Loading...
  • Histone
  • ZNF703 directly accumulates histone deacetylases at gene promoter regions but does not bind to functional DNA. (wikipedia.org)
  • This means that in addition to its role as a classical transcription factor, Myc also functions to regulate global chromatin structure by regulating histone acetylation both in gene-rich regions and at sites far from any known gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • Myc protein is a transcription factor that activates expression of many genes through binding enhancer box sequences (E-boxes) and recruiting histone acetyltransferases (HATs). (wikipedia.org)
  • proteins
  • This model, termed adaptive radiation ( 10 ) or the innovation, amplification, and divergence (IAD) model ( 11 ), is rooted in the notion that many existing proteins display broad specificity and secondary activities in addition to the function that they evolved to carry out ( 12 ). (pnas.org)
  • UBA52 and RPS27A genes code for a single copy of ubiquitin fused to the ribosomal proteins L40 and S27a, respectively. (wikipedia.org)
  • The UBB and UBC genes code for polyubiquitin precursor proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cancer cells are constantly using a variety of tools, involving genes, proteins and altered pathways, to ensure their survival against antineoplastic drugs. (wikipedia.org)
  • prognosis
  • The incidence of coamplification of the hst-1 and int-2 genes was reported at 30%-50% and was correlated with poor prognosis and high incidence of postoperative recurrence in distal organs of esophageal carcinoma . (springer.com)
  • The lifespan of individuals with colorectal cancer and luminal cancer have different prognosis depending on the amount of expression of the ZNF703 gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • protein
  • For example, rRNA genes are amplified about 4,000 times in oocytes of the clawed toad Xenopus laevis to assist in protein production during egg development. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • ATP-binding cassette sub-family B member 5 also known as P-glycoprotein ABCB5 is a plasma membrane-spanning protein that in humans is encoded by the ABCB5 gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • Imai discovered three kinds of protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP) genes having the function of controlling the signal transduction of cancer cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • N-myc proto-oncogene protein also known as N-Myc or basic helix-loop-helix protein 37 (bHLHe37), is a protein that in humans is encoded by the MYCN gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • The MYCN gene is a member of the MYC family of transcription factors and encodes a protein with a basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) domain. (wikipedia.org)
  • The MYCN gene has an antisense RNA, N-cym or MYCNOS, transcribed from the opposite strand which can be translated to form a protein product. (wikipedia.org)
  • and importantly have gene or protein expression or genomics associated with cancer. (wikipedia.org)
  • Protein CASC3 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CASC3 gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • The product of this gene is a core component of the exon junction complex (EJC), a protein complex that is deposited on spliced mRNAs at exon-exon junctions and functions in nonsense-mediated mRNA decay (NMD). (wikipedia.org)
  • Jun dimerization protein 2 (JUNDM2) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the JDP2 gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • The protein encoded by this gene is a multifunctional, nuclear phosphoprotein that plays a role in cell cycle progression, apoptosis and cellular transformation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Myc protein belongs to Myc family of transcription factors, which also includes N-Myc and L-Myc genes. (wikipedia.org)
  • duplication
  • Gene duplication is the primary way in which new genetic material is created as part of molecular evolution. (reference.com)
  • Sometimes, the amplified trait dies with the single organism that experiences the gene duplication. (wisegeek.com)
  • However, the relationship between gene duplication and the emergence of new biochemical functions is complicated, and it has been difficult to quantify the likelihood of evolving novelty in any systematic manner. (pnas.org)
  • However, the relationship between duplication and the emergence of new biochemical functions is complicated because gene duplications are generally expected to be either selectively neutral ( 5 ) or deleterious ( 6 ). (pnas.org)
  • biochemical
  • Genes determine the physical (structural genes), the biochemical (enzymes), physiological and behavioral characteristics of an animal. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Therefore, our work provides validation and biochemical insight into the innovation, amplification, and divergence model of gene evolution under continuous selection [Bergthorsson U, Andersson DI, Roth JR (2007) Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 104:17004- and also illustrates the high frequency at which novel traits can evolve in bacterial populations. (pnas.org)
  • telomere
  • If these rules operating in yeast can be extended to higher eukaryotes then we can propose that if the oncogene is located between the hairpin-capped break and the telomere, then the amplification event will result in a double minute. (innovations-report.com)
  • genetic
  • Most instances of gene amplification occur during an error in homologous recombination, when two similar strands of DNA exchange genetic information. (wisegeek.com)
  • Changes in the nucleotide sequence of a gene, either by substitution of a different nucleotide or by deletion or insertion of other nucleotides, constitute mutations which add to the diversity of animal species by creating different alleles and can be used as a basis for genetic selection of different phenotypes. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Duplicated copies of preexisting genes provide the primary genetic source for functional innovation ( 3 , 4 ). (pnas.org)
