• surface
  • One of the most common forms of quality degradation due to moisture migration in frozen foods is freezer burn, a condition defined as the glassy appearance in some frozen products produced by ice crystals evaporating on the surface area of a product (Kaess, 1961). (fao.org)
  • In most cases, blanching is essential for producing quality frozen vegetables, since it also helps destroy microorganisms on the surface of the produce. (fao.org)
  • Most plants, in particular, can safely reach temperatures of −4 °C to −12 °C. Certain bacteria, notably Pseudomonas syringae, produce specialized proteins that serve as potent ice nucleators, which they use to force ice formation on the surface of various fruits and plants at about −2 °C. The freezing causes injuries in the epithelia and makes the nutrients in the underlying plant tissues available to the bacteria. (wikipedia.org)
  • The density fluctuations inside drops result in that the possible freezing regions cover the middle and the surface regions. (wikipedia.org)
  • The freezing from the surface or from within may be random. (wikipedia.org)
  • The raindrops become supercooled while passing through a sub-freezing layer of air hundreds of meters above the ground, and then freeze upon impact with any surface they encounter, including the ground, trees, electrical wires, aircraft, and automobiles. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, if the subfreezing layer of air at the surface is very shallow, the rain drops falling through it will not have time to freeze and they will hit the ground as supercooled rain. (wikipedia.org)
  • Surface observations by manned or automatic stations are the only direct confirmation of freezing rain. (wikipedia.org)
  • Surface freezing is the appearance of long-range crystalline order in a near-surface layer of a liquid. (wikipedia.org)
  • The surface freezing effect is opposite to a far more common surface melting, or premelting. (wikipedia.org)
  • A group led by Ben Ocko (Brookhaven National Laboratory), Eric Sirota (Exxon) and Moshe Deutsch (Bar-Ilan University, Israel) discovered independently the same effect, using x-ray surface diffraction which allowed them to show that the frozen layer is a crystalline monolayer, with molecules oriented roughly along the surface normal, and ordered in an hexagonal lattice. (wikipedia.org)
  • Surface freezing has since been found in a wide range of chain molecules and at various interfaces: liquid-air, liquid-solid and liquid-liquid. (wikipedia.org)
  • Parkinson's
  • In Parkinson's disease , freezing (sometimes called motor block) is a sudden, brief inability to start movement or to continue rhythmic, repeated movements, such as finger-tapping, writing, or walking. (webmd.com)
  • Apomorphine ( Apokyn ) is a fast-acting dopamine agonist that seems to be helpful in treating freezing associated with Parkinson's disease . (webmd.com)
  • significantly
  • On the other hand, due to the fact cooking also softens cell walls, textural changes caused by freezing are not significantly noticeable in products cooked before eating, as in the case of most vegetables (Schafer and Munson, 1990). (fao.org)
  • As expected, both groups of rats froze for a significantly less time when presented with the fake cat hair stimulus than when in the presence of the real cat hair. (wikipedia.org)
  • crystals
  • Within the apoplast, antifreeze proteins localize the growth of ice crystals by ice nucleators in order to prevent physical damage to tissues and to promote supercooling within freezing-sensitive tissues and cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Process
  • The quality of frozen products and consumer acceptance can be enhanced by optimizing process conditions such as rate of freezing, quality of raw materials, and storage conditions details (see previous chapters for more detail). (fao.org)
  • The analysis used to determine the effects of freezing process, frozen storage, and thawing on product flavor is largely based on the changes produced in chemical compounds. (fao.org)
  • Therefore, a good understanding of the physical aspects of freezing will help improve the product s quality retention during the freezing process. (fao.org)
  • This quality defect can be prevented by using heavyweight, moisture proof packaging during the freezing process (Pham and Mawson, 1997). (fao.org)
  • Freeze branding is a branding process that involves the use of liquid nitrogen or dry ice and alcohol to cool a branding iron so that the iron may then be used to alter the hair follicle of an animal to remove the pigmentation or to remove the hair altogether, depending on the color of the animal. (wikipedia.org)
