• Insects
  • Physically, some insects move their flight muscles directly, others indirectly. (wikipedia.org)
  • In insects with direct flight, the wing muscles directly attached to the wing base, so that a small downward movement of the wing base lifts the wing itself upward. (wikipedia.org)
  • Those insects with indirect flight have muscles that attach to and deform the thorax, causing the wings to move as well. (wikipedia.org)
  • Insects have traditionally been considered as poikilotherms (animals in which body temperature is variable and dependent on ambient temperature) as opposed to being homeothermic (animals which maintain a stable internal body temperature regardless of external influences). (wikipedia.org)
  • However, the term temperature regulation, or thermoregulation, is currently used to describe the ability of insects and other animals to maintain a stable temperature (either above or below ambient temperature), at least in a portion of their bodies by physiological or behavioral means. (wikipedia.org)
  • While many insects are ectotherms (animals in which their heat source is primarily from the environment), others are endotherms (animals which can produce heat internally by biochemical processes). (wikipedia.org)
  • The first mechanism that comes to mind for insects to lose heat during flight is convection because higher speeds necessarily increase convective cooling. (wikipedia.org)
  • Several large insects have evolved to warm-up previous to flight so that energetically demanding activities, such as flight, are possible. (wikipedia.org)
  • So, heterothermic insects have adapted to make use of the excess heat produced by flight muscles to increase their thoracic temperature pre-flight. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, during warm-up these muscles are contracted simultaneously (or almost simultaneously in some insects) to produce no wing movement (or a minimal amount of wing movement) and produce as much heat as possible to elevate thoracic temperatures to flight-levels. (wikipedia.org)
  • bats
  • However, the landings of bats cannot be understood through studies of flight alone because bats roost head-under-heels and cannot hover in this position. (biologists.org)
  • The traditional subdivision into Megachiroptera and Microchiroptera reflected the view that these groups of bats had evolved independently of each other for a long time, from a common ancestor already capable of flight. (wikipedia.org)
  • hummingbirds
  • Hummingbirds made to fly in low-density air responded by moderately increasing wingbeat frequency and substantially increasing the wing stroke amplitude as compared with flight in normal air. (biologists.org)
  • However, unlike a single unit recording, the EMG waveform amplitude varied as the hummingbirds engaged in different flight behaviors. (biologists.org)
  • Hummingbirds are extremely agile and acrobatic flyers, regularly partaking in sustained hovering flight, often used not only to feed on the wing but to protect their territory and perform courting rituals. (wikipedia.org)
  • parasitic
  • Aerodynamic theory predicts a U-shaped relationship between power requirements and forward flight speed because induced costs decline but profile and parasitic costs increase from hovering to progressively faster speeds. (biologists.org)
  • These apply to parasites whose hosts are plants as well as animals: Parasitic castrators feed on their host's reproductive tissues, leaving other bodily processes largely intact, and therefore ensuring the host's survival and the freedom of the parasite to remain in the host body for as long as the host continues to live. (wikipedia.org)
  • These are often microscopic non-animal parasites, namely protozoa, bacteria, or viruses, and their vectors are often parasitic arthropods such as fleas, lice, ticks and mosquitoes. (wikipedia.org)
  • hindlimb
  • It is known that exposure of humans or animals to real or simulated microgravity (head-down-tilt bed rest, "dry" immersion for humans, and hindlimb suspension animal models) leads to the development of changes in the sensory-motor system [ 1 , 2 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • wings
  • Literature leads to the belief this flight is strongly correlated to the elongated wings of the giant hummingbird, allowing more efficient glides than other Trochilids. (wikipedia.org)
  • with their forelimbs adapted as wings, they are the only mammals naturally capable of true and sustained flight. (wikipedia.org)
