• 1991
  • Boulton TG, Nye SH, Robbins DJ, Ip NY, Radziejewska E, Morgenbesser SD, DePinho RA, Panayotatos N, Cobb MH, Yancopoulos GD (1991) ERKs: A family of protein serine/threonine kinases that are activated and tyrosine phosphorylated in response to insulin and NGF. (springer.com)
  • consist
  • These 343 (176 different) mutations are scattered throughout the 13 exons that encode Gs-alpha and consist of 44.9% frameshift, 28.0% missense, 14.0% nonsense, and 9.0% splice-site mutations, 3.2% in-frame deletions or insertions, and 0.9% whole or partial gene deletions. (ox.ac.uk)
  • 1990
  • Boulton TG, Yancopoulos GD, Gregory JS, Slaughter C. Moomaw C, Hsu J, Cobb MH (1990) An insulin-stimulated protein kinase similar to yeast kinases involved in cell cycle control. (springer.com)
  • enzymes
  • G proteins belong to the larger group of enzymes called GTPases. (wikipedia.org)
  • In cell biology, protein kinase A (PKA) is a family of enzymes whose activity is dependent on cellular levels of cyclic AMP (cAMP). (wikipedia.org)
  • This enzyme converts adenosine triphosphate (ATP) to cAMP, which activates specific phosphorylating enzymes or protein kinases to produce the physiologic response. (brainstrom.org)
  • molecule
  • Each GPCR binds to and is activated by a specific ligand stimulus that ranges in size from small molecule catecholamines, lipids, or neurotransmitters to large protein hormones. (wikipedia.org)
  • Members of the kinesin superfamily vary in shape but the prototypical kinesin-1 is a heterotetramer whose motor subunits (heavy chains or KHCs) form a protein dimer (molecule pair) that binds two light chains (KLCs). (wikipedia.org)
  • Kinesins are motor proteins that transport such cargo by walking unidirectionally along microtubule tracks hydrolysing one molecule of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) at each step. (wikipedia.org)
  • Rhodopsin consists of two components, a protein molecule also called scotopsin and a covalently-bound cofactor called retinal. (wikipedia.org)
  • interaction
  • We hypothesized that alcohols exhibit their effect on AC activity by direct interaction with AC proteins. (nih.gov)
  • The Gγ subunit is considerably smaller than Gβ, and is unstable on its own, requiring interaction with Gβ to fold, explaining the close association of the dimer. (wikipedia.org)
  • This prenylation is thought to be involved in directing the interaction of the subunit both with membrane lipids and other proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • genes
  • out of 540 different protein kinase genes that make up for human kinome, only one other protein kinase, Casein kinase 2, is known to exist in a physiological tetrameric complex. (wikipedia.org)
  • These include: Coffin-Lowry syndrome MASA syndrome MECP2 duplication syndrome X-linked alpha thalassemia mental retardation syndrome mental retardation and microcephaly with pontine and cerebellar hypoplasia Following is a list of genes located on the X chromosome and linked to intellectual disability. (wikipedia.org)
  • To date, 5 β-subunit and 11 γ-subunit genes and have been identified in mammals. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Gβ genes have very similar sequences, while significantly greater variation is seen in the Gγ genes, indicating that the functional specificity of the Gβγ dimer may be dependent on the type of Gγ subunit involved. (wikipedia.org)
  • complexes
  • The first function as monomeric small GTPases, while the second function as heterotrimeric G protein complexes. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, recent studies evaluating the intact holoenzyme complexes, including regulatory AKAP-bound signalling complexes, have suggested that the local sub cellular activation of the catalytic activity of PKA might proceed without physical separation of the regulatory and catalytic components, especially at physiological concentrations of cAMP. (wikipedia.org)
  • B subunit complexes labelled with fluorescent tags or subsequently targeted with antibodies can be used to identify rafts. (wikipedia.org)
  • Subsequently, a different, heterotrimeric plus-end-directed MT-based motor named kinesin-2, consisting of 2 distinct KHC-related motor subunits and an accessory "KAP" subunit, was purified from echinoderm egg/embryo extracts and is best known for its role in transporting protein complexes (IFT particles) along axonemes during cilium biogenesis. (wikipedia.org)
