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  • gene
  • Fatty acids (FAs) serve many important physiological functions including energy reserves, structural components of cell membranes, precursors of eicosanoids, and regulators of gene expression. (hindawi.com)
  • intake
  • Association of intake of trans fatty acids in the 2nd trimester of pregnancy with risk of preeclampsia was studied by following 67 186 pregnancies of women participating in the Danish National Birth Cohort between 1998 and 2003. (dtu.dk)
  • disease
  • Probiotics have been proposed as a treatment option for patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis because of their balancing role on the flora of the gut that may act as a potential source of hepatotoxic oxidative injury. (cochrane.org)
  • This review did not identify any randomised clinical trials with probiotics in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis. (cochrane.org)
  • Even if the results from pilot studies seem promising, randomised clinical trials are necessary to asses the clinical implication of probiotics therapy in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis. (cochrane.org)
  • The lack of randomised clinical trials makes it impossible to support or refute probiotics for patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis. (cochrane.org)
  • Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease comprises a spectrum of diseases ranging from simple steatosis to non-alcoholic steatohepatitis, fibrosis, and cirrhosis. (cochrane.org)
  • To evaluate the beneficial and harmful effects of probiotics for non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and/or steatohepatitis. (cochrane.org)
  • Randomised clinical trials evaluating probiotic treatment in any dose, duration, and route of administration versus no intervention , placebo , or other interventions in patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. (cochrane.org)
  • Lirussi F, Mastropasqua E, Orando S, Orlando R. Probiotics for non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and/or steatohepatitis. (cochrane.org)
  • role
  • The objective of this research was to study whether this enzyme has a role in reducing the fatty acid levels in the soybean genotypes A5 and A23. (springer.com)
  • citric acid
  • When compared to other macronutrient classes (carbohydrates and protein), fatty acids yield the most ATP on an energy per gram basis, when they are completely oxidized to CO2 and water by beta oxidation and the citric acid cycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • Beta oxidation, in the mitochondrial matrix, then cuts the long carbon chains of the fatty acids (in the form of acyl-CoA molecules) into a series of two-carbon (acetate) units, which, combined with co-enzyme A, form molecules of acetyl CoA, which condense with oxaloacetate to form citrate at the "beginning" of the citric acid cycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • The fatty acids are broken down into smaller molecules that can enter the citric acid cycle for the synthesis of ATP by oxidative phosphorylation. (britannica.com)
  • To obtain cytosolic acetyl-CoA, citrate (produced by the condensation of acetyl CoA with oxaloacetate) is removed from the citric acid cycle and carried across the inner mitochondrial membrane into the cytosol. (wikipedia.org)
  • Fatty acid degradation is the process in which fatty acids are broken down into their metabolites, in the end generating acetyl-CoA, the entry molecule for the citric acid cycle, the main energy supply of animals. (wikipedia.org)
  • Once inside the mitochondria, the β-oxidation of fatty acids occurs via five recurring steps: Activation by ATP Oxidation by FAD, Hydration, Oxidation by NAD+, Thiolysis, The final product is acetyl-CoA, the entry molecule for the citric acid cycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • mitochondria
  • In addition, fatty acids are important components of the phospholipids that form the phospholipid bilayers out of which all the membranes of the cell are constructed (the cell wall, and the membranes that enclose all the organelles within the cells, such as the nucleus, the mitochondria, endoplasmic reticulum, and the Golgi apparatus). (wikipedia.org)
