• NMDA
  • What are NMDA receptors? (healthtap.com)
  • In this study, we examined the impact of Shank3 deficiency on the NMDA-type glutamate receptor, a key player in cognition and mental illnesses. (jneurosci.org)
  • At higher doses, ethanol also affects NMDA receptors (NMDARs) by inhibiting the ion current induced by NMDA, a glutamate receptor agonist. (wikipedia.org)
  • Further analyses showed that these Calcium ion oscillations are sensitive to MK-801 (an NMDA open channel blocker), suggesting that NMDA receptor operated channels are involved in TMDT induced spontaneous activity. (wikipedia.org)
  • Levorphanol acts predominantly as an agonist of the μ-opioid receptor (MOR), but is also an agonist of the δ-opioid receptor (DOR), κ-opioid receptor (KOR), and the nociceptin receptor (NOP), as well as an NMDA receptor antagonist and a serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor (SNRI). (wikipedia.org)
  • Its antagonism of the NMDA receptor, similar to those of the phenylheptylamine open-chain opioids such as methadone or the phenylpiperidine ketobemidone, make levorphanol useful for types of pain that other analgesics may not be as effective against, such as neuropathic pain. (wikipedia.org)
  • Levorphanol's exceptionally high analgesic efficacy in the treatment of neuropathic pain is also conferred by its action on serotonin and norepinephrine transporters, similar to the opioids tramadol and tapentadol, and mutually complements the analgesic effect of its NMDA receptor antagonism. (wikipedia.org)
  • The "right-handed" (dextrorotatory) enantiomer of racemorphan is dextrorphan (DXO), an antitussive, potent dissociative hallucinogen (NMDA receptor antagonist), and weakly active opioid. (wikipedia.org)
  • presynaptic
  • Since null-direction motion for a DSGC corresponds to centrifugal motion for its presynaptic SAC dendrites, maximal GABA release from SACs to DSGCs occurs during motion in the null direction ( Figure 1B ). (elifesciences.org)
  • rats
  • In vivo microdialysis was used for measurement of extracellular glutamate and GABA levels and for local infusion of the angiotensin II type 2 receptor agonist Compound 21 in the RVLM and the PVN of conscious normotensive Wistar rats. (frontiersin.org)
  • subunit
  • The extent of enhancement of α4β3δH68A receptors by 1 μM diazepam, 30 mM EtOH, and 1 μM β-carboline-3-carboxy ethyl ester (but not 1 μM Zn 2+ block) is correlated in individual recordings, suggesting that δ subunit incorporation into recombinant GABA A Rs varies from cell to cell and that this variation accounts for the variable pharmacological profile. (aspetjournals.org)
  • These data are consistent with the notion that δ subunit-incorporation is often incomplete in recombinant systems yet is necessary for high ethanol sensitivity, one of the features of native δ subunit-containing GABA A Rs. (aspetjournals.org)
  • The relationship between 5-HT axons and axons immunoreactive for the 5-HT 3A receptor subunit, which contact dorsal horn interneurons, was analyzed using immunofluorescence and confocal microscopy. (jneurosci.org)
  • nicotinic
  • D ) Voltage clamp traces from reciprocal On SAC-SAC pairs in control mouse ( CT ) show IPSCs evoked in one SAC at −80 mV by depolarizing the other in the presence of glutamatergic and nicotinic receptor antagonists (see Experimental procedures). (elifesciences.org)
  • GABAC
  • Native responses of the GABAC receptor type occur in retinal bipolar or horizontal cells across vertebrate species. (wikipedia.org)
  • membrane
  • The results show that both 5-HT 1A&7 and 5-HT 3 membrane receptors are involved in counteracting the activation of dorsal horn interneurons by group II afferents. (jneurosci.org)
  • sensitivity
  • Here we confirm alcohol/alcohol antagonist sensitivity of α4β3δ receptors using human clones expressed in a human cell line and test the hypothesis that discrepant findings concerning the high alcohol sensitivity of these receptors are due to difficulties incorporating δ subunits into functional receptors. (aspetjournals.org)
  • We demonstrate that the δH68A substitution confers diazepam sensitivity to otherwise diazepam-insensitive α4β3δ receptors. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Recent Discoveries: In vitro and rapid screening tools Recent studies have indicated the usefulness of pH sensitivity in identifying Chloride ion influx, resulting from GABAA receptor excitation. (wikipedia.org)
  • baclofen
  • The receptors were first named in 1981 when their distribution in the CNS was determined, which was determined by Norman Bowery and his team using radioactively labelled baclofen. (wikipedia.org)
  • seizures
  • It is unclear whether decreased levels of GABA or elevated levels of GHB are responsible for these seizures but alterations in these neurotransmitters and their receptor binding or neurotransmitter transport is hypothesized to play a role in the pathogenesis of the seizures in this population. (wikipedia.org)
  • Activation
  • Maximal activation and GABA release occurs in the CF direction, while minimal activation occurs in the CP direction. (elifesciences.org)
  • Since then, using technology such as in-vivo electrophysiology/imaging and optogenetics, two in-vivo studies have reported the effect of GABA on neonatal brain, and both have shown that GABA is indeed overall inhibitory, with its activation in the developing rodent brain not resulting in network activation, and instead leading to a decrease of activity. (wikipedia.org)