  • eaten
  • When this animal is eaten by a predator, the parasite survives the digestion process and matures into an adult. (wikipedia.org)
  • Many instances of convergent evolution are known in plants, including the repeated development of C4 photosynthesis, seed dispersal by fleshy fruits adapted to be eaten by animals, and carnivory. (wikipedia.org)
  • Soviet
  • Sputnik 2 (Russian pronunciation: [ˈsputʲnʲɪk], Russian: Спутник-2, Satellite 2), or Prosteyshiy Sputnik 2 (PS-2, Russian: Простейший Спутник 2, Elementary Satellite 2) was the second spacecraft launched into Earth orbit, on 3 November 1957, and the first to carry a living animal, a Soviet space dog named Laika, who died a few hours after the launch. (wikipedia.org)
  • The mission differed markedly from earlier Cosmos flights, both in terms of Soviet scientific goals and in the degree of cooperation required between the United States and the USSR. (wikipedia.org)
  • This was because a Soviet vestibular experiment required that the flight restraint couches oscillate vertically within the animal capsules. (wikipedia.org)
  • thorax
  • When heat is being produced, different temperatures are maintained in different parts of their bodies, for example, moths generate heat in their thorax prior to flight but the abdomen remains relatively cool. (wikipedia.org)
  • The first evidence for insect thermoregulation in flight came from experiments in moths demonstrating that dissipation of heat occurs via hemolymph movement from the thorax to the abdomen. (wikipedia.org)
  • airflow
  • The members of this lab share the fascination for animal flight, which we explore in a sophisticated wind tunnel equipped with cutting-edge equipment for high-speed wing motion analysis, airflow visualization, and force measurement. (lu.se)
  • Muscles
  • Changes in isoform composition, gene expression of titin and nebulin, and isoform composition of myosin heavy chains as well as changes in titin phosphorylation level in skeletal (m. gastrocnemius, m. tibialis anterior, and m. psoas) and cardiac muscles of mice were studied after a 30-day-long space flight onboard the Russian spacecraft "BION-M" number 1. (hindawi.com)
  • A muscle fibre-type shift from slow-to-fast and a decrease in the content of titin and nebulin in the skeletal muscles of animals from "Flight" group was found. (hindawi.com)
  • Sarcomere lesions (eccentric contraction-like lesions: hyperextension of sarcomeres with A-band filaments pulled apart and fragmented) were detected in atrophied adductor longus and soleus muscles of rats after the Cosmos 1887, SLS-1, and SLS-2 space flights [ 16 , 17 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • In order for an animal to fly, its flight muscles need to be capable of high mechanical power output which in turn, due to biochemical inefficiencies, end up producing large amounts of heat. (wikipedia.org)
  • This is probably caused by the flight muscles working at higher levels and consequently, increasing thoracic heat generation. (wikipedia.org)
  • During flight, these function as antagonistic muscles to produce the wing flapping that allows for sustained flight. (wikipedia.org)
  • Flying
  • We see animals walking and crawling on land, flying in air, and swimming in fluid. (springer.com)
  • The flying primate hypothesis proposed that, when adaptations to flight are removed, the Megachiroptera are allied to primates by anatomical features not shared with Microchiroptera. (wikipedia.org)
  • This mode of flight involves flying a significant distance horizontally compared to its descent and therefore can be distinguished from a mostly straight downward descent like with a round parachute. (wikipedia.org)
  • The flights of flying fish are typically around 50 meters (160 ft), though they can use updrafts at the leading edge of waves to cover distances of up to 400 m (1,300 ft). (wikipedia.org)
  • adaptation
  • A free-falling object without any adaptation to flight can only be sustained by the wind if it is very light and falls more slowly than the wind blows it upwards. (wikipedia.org)
  • experiments
  • they have been alternately seen as agricultural pests, sacred animals in some temples, and more recently, the subject of medical experiments. (wikipedia.org)
  • At the start of the flight or control experiments, the rats were at gestation day 13 of their 21-day cycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • biomechanics
