• arachidonic acid
  • These enzymes appear to constitute a pathway producing hydroperoxides and epoxyalcohols from arachidonic acid. (diva-portal.org)
  • The 12 R -hydroperoxide of arachidonic acid (12 R -HPETE) was prepared by autoxidation and separated from other hydroperoxides by chiral HPLC. (diva-portal.org)
  • The conversion of cell membrane arachidonic acid (20:4n-6) to omega-6 prostaglandin and omega-6 leukotriene eicosanoids during the inflammatory cascade provides many targets for pharmaceutical drugs to impede the inflammatory process in atherosclerosis, asthma, arthritis, vascular disease, thrombosis, immune-inflammatory processes, and tumor proliferation. (wikipedia.org)
  • The COX-1 and COX-2 inhibitor medications, used to treat inflammation and pain, work by preventing the COX enzymes from turning arachidonic acid into inflammatory compounds. (wikipedia.org)
  • The LOX inhibitor medications often used to treat asthma work by preventing the LOX enzyme from converting arachidonic acid into the leukotrienes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Many of the anti-mania medications used to treat bipolar disorder work by targeting the arachidonic acid cascade in the brain. (wikipedia.org)
  • 15-Hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (also termed 15-HETE, 15(S)-HETE, and 15S-HETE) is an eicosanoid, i.e. a metabolite of arachidonic acid. (wikipedia.org)
  • Various cell types metabolize arachidonic acid to 15(S)-hydroperoxyeicosatetraenoic acid (15(S)-HpETE). (wikipedia.org)
  • Some cell types (e.g. platelets) metabolize arachidonic acid to the stereoisomer of 15(S)-HpETE, 15(R)-HpETE. (wikipedia.org)
  • Both stereoisomers may also be formed as result of the metabolism of arachidonic acid by cellular microsomes or as a result of arachidonic acid auto-oxidation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Human cells release arachidonic acid (i.e. 5Z,8Z,11Z,14Z-eicosatetraenoic acid) from its storage site in phospholipids by reactions that involve phospholipase C and/or lipase enzymes. (wikipedia.org)
  • The freed arachidonic acid is then converted to 15-hydroperoxy/hydroxy products by one or more of the following five pathways. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cycloxygenase: Cells can use prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase 1 (i.e. cyclooxygenenase-1 or COX-1) and Prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase 2 (COX-2) to metabolize arachidonic acid primarily to prostaglandins but also to small amounts of 11(R)-HETE and a racemic mixture of 15-HETEs composed of ~22% 15(R)-HETE and ~78% 15(S)-HETE. (wikipedia.org)
  • medium-lengt
  • It seems that a low content of 18:0 and 18:1, and a high content of saturated short- to medium-length fatty acids prevent the formation of the high and low temperature melting isotherms, between 35 and 42 °C, and between -45 and -10 °C, respectively, which are normally observed for milk fats. (scielo.org.za)
  • stearic acid
  • Stearic acid is toxic for T lymphocytes in vitro but has little effect on B lymphocytes. (ecu.edu)
  • To investigate the molecular basis for this difference, purified murine T and B lymphocytes were compared for their abilities to incorporate and metabolize stearic acid. (ecu.edu)
  • Doses of stearic acid that selectively inhibited T-cell proliferation resulted in a 5-fold greater accumulation of distearoylphosphatidylcholine in T cells than in B cells. (ecu.edu)
  • Stearoyl-CoA Desatu
  • The deficiency of stearoyl- CoA desaturase in T cells may represent the basis for the differing sensitivities of T and B lymphocytes to inhibition by saturated fatty acids. (ecu.edu)
  • PUFAs
  • A high consumption of oxidized polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), which are found in most types of vegetable oil, may increase the likelihood that postmenopausal women will develop breast cancer. (wikipedia.org)
  • Linoleate
  • Because cis-unsaturated fatty acids incorporated in cell membranes increase membrane fluidity and can thereby dramatically alter membrane-dependent cellular functions, we examined the effect of linoleate and oleate incorporation in peripheral blood mononuclear cell membranes on the physical properties of the membrane and concomitantly on low density lipoprotein uptake and degradation. (ahajournals.org)
