• aerodynamic
  • These approaches provide unique insights into the mechanisms of force generation during flight, but often neglect one or more critical components of wing deflection (e.g. spanwise bending, chordwise bending or torsion), which can have large effects on aerodynamic force production ( Batchelor, 1967 ). (biologists.org)
  • In addition, because the flow is highly stalled, lift and drag are of comparable magnitude, and the aerodynamic efficiency is roughly the same up to an inclined angle about 60°, which curiously agrees with the angle observed in dragonfly flight. (biologists.org)
  • Despite some physical limitations by moving in both water and air, the flying fish has evolved to have good aerodynamic designs (such as the hypertrophied fins and cylindrical body with a ventrally flattened surface) for proficient gliding flight. (biologists.org)
  • Aerodynamic performance and energetic savings for flight in ground effect are theoretically maximized during hovering, but have never been directly measured for flying animals. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • In powered flight, the animal uses muscular power to generate aerodynamic forces. (wikipedia.org)
  • These modes of locomotion typically require an animal start from a raised location, converting that potential energy into kinetic energy and using aerodynamic forces to control trajectory and angle of descent. (wikipedia.org)
  • dragonfly flight
  • Towards the end of this paper, we will see that this differentiation helps us to resolve one of the puzzles in quasi-steady estimates of dragonfly flight as well as to construct more efficient hovering strokes. (biologists.org)
  • wings
  • The dynamic, three-dimensional shape of flapping insect wings may influence many aspects of flight performance. (biologists.org)
  • During flapping flight, insect wings accelerate masses of air, generating the forces necessary to support the insect's weight and to perform complex maneuvers. (biologists.org)
  • Although they are strengthened by a network of tubular veins, the wings of many species deform noticeably during flight, especially during slow flight and hovering ( Willmott and Ellington, 1997a ). (biologists.org)
  • A prominent feature of gliding flight in snakes of the genus Chrysopelea is the unique cross-sectional shape of the body, which acts as the lifting surface in the absence of wings. (biologists.org)
  • Literature leads to the belief this flight is strongly correlated to the elongated wings of the giant hummingbird, allowing more efficient glides than other Trochilids. (wikipedia.org)
  • with their forelimbs adapted as wings, they are the only mammals naturally capable of true and sustained flight. (wikipedia.org)
  • Both the dorsolongitudinal muscles (which flip down the wings during flight) and the dorsoventral muscles (which cause the wings to flip upward during flight) are involved in the pre-flight warm-up behavior but in a slightly different way. (wikipedia.org)
  • Soaring is typically only seen in species capable of powered flight, as it requires extremely large wings. (wikipedia.org)
  • 1994
  • During the 1990s, Vayudoot and Gujarat Airways flew to Surat Airport but both discontinued their flights in May 1994 and January 2000, respectively. (wikipedia.org)
  • thorax
  • When heat is being produced, different temperatures are maintained in different parts of their bodies, for example, moths generate heat in their thorax prior to flight but the abdomen remains relatively cool. (wikipedia.org)
  • The first evidence for insect thermoregulation in flight came from experiments in moths demonstrating that dissipation of heat occurs via hemolymph movement from the thorax to the abdomen. (wikipedia.org)
  • airflow
  • The members of this lab share the fascination for animal flight, which we explore in a sophisticated wind tunnel equipped with cutting-edge equipment for high-speed wing motion analysis, airflow visualization, and force measurement. (lu.se)
  • glide
  • Creatures able to launch themselves into the air and glide short distances include: Flying squirrels Petaurus marsupials Flying snakes Flying dragon lizards Flying fish Unpowered flights of longer duration and distance are possible if rising air is used to gain energy. (wikipedia.org)
  • velocity
  • Escape and aggressive take-off featured decreased hindlimb contribution (46% and 47%, respectively) and increased flight velocity. (biologists.org)
  • Flight at heights less than or equal to 1.1 R resulted in significant reductions in the body angle, tail angle, anatomical stroke plane angle, wake-induced velocity, and mechanical and metabolic power expenditures when compared with flight at the control height of 8 R . By contrast, stroke plane angle relative to horizontal, wingbeat amplitude and wingbeat frequency were unexpectedly independent of height from ground. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • In this so-called ground effect, interaction between the vortex wake generated in flight and the lower boundary reduces the mean induced velocity, and thus both the induced and total powers required to hover [ 5 ]. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • angle
