• inhibitor
  • Regarding the mechanisms of action, endogenous ER β was able to activate transcription via ERE during the S phase in a ligand-dependent manner, whereas no changes in AP1 and NF κ B transactivation were observed after exposure to estradiol or the specific inhibitor ICI 182,780. (hindawi.com)
  • Accordingly, we ectopically restricted UNG2 activity in vivo to predefined cell cycle phases by fusing a UNG2 inhibitor peptide to cell cycle-regulated degradation motifs. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Xenopus
  • However, in Xenopus embryos, sea urchin embryos, and Drosophila embryos, the G1 phase is barely existent and is defined as the gap, if one exists, between the end of mitosis and the S phase. (wikipedia.org)
  • vitro
  • With nuclei isolated in the first hour of G1 phase, in vitro origins were distributed throughout a larger number of DNA fibers and did not coincide with in vivo origins. (rupress.org)
  • However, with nuclei isolated later in G1 phase, the positions of many in vitro origins coincided with in vivo origin sites without further change in origin number or density. (rupress.org)
  • Using this in vitro system, we have defined several discrete steps during early G1 phase that establish a spatial and temporal program for replication. (rupress.org)
  • occurs
  • We found that excision of AID-induced U by UNG2 occurs predominantly during G1 phase, inducing faithful repair, mutagenic processing, and class switching. (biomedsearch.com)
  • establish
  • These results highlight two distinct G1 steps that establish a spatial and temporal program for replication. (rupress.org)
  • Eco1 must be present in S phase to establish cohesion, but its continued presence is not required to maintain cohesion. (wikipedia.org)
  • different
  • The restriction point (R) in the G1 phase is different from a checkpoint because it does not determine whether cell conditions are ideal to move on to the next phase, but it changes the course of the cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • important
  • however, they have also been shown to play an important role in activating the G1-CDKs CDK4 and CDK6. (wikipedia.org)
  • found
  • and a high concentration of Cdk inhibitors is found during G1 phase. (wikipedia.org)
  • Furthermore, it was found, as shown in Figure 1, that Cln1 and Cln2 could activate their own transcription via SBF, completing a positive feedback loop that could contribute to rapid activation and S-phase entry. (wikipedia.org)
  • point
  • After a vertebrate cell has been in the G1 phase for about three hours, the cell enters a restriction point in which it is decided whether the cell will move forward with the G1 phase or move into the dormant G0 phase. (wikipedia.org)
  • The first restriction point is growth-factor dependent and determines whether the cell moves into the G0 phase, while the second checkpoint is nutritionally-dependent and determines whether the cell moves into the S phase. (wikipedia.org)
  • Our findings suggest, first, that within G1, RA acts before and ICI acts after the point of lovastatin action and, second, that despite these differences in the initiation of cell cycle arrest, the final nature of the cell cycle arrest is similar. (garvan.org.au)
  • formation
  • At the G1/S checkpoint, formation of the G1/S cyclin with Cdk to form a complex commits the cell to a new division cycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • Since the formation of new DNA is an energy draining process, the cell undergoes a second growth and energy acquisition stage, the G2 phase. (coursehero.com)
  • role
  • The role of positive feedback in this process has been challenged, but recent experiments have confirmed its importance for rapid inactivation and nuclear export of Whi5, which is the molecular basis of commitment to S-phase. (wikipedia.org)
  • necessary
  • Pds5 is not strictly establishment-specific, as Pds5 is necessary for maintenance of cohesion during G2 and M phase. (wikipedia.org)
  • growth
  • G1 phase and the other subphases of the cell cycle may be affected by limiting growth factors such as nutrient supply, temperature, and room for growth. (wikipedia.org)
  • Reasons the cell would not move into the S phase include insufficient cell growth, damaged DNA, or other preparations have not been completed. (wikipedia.org)