  • Adrian Leland Rees Thomas (born 1963) is a Professor of Biomechanics at the University of Oxford and Director of Studies in Biological Sciences at Lady Margaret Hall, Oxford running the Animal Flight Research Group. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cosmos
  • NSSDC ID 1983-121A Other Names Biocosmos 6 Cosmos 1514 14549 Launch Date/Time December 14, 1983 at 07:00:00 UTC On-orbit Dry Mass 5700 kg Spaceflight portal 1983 in spaceflight Animals in space Chris Peat. (wikipedia.org)
  • mammals
  • This hypothesis recognised differences between microbats and megabats and acknowledged that flight has only evolved once in mammals. (wikipedia.org)
  • horses
  • On Tuesday, a horse was injured and euthanized at Santa Anita Park racetrack, and HBO agreed to suspend filming with the animals after the American Humane Association issued an immediate demand "that all production involving horses shut down" pending an investigation. (cbslocal.com)
  • Control
  • Animal flight dynamics : mechanics of stability and control. (wikipedia.org)
  • These included modifying the launch trajectory to utilize propellant more efficiently and removing some flight control components to reduce weight. (wikipedia.org)
  • Monkeys in the flight and control groups were implanted with blood pressure and flow cuffs and sensors to measure several physiological parameters. (wikipedia.org)
  • stable
  • The animal was being led to a stable by a groom when it reared and fell back, suffering a head injury, according to HBO. (cbslocal.com)
  • found
  • Water Works officials have said the restrictions are needed because the shallow lake, which is located next to an urban area, is fragile and environmentally vulnerable to nutrients found in animal waste. (unionleader.com)
  • nevertheless an increase (2.2 times) in titin gene expression in the myocardium of flight animals was found. (hindawi.com)
  • We found no difference in flight performance between the two diets. (biomedsearch.com)
  • mechanical
  • His mechanical analogue of dragonflies was developed by his company, Animal Dynamics Ltd, to make small Unmanned Aerial Vechicles (aka drones or ornithopters) that will outperform quadcopters. (wikipedia.org)
  • capable
  • Many creatures capable of sustained wing-powered flight also soar unpowered for much of the time they are airborne. (wikipedia.org)
  • The great frigatebird in particular is capable of continuous flights up to several weeks. (wikipedia.org)
  • space flight
  • A neuroontogeny experiment was conducted to investigate space flight effects on the sensory development of rats that spent part of their prenatal gestation period in space. (wikipedia.org)
  • However
  • However, this was at a cost of increased oxidative stress post-flight when on a reduced quality diet, but not when on an enhanced, antioxidant-rich diet. (biomedsearch.com)
  • airline
  • In one scene filmed in Florida in 1984, a reproduction Benoist airboat was flown, depicting the inaugural flight of the world's first scheduled airline, the St. Petersburg-Tampa Airboat Line, in 1914. (wikipedia.org)
  • group
  • Using Pro-Q Diamond staining, an ~3-fold increase in the phosphorylation level of titin in m. gastrocnemius of mice from the "Flight" group was detected. (hindawi.com)
  • great
  • Are you looking the best price for Night Flight Michael Parkes Fantasy Mystical Animals Print Poster 31.5x27.5 and you want to get great deals & best buy this product? (blogspot.com)
  • high
  • Parasites of animals show a high degree of specialization, and reproduce at a faster rate than their hosts. (wikipedia.org)
  • move
  • When he asked if he could finish putting his bags away, Keren explains in a Facebook post, quote, "Immediately, she started shouting very loudly 'this is my plane, this is my show, are we going to have a problem, if so I could move you to the next flight with no problem! (aol.com)
  • statement
  • ABC News reached out to JetBlue regarding Keren's story and it gave this statement: "The decision to remove someone from a flight is never taken lightly and happens only if it is clear that the customer poses a risk to the safe and comfortable operation of the flight. (aol.com)
  • section
  • He is co-founder and Chief Scientific Officer (CSO) of Animal Dynamics Ltd and is also chairman of the flight section of the Bionis International Biomimetics Network. (wikipedia.org)