  • kinase
  • PKA is also known as cAMP-dependent protein kinase (EC 2.7.11.11). (wikipedia.org)
  • Protein kinase A has several functions in the cell, including regulation of glycogen, sugar, and lipid metabolism. (wikipedia.org)
  • It should also not be confused with AMP-activated protein kinase - which, although a member of the protein kinase superfamily and a Ser/Thr kinase, may have opposite effects - nor be confused with cyclin-dependent kinases (Cdks), nor be confused with the acid dissociation constant pKa. (wikipedia.org)
  • Protein kinase A, more precisely known as adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate (cyclic AMP)-dependent protein kinase was discovered by chemists H. Fischer and Edwin G. Krebs in 1968. (wikipedia.org)
  • They won the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1992 for their work on phosphorylation and dephosphorylation and how it relates to protein kinase A activity. (wikipedia.org)
  • PKA is also commonly known as cAMP-dependent protein kinase, because it has traditionally been thought to be activated through release of the catalytic subunits when levels of the second messenger cAMP rise in response to a variety of signals. (wikipedia.org)
  • In humans, cAMP works by activating protein kinase A (PKA, cAMP-dependent protein kinase), one of the first few kinases discovered. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Catalytic sub-units make their way in to the nucleus to influence transcription.Further effects mainly depend on cAMP-dependent protein kinase, which vary based on the type of cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • IP-3 releases calcium from intracellular stores, and DAG activates protein kinase C. Effects on ion channels or phosphorylation of specific proteins causes the physiologic effects. (brainstrom.org)
  • helical
  • Khorana 1992), these proteins are predicted to contain seven transmembrane helical domains that anchor them to the plasma membrane. (springer.com)
  • The N terminus helical domains of the two subunits form a coiled coil with one another that typically extends away from the core of the dimer. (wikipedia.org)
  • The heavy chain of kinesin-1 comprises a globular head (the motor domain) at the amino terminal end connected via a short, flexible neck linker to the stalk - a long, central alpha-helical coiled coil domain - that ends in a carboxy terminal tail domain which associates with the light-chains. (wikipedia.org)
  • adenylyl cyclase
  • The activated Gs alpha subunit binds to and activates an enzyme called adenylyl cyclase, which, in turn, catalyzes the conversion of ATP into cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP), directly increasing the cAMP level. (wikipedia.org)
  • In a cAMP-dependent pathway, the activated Gs alpha subunit binds to and activates an enzyme called adenylyl cyclase, which, in turn, catalyzes the conversion of ATP into cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP). (wikipedia.org)
  • The pathway may also be deactivated downstream by directly inhibiting adenylyl cyclase or dephosphorylating the proteins phosphorylated by PKA. (wikipedia.org)
  • The pertussis toxin (also an AB5 protein) produced by Bordetella pertussis acts in a similar manner with the exception that it ADP-ribosylates the Gαi subunit, rendering it inactive and unable to inhibit adenylyl cyclase production of cAMP (leading to constitutive production). (wikipedia.org)
  • ribosomal
  • The protein encoded by this gene is the alpha (α) subunit of the translation initiation factor eIF2 complex which catalyzes an early regulated step of protein synthesis initiation, promoting the binding of the initiator tRNA (Met-tRNAiMet) to 40S ribosomal subunits. (wikipedia.org)
  • EIF2S1, also known as eIF2a, is the alpha subunit of the translation initiation factor eIF2 complex which catalyzes the first regulated step of protein synthesis initiation, promoting the binding of the initiator tRNA to 40S ribosomal subunits. (novusbio.com)
  • plasma membrane
  • The inactive GDP-bound form prevents the association of RGS14 with centrosomes and is required for the translocation of RGS14 from the cytoplasm to the plasma membrane. (abcam.co.jp)