  • To investigate force generation and energy cost of hovering flight using different combination of lift and drag, I study a family of wing motion parameterized by the inclined angle of the stroke plane. (biologists.org)
  • muscles
  • In order for an animal to fly, its flight muscles need to be capable of high mechanical power output which in turn, due to biochemical inefficiencies, end up producing large amounts of heat. (wikipedia.org)
  • This is probably caused by the flight muscles working at higher levels and consequently, increasing thoracic heat generation. (wikipedia.org)
  • These high temperatures at which flight muscles work impose a constraint on low temperature take-off because an insect at rest has its flight muscles at ambient temperature which is not the optimal temperature for these muscles to function. (wikipedia.org)
  • During flight, these function as antagonistic muscles to produce the wing flapping that allows for sustained flight. (wikipedia.org)
  • trajectory
  • These included modifying the launch trajectory to utilize propellant more efficiently and removing some flight control components to reduce weight. (wikipedia.org)
  • Flying
  • Thus, any flying animal must be able to decelerate in a controlled manner from its preferred flight speed before landing. (biologists.org)
  • Several aspects of the flight of flying fish have been determined or conjectured from previous field observations and measurements of morphometric parameters. (biologists.org)
  • However, the detailed measurement of wing performance associated with its morphometry for identifying the characteristics of flight in flying fish has not been performed yet. (biologists.org)
  • largely
  • Insect wing deformations during flight are largely passive, and are controlled primarily by the architecture and material properties of the wing. (biologists.org)
  • mechanical
  • His mechanical analogue of dragonflies was developed by his company, Animal Dynamics Ltd, to make small Unmanned Aerial Vechicles (aka drones or ornithopters) that will outperform quadcopters. (wikipedia.org)
  • Airways
  • The company asserted it was the only "pet-only" airline operating their own flights, as opposed to the now defunct Pet Airways that operated using multiple contracted air carriers. (wikipedia.org)
  • Dogs
  • Ten dogs were considered for the mission, with the final selection being narrowed down to three, Laika being the flight animal, Albina the backup, and Muhka, used to test equipment. (wikipedia.org)
  • The company originally intended to begin for-hire flights transporting dogs and cats in 2015 after obtaining the required FAA certification. (wikipedia.org)
  • Research
  • The research within the Animal Flight Lab is focused on the ecology and evolution of animal flight. (lu.se)
  • Adrian Leland Rees Thomas (born 1963) is a Professor of Biomechanics at the University of Oxford and Director of Studies in Biological Sciences at Lady Margaret Hall, Oxford running the Animal Flight Research Group. (wikipedia.org)
  • independently
  • The traditional subdivision into Megachiroptera and Microchiroptera reflected the view that these groups of bats had evolved independently of each other for a long time, from a common ancestor already capable of flight. (wikipedia.org)
  • capable
  • Many creatures capable of sustained wing-powered flight also soar unpowered for much of the time they are airborne. (wikipedia.org)
  • power
  • Unpowered flight is the ability to stay airborne for a period of time without using any power source. (wikipedia.org)
  • ground
  • During the first two orbits, it proved difficult to reliably track Sputnik 2's flight path, but ground controllers were able to intercept theodolite data from an American tracking station in Perth, Australia. (wikipedia.org)
  • On April 21, 2015, the company announced the launch of a new division providing ground transportation called People and Pets Animal Transportation. (wikipedia.org)
  • However
  • However, this was at a cost of increased oxidative stress post-flight when on a reduced quality diet, but not when on an enhanced, antioxidant-rich diet. (biomedsearch.com)
  • However, in other forms of flight other values are found. (wikipedia.org)
  • found
  • Water Works officials have said the restrictions are needed because the shallow lake, which is located next to an urban area, is fragile and environmentally vulnerable to nutrients found in animal waste. (unionleader.com)
  • We found no difference in flight performance between the two diets. (biomedsearch.com)
  • often
  • These are often microscopic non-animal parasites, namely protozoa, bacteria, or viruses, and their vectors are often parasitic arthropods such as fleas, lice, ticks and mosquitoes. (wikipedia.org)
  • performance
  • The effects of short-term antioxidant supplementation on oxidative stress and flight performance in adult budgerigars Melopsittacus undulatus. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Previously, the influence of motivational state on take-off flight performance has not been investigated for any one organism. (biologists.org)