  • Freezing is almost always an exothermic process, meaning that as liquid changes into solid, heat and pressure is released. (wikipedia.org)
  • But this can be understood, since heat must be continually removed from the freezing liquid or the freezing process will stop. (wikipedia.org)
  • Asset freezing is a legal process which prevents a defendant (usually an apparent fraudster) to an action from dissipating their assets from beyond the jurisdiction of a court so as to frustrate a potential judgment. (wikipedia.org)
  • The process is regarded as a high-stakes exercise for several reasons: The application is almost always made without notice, to prevent the fraudster defendant from spiriting away their assets before the freezing order is granted. (wikipedia.org)
  • This process results in heat transfer from the ground to the air and keeps the ground in a permanent frozen state. (wikipedia.org)
  • Freeze distillation is a misnomer, since it is not distillation but rather a process of enriching a solution by partially freezing it and removing frozen material that is poorer in the dissolved material than is the liquid portion left behind. (wikipedia.org)
  • Ice wine is the result of a similar process, but in this case, the freezing happens before the fermentation, and thus it is sugar, not alcohol, that gets concentrated. (wikipedia.org)
  • Fractional freezing can be used as a simple method to increase the alcohol concentration in fermented alcoholic beverages, a process sometimes called freeze distillation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Snap freezing (or cook-chill or blast freezing) is the process of rapid cooling of a substance for the purpose of preservation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Freezing is the process in which a liquid turns into a solid when cold enough. (wikipedia.org)
  • freezer
  • A student uses a home freezer in an experiment to find the freezing point of rubbing alcohol. (yahoo.com)
  • Dry Ice can't freeze isopropyl alcohol, you can bet your freezer won't either. (yahoo.com)
  • for example on a large freezer trawler single hauls of up to 50 tonnes are possible with a large midwater trawl, whereas the shipboard freezing capacity is unlikely to be more than 2 t/hour. (fao.org)
  • I can't think of any reason why contact with warm air would make a beer that had been chilled in the freezer freeze, but I can think of an alternative explanation. (madsci.org)
  • If that works, then very carefully open the tops of the ones that you very carefully took out of the freezer and wait to see if they freeze upon contact with warm air. (madsci.org)
  • Kakalle pakastimeen, jäätynyt jätös ei haise" [What kind of freezer, frozen waste does not smell] (in Finnish). (wikipedia.org)
  • vibration
  • Then take out half very carefully and half with a lot of vibration and motion and see if the latter will freeze without you even opening the bottle. (madsci.org)
  • A second anime season titled Freezing Vibration (フリージング ヴァイブレーション, Furījingu Vaiburēshon) premiered on October 4, 2013. (wikipedia.org)
  • mixture
  • The alcohol must have a purity of 99%, or else it will not be effective because the other components will begin to freeze, turning the mixture into slush. (wikipedia.org)
  • eggs
  • 3. What will be the best way to fertilize eggs with frozen sperm. (bio.net)
  • WASHINGTON (AP) - Freezing human eggs can be successful in treating infertility - but guidelines issued Friday still urge caution for women hoping to pause a ticking biological clock. (yahoo.com)
  • The group cited studies that found younger women are about as likely to get pregnant if they used frozen-and-thawed eggs for their infertility treatment as if they used fresh ones. (yahoo.com)
  • Here's the controversy: Should otherwise healthy women freeze their eggs as sort of an insurance policy against infertility in case they don't meet Mr. Right - or just aren't ready for motherhood - until their late 30s or beyond, when the childbearing window is closing fast? (yahoo.com)
  • Anyone considering egg freezing needs careful counseling about their age and the odds of success if they want to later thaw those eggs for use in in vitro fertilization, the guidelines stress. (yahoo.com)
  • It's none of our business to tell someone, 'No, you shouldn't delay childbearing if you choose for whatever reason,'" said Dr. James Grifo of New York University, whose center has frozen more than 1,100 batches of eggs, mostly for elective fertility preservation. (yahoo.com)
  • For Brigitte Adams of San Francisco, that hope of a future pregnancy was worth paying about $15,000 to freeze 11 eggs, especially when her parents covered half the bill. (yahoo.com)
  • She says one of the most-asked questions is how to learn about clinics' success rates using frozen eggs. (yahoo.com)