  • It includes three major steps: Lipolysis of and release from adipose tissue Activation and transport into mitochondria β-oxidation Initially in the process of degradation, fatty acids are stored in fat cells (adipocytes). (wikipedia.org)
  • Fatty acids must be activated before they can be carried into the mitochondria, where fatty acid oxidation occurs. (wikipedia.org)
  • Thus the net reaction becomes: RCOO− + CoA + ATP + H2O → RCO-CoA + AMP + 2Pi + 2H+ The inner mitochondrial membrane is impermeable to fatty acids and a specialized carnitine carrier system operates to transport activated fatty acids from cytosol to mitochondria. (wikipedia.org)
  • 3.finally, the electron transport chain in the mitochondria.though in this step, no direct participation of fatty acids, the reaction continues. (wikipedia.org)
  • metabolism
  • One role of fatty acids in animal metabolism is energy production, captured in the form of adenosine triphosphate (ATP). (wikipedia.org)
  • Individuals with a fatty-acid metabolism disorder are unable to metabolize this fat source for energy, halting bodily processes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Most individuals with a fatty-acid metabolism disorder are able to live a normal active life with simple adjustments to diet and medications. (wikipedia.org)
  • When in need of glucose the body of a person with a fatty-acid metabolism disorder will still send fats to the liver. (wikipedia.org)
  • Fatty-acid metabolism disorders are sometimes classified with the lipid metabolism disorders, but in other contexts they are considered a distinct category. (wikipedia.org)
  • Incomplete list of various fatty-acid metabolism disorders. (wikipedia.org)
  • Extreme sleepiness Behavior changes Irritable mood Poor appetite Fever Nausea Diarrhea Vomiting Hypoglycemia Enlarged heart Muscle weakness Heart failure Fatty-acid metabolism disorders result when both parents of the diagnosed subject are carriers of a defective gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • Diagnosis of Fatty-acid metabolism disorder requires extensive lab testing. (wikipedia.org)
  • The primary treatment method for fatty-acid metabolism disorders is dietary modification. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is only useful for Specific fatty-acid metabolism disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • synthesize
  • Animals are not able to synthesize furan fatty acids. (wikipedia.org)
  • Yeast FAS has a highly efficient rigid barrel-like structure with 6 reaction chambers which synthesize fatty acids independently, while the mammalian FAS has an open flexible structure with only two reaction chambers. (wikipedia.org)
  • Δ9 desaturase, also known as stearoyl-CoA desaturase-1, is used to synthesize oleic acid, a monounsaturated, ubiquitous component of all cells in the human body. (wikipedia.org)
  • methyl
  • Upon the exposure to light, the aroma 3-methyl-2,4-nonanedione (MND) is formed from furan fatty acids in the reaction with singlet oxygen, which has a hay-like odor and is found, for example, in green tea. (wikipedia.org)
  • transesterification
  • The products are produced either by direct esterification of propylene glycol with fatty acids or by transesterification of propylene glycol with oils or fats. (fao.org)
  • Instead, it was formed during the sample preparation used by Morries and colleagues for the argentation chromatography by oxidation of hydroxyfatty acids, in a base-catalyzed transesterification. (wikipedia.org)
  • fats
  • Study finds that the current level of evidence does not clearly support guidelines restricting saturated fatty acid consumption to reduce coronary risk nor does it support high consumption of polyunsaturated fats - such as omega 3 or omega 6 - to reduce coronary heart disease. (cam.ac.uk)
  • saturated, monounsaturated, polyunsaturated fatty acids or fats. (greenfacts.org)
  • Fatty acids are the organic building blocks (small molecules that link together to form long chains) of fats which are used by the body for energy and tissue development. (greenfacts.org)
  • Saturated fatty acids are often found in animal fats and, eaten in high quantities, can raise cholesterol levels. (greenfacts.org)
  • The fats are broken down to fatty acids. (wikipedia.org)
  • alpha-lino