  • This indicates the requirement of new diagnostics including genetic testing which make use of gene amplification technology. (bio-medicine.org)
  • epigenetic
  • Lan J, Tai HC, Lee SW, Chen TJ, Huang HY, Li CF. Deficiency in expression and epigenetic DNA Methylation of ASS1 gene in nasopharyngeal carcinoma: negative prognostic impact and therapeutic relevance. (springer.com)
  • Epigenetic modifications in antineoplastic drug resistance play a major role in cancer development and drug resistance as they contribute to the regulation of gene expression. (wikipedia.org)
  • 1990
  • She was awarded a PhD from Imperial College London for research investigating gene amplification in rat cells in 1990 while working at the Imperial Cancer Research Fund Laboratory in London, UK. (wikipedia.org)
  • Methylation
  • Further, he developed the diagnostic method of a digestive tract cancer utilizing a methylation of genes expressed in cancer cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • DNA methylation is the process of adding methyl groups to DNA, usually in the upstream promoter regions, which stops DNA transcription at the region and effectively silences individual genes. (wikipedia.org)
  • mutations
  • The duplicated genes are prone to mutation, as mutations of the copied genes generally do not detract from the health of the host organism. (wisegeek.com)
  • Some mutations, be they a single base change in a single gene or a major deletion, are lethal. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • During the growth of a population under selection, these mutations are most likely to be gene amplifications. (pnas.org)
  • Mutations in this gene have been linked with bilateral anophthalmia, a severe structural eye deformity. (wikipedia.org)
  • drug resistance
  • Gene amplification has serious implications to evolutionary history as well as to drug resistance in cancer cells , and it is a major concern in biology for many additional reasons. (wisegeek.com)
  • One of the most widely examined aspects of gene amplification is its role in drug resistance in some diseases. (wisegeek.com)
  • There is evidence that NHEJ is usually involved in junction formation between amplicon microhomologies during gene amplification.15 16 However the role of NHEJ in the formation of DMs and HSRs relative to drug resistance in cancer cells remains to be investigated. (antibodyassay.com)
  • oncogene
  • Cloning the break-point of the fusion chromosomes revealed a gene that was similar to myelocytomatosis viral oncogene (v-Myc). (wikipedia.org)
  • c-Myc induces MTDH(AEG-1) gene expression and in turn itself requires AEG-1 oncogene for its expression. (wikipedia.org)
  • The gene for Sox2 lies within this region, which effectively characterizes Sox2 as an oncogene. (wikipedia.org)
  • molecular
  • Quantification of the DNA was determined using the PicoGreen™ assay (Molecular Probes, Eugene, OR). (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Gene amplification technology addresses applications in molecular biology research (DNA amplification), gene therapy, drug discovery, forensic identification, and diagnosis. (bio-medicine.org)
  • Thus NCYM represents a rare example of a de novo gene that has acquired molecular function and plays a major role in oncogenesis. (wikipedia.org)
  • These three pluripotency factors contribute to a complex molecular network that regulates a number of genes controlling pluripotency. (wikipedia.org)
  • correlation
  • This study aimed to evaluate the amplification and expression status, correlation with clinicopathological features, and prognostic implications of CDK4 based on public domain dataset and in our well-defined cohort of NPC patients. (springer.com)
  • transcription
  • As transcription of the ZNF703 gene reaches substantial levels, instead of blocking cell proliferation, Tamoxifen is found to increase cancer cell division. (wikipedia.org)
  • In addition, JDP2 has been shown to directly associate with the progesterone receptor (PR) and functionally acts as a coactivator of progesterone-dependent PR-mediated gene transcription. (wikipedia.org)
  • Myc (c-Myc) is a regulator gene that codes for a transcription factor. (wikipedia.org)
  • clinical
  • FGFR1 gene copy number (GCN) and the ratio of FGFR1:CH8 was compared to clinical and pathological characteristics and related to survival. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Tissues
  • Cancer is a classic example of what evolutionary biologists call multilevel selection: at the level of the organism, cancer is usually fatal so there is selection for genes and the organization of tissues that suppress cancer. (wikipedia.org)
  • populations
  • Numerous hypotheses have been proposed to explain the fates of duplicated genes within populations ( 7 - 9 ). (pnas.org)
  • significantly
  • Genes whose expression is already significantly upregulated in the absence of Myc are strongly boosted in the presence of Myc, whereas genes whose expression is low in the absence Myc get only a small boost when Myc is present. (wikipedia.org)
  • dosage
  • A particularly appealing model identifies a mechanism by which selection can act continuously to favor both an increase in gene dosage, and divergence of one copy from the parental gene. (pnas.org)
  • The association between CDK4 transcript level and gene dosage was explored by analysis of an independent public domain dataset. (springer.com)
  • Quantitative
  • Quantitative real-time PCR amplifications were performed on an iCycler™ thermocycler (Bio-Rad, Hercules, CA) with SYBR ® Green dye (Cambrex BioScience Rockland, Rockland, ME) detection. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • breast
  • Silver-enhanced in-situ hybridization (SISH) is an emerging tool for the determination of the Her-2/neu amplification status in breast cancer. (uzh.ch)
  • We conclude that Her-2/Chr17 SISH is a useful and accurate method for the evaluation of the Her-2/neu gene amplification status in cytologic breast cancer specimens, particularly in metastatic breast cancer lesions. (uzh.ch)