  • What's involved in freezing eggs: Women inject high levels of hormones for a week in order to ovulate as many eggs as possible. (yahoo.com)
  • overcome
  • These or other techniques may help you overcome freezing and get moving again. (webmd.com)
  • In the past decade, scientists created a flash-freezing method called vitrification that appears to overcome that challenge. (yahoo.com)
  • depends
  • The confidence in frozen foods largely depends on the microbiological quality of the raw materials prior to usage, the efficiency of processing, and finally the efficiency of consumers in following specified product instructions (Mayes and Telling, 1993). (fao.org)
  • Collapse
  • Ground freezing is a construction technique used in circumstances where soil needs to be stabilized so it will not collapse next to excavations, or to prevent contaminants spilled into soil from being leached away. (wikipedia.org)
  • somewhat
  • Fish that are to be filleted on board can withstand a somewhat longer delay than fish that are to be frozen whole. (fao.org)
  • time
  • Some of the benefits are that it causes almost no permanent harm to the animal's skin, it is far less painful than a hot-iron brand, the freeze brands are highly visible no matter the time of year, and there is less blotching and distortion with a freeze brand. (wikipedia.org)
  • If the branding iron is applied for a longer period of time, it will also freeze the growth follicle (GF), causing the hair to stop growing entirely. (wikipedia.org)
  • In most cases, the soft ground must be treated by means of ground improvement techniques such as ground freezing, jet grouting, etc. as discussed in Chapter 7 Soft Ground Tunneling to enhance its stand up time. (wikipedia.org)
  • Freezing toilet is a kind of dry toilet based on electricity which freezes the content in a short time. (wikipedia.org)
  • The contents freeze in a short time stopping bacteria from growing and keeping it odourless. (wikipedia.org)
  • Freezing tolerance can be assessed by performing a simple plant survival assay or with the more time consuming but quantitative electrolyte leakage assay. (wikipedia.org)
  • Freezing began serialization in Kill Time Communication's seinen manga magazine Comic Valkyrie in its March 2007 issue. (wikipedia.org)
  • Freezing behavior is most easily characterized by changes in blood pressure and lengths of time in crouching position, but it also is known to cause changes such as shortness of breath, increased heart rate, sweating, or choking sensation. (wikipedia.org)
  • generally
  • Soft fish or fish with burst bellies are generally unsuitable for freezing whole. (fao.org)
  • Consequently, the texture of the produce is generally much softer after thawing when compared to non-frozen produce. (fao.org)
  • While a claimant obtaining an order can expect to face subsequent opposition in court from the defendant, the freezing order is generally considered to be the beginning of the end for the defendant, and negotiation and settlement avoid the return to court. (wikipedia.org)
  • Current orders issued by the court do not generally call for a blanket freezing of assets, and they are currently worded in more nuanced terms according to the situation concerned. (wikipedia.org)
  • commonly
  • Sensory quality of frozen products is commonly determined based on texture, which includes both the properties perceived by sensation in mouth and appearance (Skrede, 1996). (fao.org)
  • Freezing behavior or the Freeze Response is a reaction to specific stimuli, most commonly observed in prey animals. (wikipedia.org)
  • often
  • The gut is often full of food, and the action of digestive juices can quickly burst the belly wall and soften the flesh unless the catch is handled expeditiously and kept chilled prior to freezing. (fao.org)
  • Freezing most often affects walking, but it also can affect speech, writing, and the person's ability to open and close his or her eyes . (webmd.com)
  • effect
  • It is usually recommended that frozen fruits be served before they are completely thawed, since in the partially thawed state the effect of freezing on the fruit tissue is less noticeable. (fao.org)
  • This can be disastrous for a defendant as the cumulative effect of these orders can be to destroy the whole of a business' custom by freezing most of its assets and revealing important information to its competitors, and the two orders have been described by Lord Donaldson as being the law's "nuclear weapons. (wikipedia.org)
  • While it is not advisable to obtain such an order on purely strategic grounds, asset freezing has a persuasive effect on settlement negotiations. (wikipedia.org)
