• Receptors
  • Receptors expressed on the basolateral membrane on the cells of the thick ascending limb of the loop of Henle appear to be the major site where this occurs [ 8,20,21 ]. (uptodate.com)
  • In the acid-secreting parietal cells of the gastric mucosa, the use of various radioligands for adenosine receptors suggested the presence of the A 2 adenosine receptor subtype(s) on the cell surface. (physiology.org)
  • In addition, both acid production and radioligand binding of adenosine analogs to isolated cell membranes were potently blocked by selective A2BR antagonists, whereas ligands for A 1 , A 2A , and A 3 adenosine receptors failed to abolish activation. (physiology.org)
  • Globally, a collection of neural stimuli, efferent and afferent, endocrine and paracrine agents, acting directly at apical and basolateral membrane receptors/transporters of the parietal cell or acting indirectly through the other cells of the gastric mucosa, as well as mechanical and chemical stimuli participate in acid secretion physiology (e.g., see recent reviews in Refs. (physiology.org)
  • The primary stimulatory processes are considered to be of histaminergic nature via G s -coupled H 2 receptor activation and of cholinergic nature via activation of G q -coupled muscarinic receptors or receptors for gastrin ( 69 ), but other actors are also on the stage. (physiology.org)
  • However, ECL cells are activated directly by ACh on M1 receptors from direct vagal innervation leading to histamine release. (wikipedia.org)
  • Upon activation, EC cells release serotonin to act upon serotonin receptors on ENS neurons. (wikipedia.org)
  • These receptors are increased in number on luminal side by fusion of tubulovesicles during activation of parietal cells and removed during deactivation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Parietal cells secrete acid in response to three types of stimuli: Histamine, stimulates H2 histamine receptors (most significant contribution). (wikipedia.org)
  • Gastrin, stimulating CCK2 receptors (least significant contribution, but also causes histamine secretion by local ECL cells) Activation of histamine through H2 receptor causes increases intracellular cAMP level while Ach through M3 receptor and gastrin through CCK2 receptor increases intracellular calcium level. (wikipedia.org)
  • fundus
  • It is thought to be an acquired and progressive disorder of uncertain etiology, caused by dysregulated epidermal growth factor receptor signaling, resulting in selective expansion of surface mucous cells in the corpus and fundus of the stomach with reduced numbers of parietal cells and chief cells. (thecardiologyadvisor.com)
  • mucous
  • The duct is lined by columnar cells, continuous with the epithelium lining the surface of the mucous membrane of the stomach, the tubes by shorter and more cubical cell which are finely granular. (wikipedia.org)
  • 1) Surface mucous cells - protective mucous traps bicarbonate, Na+, Cl-, K+ ions to generate local alkaline environment? (cram.com)
  • In the gastric pit, surface mucous cells produce an ________, ______ mucous. (brainscape.com)
  • ions
  • Hydrogen ions are pumped out of the cell into the canaliculi in exchange for potassium ions, via the H+/K+ ATPase. (wikipedia.org)
  • protein
  • As dietary protein is digested, it breaks down into smaller peptides and amino acids, which directly stimulate the G cells to secrete even more gastrin - a positive feedback loop that accelerates protein digestion. (wikipedia.org)
  • The molecules secreted vary in size from the small Escherichia coli peptide colicin V, (10 kDa) to the Pseudomonas fluorescens cell adhesion protein LapA of 900 kDa. (wikipedia.org)
  • Increased cAMP level results in increased protein kinase A. Protein kinase A phosphorylates proteins involved in the transport of H+/K+ ATPase from the cytoplasm to the cell membrane. (wikipedia.org)
  • epithelial
  • Cylindrical epithelial cells in the innermost layer of the ENAMEL ORGAN. (slicksurface.com)
  • In turn, the epithelial cells that line these villi possess even larger numbers of microvilli. (wikipedia.org)
  • They are discriminated from other cells of the gastrointestinal epithelial crypts by the presence of basally located granulations that contain serotonin and other peptides. (wikipedia.org)
  • venous
  • The bicarbonate ion (HCO3−) is exchanged for a chloride ion (Cl−) on the basal side of the cell and the bicarbonate diffuses into the venous blood, leading to an alkaline tide phenomenon. (wikipedia.org)
  • ATPase
  • The enzyme hydrogen potassium ATPase (H+/K+ ATPase) is unique to the parietal cells and transports the H+ against a concentration gradient of about 3 million to 1, which is the steepest ion gradient formed in the human body. (wikipedia.org)