  • Intake
  • However, intake of fatty acids and proportions in triglycerides and membranes cannot be entirely uncoupled. (biologists.org)
  • Although unsaturated fats are conventionally regarded as 'healthier' than saturated fats, the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) recommendation stated that the amount of unsaturated fat consumed should not exceed 30% of one's daily caloric intake. (wikipedia.org)
  • Medical research on humans found a correlation (though correlation does not imply causation) between the high intake of omega-6 fatty acids from vegetable oils and disease in humans. (wikipedia.org)
  • methyl
  • One way in which a fatty acid is named is determined by the location of the first double bond, counted from the methyl end, that is, the omega (ω-) or the n- end. (wikipedia.org)
  • Omega-6 fatty acids (also referred to as ω-6 fatty acids or n-6 fatty acids) are a family of pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory polyunsaturated fatty acids that have in common a final carbon-carbon double bond in the n-6 position, that is, the sixth bond, counting from the methyl end. (wikipedia.org)
  • omega (e.g. ω3desaturase) - indicating the double bond is created between the third and fourth carbon from the methyl end of the fatty acid. (wikipedia.org)
  • Specifically, the methyl ester of ricinoleic acid is cracked to yield both undecylenic acid and heptanal. (wikipedia.org)
  • Derivatives
  • Sulfinic acid and R-SO3H derivatives are produced only at high molar excesses of HClO, and disulfides are formed primarily at bacteriocidal levels. (wikipedia.org)
  • MUFA
  • In contrast to earlier studies, we were interested in whether the ratio of n-6 to n-3 PUFA affects torpor expression, and in comparison with a diet rich in monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA). (biologists.org)
  • triglycerides
  • The glycolytic pathway also provides the glycerol with which three fatty acids can combine (by means of ester bonds) to form triglycerides (also known as "triacylglycerols", to distinguish them from fatty "acids" - or simply as "fat"), the final product of the lipogenic process. (wikipedia.org)
  • trans
  • C3H5 CO2H, IUPAC organization name (E)-but-2-enoic acid, trans -but-2-enoic acid, numerical representation 4: 1, n-1, molecular weight 86.09, melting point 72-74 °C, boiling point 180-181 °C, specific gravity 1.027. (wikipedia.org)
  • The signal intensities increased about two orders of magnitude by raising the isolation width of A(-) from 1.5 amu to 5 or 10 amu for cis-trans conjugated hydroperoxy fatty acids, and one order of magnitude of more for non-conjugated hydroperoxy fatty acids. (diva-portal.org)
  • The S enantiomer of 8-, 9-, 10-, and 13-hydroperoxyoctadecadienoic acids and the S enantiomer of cis-trans conjugated hydroperoxyeicosatetraenoic acids eluted before the corresponding R enantiomer with two exceptions (11-hydroperoxylinoleic acid and 8-hydroperoxyeicosa-5Z,9E,11Z,14Z-tetraenoic acid). (diva-portal.org)
  • Although both monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fats can replace saturated fat in the diet, trans unsaturated fats should not. (wikipedia.org)
  • Trans unsaturated fats are an exception because the double bond stereochemistry predisposes the carbon chains to assume a linear conformation, which conforms to rigid packing as in plaque formation. (wikipedia.org)
  • cholesterol
  • The precise mechanism by which unsaturated fatty acids lower low density lipoprotein cholesterol is not known. (ahajournals.org)
  • The present invention provides a method for manufacturing fat-soluble phytosterol or phytostanol ester of unsaturated fatty acid for inhibiting the absorption of cholesterol and foodstuffs containing the same. (sumobrain.com)
  • short fatty acid chains long fatty acid chains unsaturated FAs saturated FAs *low cholesterol high cholesterol * Cholesterol content increases membrane toughness and decreases permeability * Cholesterol tends to broaden the range of the transition temperature. (coursehero.com)
  • The pyruvate produced by glycolysis is an important intermediary in the conversion of carbohydrates into fatty acids and cholesterol. (wikipedia.org)