  • As mentioned before, Ann E. Power investigated the effect of basolateral amygdala on freezing behavior. (wikipedia.org)
  • fruits
  • As mentioned earlier, several enzymes that cause the loss of color, loss of nutrients, flavor changes, and color changes in frozen fruits and vegetables, should be inactivated by means of thermal treatments prior to freezing. (fao.org)
  • In this case, enzymes in frozen fruits can be controlled by using chemical compounds, which interfere with deteriorative chemical reactions. (fao.org)
  • known
  • But proponents of egg freezing, known medically as oocyte cryopreservation, say lifting the experimental label will encourage more women to check out the option, and they'll make an educated choice. (yahoo.com)
  • The energy released upon freezing is a latent heat, and is known as the enthalpy of fusion and is exactly the same as the energy required to melt the same amount of the solid. (wikipedia.org)
  • The legal order itself is in the form of an injunction, which in Commonwealth jurisdictions is also known as a freezing order, Mareva injunction, Mareva order or Mareva regime, after the case Mareva Compania Naviera SA v International Bulkcarriers SA, although the first recorded instance of such an order in English jurisprudence was Nippon Yusen Kaisha v Karageorgis, decided one month before Mareva. (wikipedia.org)
  • A project in Boston known as the Big Dig used ground freezing during some of its tunneling, to allow its wide tunnels to be built under or through soil that supported existing infrastructure that would have been difficult or expensive to support using more traditional excavation methods. (wikipedia.org)
  • Studies suggest that specific areas of the brain are known to either elicit (or inhibit in the case of lesions) freezing behavior in subjects. (wikipedia.org)
  • Once
  • Once the fish are aboard, they must be frozen as soon as possible, and kept cool while they are waiting. (fao.org)
  • Once the fish have been on board for 6 hours, continual inspection of quality is essential to ensure a satisfactory frozen product. (fao.org)
  • less
  • Freeze branding has been gaining in popularity as a less painful way to permanently mark and identify animals. (wikipedia.org)
  • There has been debate whether freeze branding truly is less painful than hot branding, but studies conducted to compare the pain of the two methods have concluded that freeze branding is indeed less painful. (wikipedia.org)
  • The results showed that the rats that were lesioned in the basolateral amygdala froze much less to the cat hair than the control group of rats. (wikipedia.org)
  • General
  • Despite a general increase in microbiological outbreaks in processed foods, frozen foods have demonstrated a good food safety record. (fao.org)
  • That suggests that neurotransmitters, in general, play a role in freezing behavior. (wikipedia.org)
  • involve
  • A freezing order will usually only be made where the claimant can show that there was at least a good arguable case that they would succeed at trial and that the refusal of an injunction would involve a real risk that a judgment or award in their favour would remain unsatisfied. (wikipedia.org)
  • upon
  • Asset freezing is not a security, nor a means to pressure a judgment debtor, nor is it a type of asset forfeiture since it does not confer upon anyone else a proprietary interest in the defendant's assets. (wikipedia.org)
  • All rats at first froze briefly then retreated away from the stimulus upon initial contact. (wikipedia.org)
  • Area
  • To keep an area of a worksheet visible while you scroll to another area of the worksheet, you can lock specific columns in one area by freezing them. (microsoft.com)
  • However, it is possible to estimate the area covered by freezing rain with radars indirectly. (wikipedia.org)
  • work
  • Freezing toilets work by electricity, as they are plugged into the wall. (wikipedia.org)
  • Freezing toilets can be moved, as they only need a plug to work. (wikipedia.org)
  • Freezing is a BBC comedy series starring Hugh Bonneville and Elizabeth McGovern about an otherwise successful couple in their forties who find themselves out of work. (wikipedia.org)
  • ground
  • Ground freezing has been used for at least one hundred years. (wikipedia.org)
  • Soil contaminated with radioactive elements that leaked from Japan's Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant was contained through ground freezing. (wikipedia.org)
  • In Northern Canada and Arctic Alaska, passive pipe systems are used that do not require any external power to keep the ground frozen. (wikipedia.org)
  • case
  • Egg freezing had long been labeled experimental, but the American Society for Reproductive Medicine declared that's no longer the case. (yahoo.com)