• dimethyl
  • Dimethyl fumarate was shown to have a significant effect on relapse rate and time to progression in phase III clinical trials of multiple sclerosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Dimethyl fumarate was recommended for approval in the European Union as an orally administered treatment for MS by EMA on March 21, 2013. (wikipedia.org)
  • Dimethyl fumarate is also an effective diene acceptor in the thermal Diels-Alder reaction, where the reactivity of its vinylenic bond is enhanced by the two electron-withdrawing ester groups. (wikipedia.org)
  • With this reaction, compounds with bicyclo skeletons can be synthesized, e.g. a diester with a norbornene (bicyclo[2.2.eptene) skeleton from dimethyl fumarate and cyclopentadiene. (wikipedia.org)
  • The precise mechanism of action of dimethyl fumarate is unknown. (wikipedia.org)
  • Dimethyl fumarate is a lipophilic, highly mobile molecule in human tissue. (wikipedia.org)
  • As a α,β-unsaturated electrophilic compound, dimethyl fumarate is rapidly attacked by the detoxifying agent glutathione (GSH) in a Michael addition reaction. (wikipedia.org)
  • Dimethyl fumarate is highly reactive: when administered orally, it does not survive long enough to be absorbed into blood without being attacked by GSH. (wikipedia.org)
  • Dimethyl fumarate has been found to be an allergic sensitizer at very low concentrations, producing eczema that is difficult to treat. (wikipedia.org)
  • The sensitizing risk was brought to public attention by the "poison chair" incident, where Chinese manufacturer Linkwise produced two-seater sofas with dimethyl fumarate sachets inside to inhibit mold while they were in storage or transport. (wikipedia.org)
  • The cause was identified as dimethyl fumarate-induced allergic reaction by Tapio Rantanen from Finland, and his original article became the cover story in the July issue of the British Journal of Dermatology. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the European Union the use of dimethyl fumarate for consumer products has been forbidden since 1998, and in January 2009 it was proposed that the import of consumer products containing dimethyl fumarate is also forbidden. (wikipedia.org)
  • In patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis, the ester dimethyl fumarate (BG-12, Biogen) significantly reduced relapse and disability progression in a phase 3 trial. (wikipedia.org)
  • PMID
  • A number of enzymes, belonging to the lyase class, for which fumarate is a substrate, have been shown to share a short conserved sequence around a methionine which is probably involved in the catalytic activity of this type of enzymes [ PMID: 3282546 ]. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Adenylosuccinase, EC:4.3.2.2 (adenylosuccinate lyase) [ PMID: 1574589 ], which catalyses the eighth step in the de novo biosynthesis of purines, the formation of 5'-phosphoribosyl-5-amino-4-imidazolecarboxamide and fumarate from 1-(5-phosphoribosyl)-4-(N-succino-carboxamide). (ebi.ac.uk)
  • lyase
  • Arginosuccinase, EC:4.3.2.1 (argininosuccinate lyase), which catalyses the formation of arginine and fumarate from argininosuccinate, the last step in the biosynthesis of arginine. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Aspartate ammonia-lyase, EC:4.3.1.1 (aspartase), which catalyses the reversible conversion of aspartate to fumarate and ammonia. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • bound
  • Initially, SDHA oxidizes succinate via deprotonation at the FAD binding site, forming FADH2 and leaving fumarate, loosely bound to the active site, free to exit the protein. (wikipedia.org)