  • Finally, PhLP is released, exposing the binding site for Gα, allowing for formation of the final trimer at the endoplasmic reticulum, where it is targeted to the plasma membrane. (wikipedia.org)
  • retinal
  • These domains form a pocket where the photoreactive chromophore, retinal, lies horizontally to the cell membrane, linked to a lysine residue in the seventh transmembrane domain of the protein. (wikipedia.org)
  • In rhodopsin, the aldehyde group of retinal is covalently linked to the amino group of a lysine residue on the protein in a protonated Schiff base (-NH+=CH-). When rhodopsin absorbs light, its retinal cofactor isomerizes from the 11-cis to the all-trans configuration, and the protein subsequently undergoes a series of relaxations to accommodate the altered shape of the isomerized cofactor. (wikipedia.org)
  • In subsequent intermediates lumirhodopsin and metarhodopsin I, the Schiff's base linkage to all-trans retinal remains protonated, and the protein retains its reddish color. (wikipedia.org)
  • Several models (e.g., the bicycle-pedal mechanism, hula-twist mechanism) attempt to explain how the retinal group can change its conformation without clashing with the enveloping rhodopsin protein pocket. (wikipedia.org)
  • gene
  • Eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2 subunit 1 (eIF2α) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the EIF2S1 gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • MECP2: methyl CpG binding protein 2 is a transcription regulator, which represses transcription from methylated gene promoters. (wikipedia.org)
  • JARID1C: Lysine-specific demethylase 5C is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the KDM5C gene a member of the SMCY homolog family and encodes a protein with one ARID domain, one JmjC domain, one JmjN domain and two PHD-type zinc fingers. (wikipedia.org)
  • 1992
  • The 1992 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine to Edwin G. Krebs and Edmond H. Fischer for describing how reversible phosphorylation works as a switch to activate proteins, and to regulate various cellular processes including glycogenolysis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Barr FA, Leyte A, Huttner WB (1992) Trimeric G proteins and vesicle formation. (springer.com)
  • Cali JJ, Balcueva EA, Rybalkin I, Robishaw JD (1992) Selective tissue distribution of G protein y subunits, including a new form of the ysubunits identified by cDNA cloning. (springer.com)
  • PEPTIDES
  • This is a sub-part (intracellular signaling peptides and proteins only) of List of MeSH codes (D12.776), itself a part of the list of the "D" codes for MeSH. (wikipedia.org)
  • a specific site of the protein that binds to diverse range of peptides and is thought to be a contributing factor in the ability of Gβγ to interact with a wide variety of effectors. (wikipedia.org)
  • microtubule
  • Discovery of these novel GAP, GDI, and GEF activities have helped to illuminate a new role for Gα subunit GDP/GTP cycling required for microtubule force generation and mitotic spindle function in chromosomal segregation. (ijbs.com)
  • Most kinesins walk towards the positive end of a microtubule, which, in most cells, entails transporting cargo such as protein and membrane components from the centre of the cell towards the periphery. (wikipedia.org)
  • The founding member of this superfamily, kinesin-1, was isolated as a heterotetrameric fast axonal organelle transport motor consisting of 2 identical motor subunits (KHC) and 2 "light chains" (KLC) via microtubule affinity purification from neuronal cell extracts. (wikipedia.org)
  • Each head has two separate binding sites: one for the microtubule and the other for ATP. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, it has been proposed that the head diffuses forward and the force of binding to the microtubule is what pulls the cargo along. (wikipedia.org)
  • Motor proteins travel in a specific direction along a microtubule. (wikipedia.org)
  • meaning, the heads only binds to the microtubule in one orientation, while ATP binding gives each step its direction through a process known as neck linker zippering. (wikipedia.org)
  • MeSH
  • This is a sub-part (carrier proteins only) of List of MeSH codes (D12.776), itself a part of the list of the "D" codes for MeSH. (wikipedia.org)