  • Replacing saturated fats with unsaturated fats helps lower levels of total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol in the blood. (wikipedia.org)
  • Hypochlorous acid reacts with a wide variety of biomolecules, including DNA, RNA, fatty acid groups, cholesterol and proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • inhibition
  • Both induction of SCD1 protein and sensitivity to growth inhibition by SCD1 inhibition could be reversed by supplementing growth media with unsaturated fatty acids, the product of the enzymatic reaction catalyzed by SCD1. (aacrjournals.org)
  • carbon
  • Once a 16:0 carbon fatty acid has been formed, it can undergo a number of modifications, resulting in desaturation and/or elongation. (wikipedia.org)
  • The mechanism of action and effectiveness in fatty acid-type antifungals is dependent on the number of carbon atoms in the chain, with efficacy increasing with the number of atoms in the chain. (wikipedia.org)
  • ω-3 18:4 (stearidonic acid) or 18:4 ω-3 or 18:4 n−3 indicates an 18-carbon chain with 4 double bonds, and with the first double bond in the third position from the CH3 end. (wikipedia.org)
  • membrane
  • Enrichment with both of these fatty acids produced an increase in membrane fluidity, as indicated by a reduction in the steady-state fluorescence polarization of 1,6-diphenyl-1,3,5-hexatriene incorporated in the membrane. (ahajournals.org)
  • To obtain cytosolic acetyl-CoA, citrate (produced by the condensation of acetyl CoA with oxaloacetate) is removed from the citric acid cycle and carried across the inner mitochondrial membrane into the cytosol. (wikipedia.org)
  • carboxylic acid
  • For instance, the title compound has been used to prepare silicon-based biosensors, linking silicon transducer surfaces to the terminal double bond of undecylenic acid (forming an Si-C bond), leaving the carboxylic acid groups available for conjugation of biomolecules (e.g., proteins). (wikipedia.org)
  • substrates
  • The aim of this thesis was to develop analytical methods to prepare and analyze hydroperoxides and epoxyalcohols derived from fatty acids by LC-MS/MS, and to investigate the catalytic performance of CYP4F8 and CYP4F22 for these substrates. (diva-portal.org)
  • Thereafter the glucose that is released into the blood by the liver for general use by the body tissues, has to be synthesized from the glucogenic amino acids and a few other gluconeogenic substrates, which do not include fatty acids. (wikipedia.org)
  • Closely related omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids act as competing substrates for the same enzymes. (wikipedia.org)
  • mechanism
  • In terms of the mechanism underlying its antifungal effects against Candida albicans, undecylenic acid inhibits morphogenesis. (wikipedia.org)
  • NADPH
  • DECR binds NADPH and the fatty acid thioester and positions them for specific hydride transfer to the Cδ on the hydrocarbon chain. (wikipedia.org)
  • metabolites
  • The molecular mechanisms and biological processes that occur in the cell following dietary supplementation with unsaturated fatty acids (USFA), resulting in the expression of genes or sets of genes that are co-expressed and eventually direct the expression of phenotypes (blood and milk metabolites) are not fully understood. (usherbrooke.ca)
  • Both of these metabolites, depending on the cell type which forms them, can be further metabolized to 15-oxo-eicosatetraenoic acid (15-oxo-ETE), 5S,15S-dihydroxy-eicosatetraenoic acid (5(S),15(S)-diHETE), 5-oxo-15(S)-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (5-oxo-15(S)-HETE, a subset of specialized pro-resolving mediators viz. (wikipedia.org)
  • oils
  • These acids are highly reactive but the cyclopropene ring is destroyed during refining and hydrogenation of the oils. (wikipedia.org)
  • Essential fatty acids should not be confused with essential oils, which are "essential" in the sense of being a concentrated essence. (wikipedia.org)
  • enzymatic
  • In animals, as well as some fungi such as yeast, these same reactions occur on fatty acid synthase I (FASI), a large dimeric protein that has all of the enzymatic activities required to create a fatty acid. (wikipedia.org)
  • order of magnit
  • Mutant proteins with modifications at key acidic amino acids (E154, E227, E276, D300, D117) show order of magnitude increases in Km and/or decreases in Vmax. (wikipedia.org)
