosomal (r) RNA genes whose patterns of transcription and regulation are unknown but are likely to be critical for survival and persistence in its hosts. (nih.gov)
  • clusters
  • Gene positioning provides further evidence that the group A and B homologs bind to MCPs containing the C-terminal pentapeptide: these homologs are located in che clusters with pentapeptide-containing MCPs (Figure 1). (nih.gov)
  • Thus
  • Thus, these genes are considered suitable for use as reference genes for the normalization of real-time RT-qPCR data of the two main pectinolytic phytopathogenic bacteria D. dadantii and P. atrosepticum and, probably, of other Enterobacteriaceae. (nih.gov)
  • mechanism
  • This study also suggests that the downregulation of the rmf and rpoS genes may be indicative of the mechanism by which OPP causes decreases in cell viability in P. aeruginosa. (nih.gov)
  • Such an unusual mechanism leads to a very inefficient activation of the R gene transcription, which presumably helps control the level of the endonuclease in the cell. (nih.gov)
  • Low c-diGMP levels induce the release of CD2831 and presumably CD3246 from the surface of cells.This regulation is mediated by proteolytic cleavage of CD2831 and CD3246 by the zinc metalloprotease ZmpI, whose expression is controlled by a type I c-diGMP riboswitch.These data reveal a novel regulatory mechanism for expression of two sortase substrates by the secondary messenger c-diGMP, on which surface anchoring is dependent. (nih.gov)