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  • Growth
  • Activation of the primordial follicle involves the following: a morphological change from flattened to cuboidal granulosa cells, proliferation of granulosa cells, formation of the protective zona pellucida layer, and growth of the oocyte. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is widely understood that androgens act primarily on preantral follicles and that this activity is important for preantral follicle growth. (wikipedia.org)
  • There are various activator signalling pathways that are involved in the control of ovarian follicle activation, including: Neurotropin, nerve growth factor (NGF) and its tyrosine receptor kinase (NTRK1), neurotrophin 4 (NT4), brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and their receptor NTRK2. (wikipedia.org)
  • Additional ligands have a role in facilitating primordial follicle activation such as transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-B), growth differentiation factor 9 (GDF9) and bone morphogenic protein 15 (BMP15). (wikipedia.org)
  • BMP15 has been shown to stimulate granulosa cell growth by encouraging proliferation of undifferentiated granulosa cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • thus
  • When Foxo3 is KO in mice models a huge uncontrolled activation of follicles is seen thus the mouse ovaries are deficient of the entire pool of primordial follicles because they have been prematurely activated. (wikipedia.org)
  • Gonadotropin-releasing hormone antagonists (GnRH antagonists) are a class of medications that antagonize the gonadotropin-releasing hormone receptor (GnRH receptor) and thus the action of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH). (wikipedia.org)
  • show
  • Although the gene defects are present from conception, the hormone deficiencies show the characteristics of an acquired disease. (studymode.com)
  • Knock out studies of this protein in mice show a reduced number of oocytes present at 7 weeks post birth and a malfunction in the transition from primordial to primary follicle. (wikipedia.org)
  • patients
  • Degarelix is a GnRH antagonist that is approved for use in patients with advanced hormone-sensitive prostate cancer throughout Europe and also in the United States. (wikipedia.org)

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  • ovaries
  • It stimulates the growth of immature follicles in ovaries and primary spermatocytes in testes and thus plays an important role in human reproduction (1). (bioprocessintl.com)
  • It stimulates the ovaries to produce eggs. (medindia.net)
  • Due in part to elevated LH levels, which stimulate androgen production by theca cells in the ovaries, and due in part to FSH insensitivity, resulting in a lack of aromatase in nearby granulosa cells that normally convert androgens into estrogens, it could be expected that females with FSH insensitivity might present with symptoms of hyperandrogenism at puberty. (wikipedia.org)
  • This results in an inability of the granulosa cells in ovarian follicles to respond to FSH in females, in turn resulting in diminished estrogen production by the ovaries and loss of menstrual cycles, and an inability of Sertoli cells in the seminiferous tubules of the testicles to respond to FSH in males, which in turn results in impaired spermatogenesis. (wikipedia.org)
  • When Foxo3 is KO in mice models a huge uncontrolled activation of follicles is seen thus the mouse ovaries are deficient of the entire pool of primordial follicles because they have been prematurely activated. (wikipedia.org)
  • estradiol
  • 2012) used fetal calf serum, FSH, luteinising hormone (LH), gentamycin sulphate and estradiol when culturing buffalo embryos. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the luteal-follicle phase transition period the serum levels of progesterone and estrogen (primarily estradiol) decrease and no longer suppress the release of FSH, consequently FSH peaks at about day three (day one is the first day of menstrual flow). (wikipedia.org)
  • When the follicle matures and reaches 8-10 mm in diameter it starts to secrete significant amounts of estradiol. (wikipedia.org)
  • The sex steroid production begins with follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) from the anterior pituitary, stimulating granulosa cells to convert androgens (coming from the thecal cells) to estradiol by aromatase during the follicular phase of the menstrual cycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • With the rise in estrogens, LH receptors are also expressed on the maturing follicle, which causes it to produce more estradiol. (wikipedia.org)
  • GnRH
  • Eventually, when the follicle has fully matured, a spike in 17α-hydroxyprogesterone production by the follicle inhibits the production of estrogens, leading to a decrease in estrogen-mediated negative feedback of GnRH in the hypothalamus, which then stimulates the release of LH from the anterior pituitary. (wikipedia.org)
  • When T levels are low, GnRH is released by the hypothalamus, stimulating the pituitary gland to release LH. (wikipedia.org)
  • Growth Hormone
  • He went to the University of California, Berkeley in the US for his post-doctoral studies and worked as a post-doctoral fellow at the laboratory of Choh Hao Li, a Chinese-born US biochemist who would later describe the structure of somatotropin, a pituitary growth hormone. (wikipedia.org)
  • fetal
  • Animal and/or human studies have demonstrated fetal injury and potential risks outweigh the benefits of the drug in pregnancy. (medindia.net)
  • gonadotrophin
  • In addition, there is evidence that gonadotrophin surge-attenuating factor produced by small follicles during the first half of the follicle phase also exerts a negative feedback on pulsatile luteinizing hormone (LH) secretion amplitude, thus allowing a more favorable environment for follicle growth and preventing premature luteinization. (wikipedia.org)
  • oocytes
  • Mean number of oocytes retrieved per number of follicles aspirated on the day of ovum pick up was calculated. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Of these primordial follicles, only around 400 mature oocytes are released and could be potentially fertilised, with the rest undergoing atresia. (wikipedia.org)
  • If without the use of priming, oocytes are obtained when the largest follicles are around 10mm in size. (wikipedia.org)
  • chromosome
  • In humans, the SMAD4 gene contains 54 829 base pairs and is located from pair n° 51,030,212 to pair 51,085,041 in the region 21.1 of the chromosome 18. (wikipedia.org)
  • Biochemistry
  • Opting for a research degree for his post graduate studies, he joined the University of Madras and earned an MSc for his researches on the biochemistry of thyroid hormones. (wikipedia.org)
  • spermatogenesis
  • Spermatogenesis-and-oogenesis-specific basic helix-loop-helix containing protein 1 (Sohlh1) is expressed within germ cell clusters and in new primordial follicles. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Leydig cells produce testosterone (T) under the control of LH, which regulates the expression of the enzyme 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase that is used to convert androstenedione, the hormone produced by the testes, to testosterone, an androgen that exerts both endocrine activity and intratesticular activity on spermatogenesis. (wikipedia.org)