  • carboxyl
  • The method for manufacturing fatsoluble ester of phytosterol or phytostanol unsaturated fatty acid of claim 1, wherein the carboxyl group activating agent is selected from the group consisting of 1,3 dicyclohexylcarbodiimide (DCC), 1ethyl3 (3' dimethylaminopropyl)carbodiimide, oxalyl chloride, carbonyl diimidazole, 2chloropyridium, 2,2'dipyridyl disulfide and 2imidazoyl disulfide. (sumobrain.com)
  • The method for manufacturing fatsoluble ester of phytosterol or phytostanol unsaturated fatty acid of claim 1, wherein the esterification is carried out by adding the carboxyl group activating agent in a dropwise to phytosterol or phytostanol in a molar ratio of 1: 1.1 to 1: 3 under a refluxed temperature for 1 to 5 hours. (sumobrain.com)
  • These desaturases are classified as delta - indicating that the double bond is created at a fixed position from the carboxyl group of a fatty acid (for example, Δ9desaturase creates a double bond at the 9th position from the carboxyl end). (wikipedia.org)
  • mainly
  • Undecylenic acid is mainly used for the production of Nylon-11 and in the treatment of fungal infections of the skin, but it is also a precursor in the manufacture of many pharmaceuticals, personal hygiene products, cosmetics, and perfumes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Brazil nut oil contains 75% unsaturated fatty acids composed mainly of oleic and linolenic acids, as well as the phytosterol, beta-sitosterol, and fat-soluble vitamin E. Extra virgin oil can be obtained during the first pressing of the nuts, possibly for use as a substitute for olive oil due to its mild, pleasant flavor. (wikipedia.org)
  • amino acids
  • mDECR is 124kD consisting of 335 amino acids before posttranslational modification. (wikipedia.org)
  • Consistent with this, it has been proposed that sulfhydryl groups of sulfur-containing amino acids can be oxidized a total of three times by three HClO molecules, with the fourth reacting with the α-amino group. (wikipedia.org)
  • Chlorinated amino acids rapidly decompose, but protein chloramines are longer-lived and retain some oxidative capacity. (wikipedia.org)
  • phytosterol
  • The method for manufacturing fatsoluble ester of phytosterol or phytostanol unsaturated fatty acid of claim 1, wherein the phytosterol is selected from the group consisting of stigmasterol, spinasterol, campesterol and sitosterol. (sumobrain.com)
  • The method for manufacturing fatsoluble ester of phytosterol or phytostanol unsaturated fatty acid of claim 1, wherein the phytostanol is sitostanol or campestanol. (sumobrain.com)
  • The method for manufacturing fatsoluble ester of phytosterol or phytostanol unsaturated fatty acid of claim 1, wherein the nonpolar solvent is selected from the group consisting of toluene, methylenechloride, dichloroethane, tetrahydrofuran, benzene and diethylether. (sumobrain.com)
  • The method for manufacturing fatsoluble ester of phytosterol or phytostanol unsaturated fatty acid of claim 1, wherein the esterification is carried out by employing phytosterol or phytostanol and unsaturated fatty acid in a molar ratio of 1: 1 to 1: 3. (sumobrain.com)
  • The method for manufacturing fatsoluble ester of phytosterol or phytostanol unsaturated fatty acid of claim 1, wherein the precipitation is carried out at the temperature of4 to 6C for 1 to 30 hrs. (sumobrain.com)
  • enzymes
  • The diagrams presented show how fatty acids are synthesized in microorganisms and list the enzymes found in Escherichia coli. (wikipedia.org)
  • These reactions are performed by fatty acid synthase II (FASII), which in general contain multiple enzymes that act as one complex. (wikipedia.org)
  • cardiovascular disease
  • Evidence in the population generally does not support a beneficial role for omega−3 fatty acid supplementation in preventing cardiovascular disease (including myocardial infarction and sudden cardiac death) or stroke. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, omega−3 fatty acid supplementation greater than one gram daily for at least a year may be protective against cardiac death, sudden death, and myocardial infarction in people who have a history of cardiovascular disease. (wikipedia.org)