  • It is ingested from oily fish, and algae oil or derived from dietary alpha-linolenic acid found in, for instance, walnuts, hemp oil and flax oil. (wikipedia.org)
  • double bonds
  • Polyunsaturated fatty acids can be classified in various groups by their chemical structure: methylene-interrupted polyenes conjugated fatty acids other PUFAs These fatty acids have 2 or more cis double bonds that are separated from each other by a single methylene bridge (-CH 2- unit). (wikipedia.org)
  • Conjugated fatty acids are polyunsaturated fatty acids in which at least one pair of double bonds are separated by only one single bond. (wikipedia.org)
  • ethanol
  • We tend to autoclave the media first, let it cool, add the detergent, then deliver the proper amount of fatty acid in ethanol. (bio.net)
  • phospholipids
  • The plasma membranes of cells contain phospholipids, which are composed of a hydrophilic phosphate head and two hydrophobic fatty acid tails. (wikipedia.org)
  • Phospholipids can be saponified, which releases the fatty acids contained in their diglyceride tail. (wikipedia.org)
  • As the phospholipids of different groups of bacteria and fungi contain a variety of somewhat unusual fatty acids, they can serve as useful biomarkers for such groups. (wikipedia.org)
  • PLFA profiles and composition can be determined by purifying the phospholipids and then cleaving the fatty acids for further analysis. (wikipedia.org)
  • aliphatic
  • Any aliphatic monocarboxylic acid derived from or contained in esterified form in an animal or vegetable fat, oil or wax. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Dietary
  • While we are consuming levels of TFAs well below the WHO recommendation, we are still exceeding the recommendations in the Australian Dietary Guidelines and the New Zealand Food and Nutrition Guidelines that saturated and trans fatty acids combined contribute no more than 10 per cent of our daily energy intake. (foodstandards.gov.au)
  • reaction
  • The next step is formation of an activated thioester bond between the fatty acyl chain and Coenzyme A. The balanced equation for the above is: RCOO− + CoA + ATP → RCO-CoA + AMP + PPi + 2H+ This two-step reaction is freely reversible and its equilibrium lies near 1. (wikipedia.org)
  • carnitine
  • Examples include: trifunctional protein deficiency MCADD, LCHADD, and VLCADD The fatty acids are transported by carnitine, and defects in this process are associated with several disorders. (wikipedia.org)
  • reactive
  • These acids are highly reactive but the cyclopropene ring is destroyed during refining and hydrogenation of the oils. (wikipedia.org)
  • molecular
  • Substrate recognition and molecular mechanism of fatty acid hydroxylation by cytochrome P450 from Bacillus subtilis. (wikipedia.org)
  • C3H5 CO2H, IUPAC organization name (E)-but-2-enoic acid, trans -but-2-enoic acid, numerical representation 4: 1, n-1, molecular weight 86.09, melting point 72-74 °C, boiling point 180-181 °C, specific gravity 1.027. (wikipedia.org)
  • C13H25CO2H, IUPAC organization name (Z)-tetradec-9-enoic acid, numerical representation 14:1, n-5, molecular weight 226.36, melting point of -4.5 -4 °C. CAS Registry Number 544-64-9. (wikipedia.org)
  • C15H29CO2H, IUPAC organization name (Z)-hexadec-9-enoic acid, n-7, numerical representation of 16: 1, molecular weight 254.41, melting point 5 °C, specific gravity 0.894. (wikipedia.org)
  • C17H33CO2H, IUPAC organization name (Z)-octadec-9-enoic acid, numerical representation 18:1 (9), n-9, molecular weight 282.46, melting point 13.4 °C, specific gravity 0.891. (wikipedia.org)
  • C17H33CO2H, IUPAC organization name (E)-octadec-9-enoic acid, numerical representation 18:1 (9), n-9, molecular weight 282.46, melting point 43-45 °C. CAS Registry Number 112-79-8. (wikipedia.org)
  • C19H37CO2H, IUPAC organization name (Z)-icos-9-enoic acid, numerical representation 20:1 (9), n-11, molecular weight 310.51. (wikipedia.org)
  • C21H41CO2H, IUPAC organization name (Z)-docos-13-enoic acid, numerical representation 22:1, n-9, molecular weight 338.57, melting point 33-35 °C. CAS Registry Number 112-86-7. (wikipedia.org)
  • C23H45CO2H, IUPAC organization name (Z)-tetracos-15-enoic acid, numerical representation 24:1, n-9, molecular weight 366.62, melting point 42-43 °C. CAS Registry Number 506-37-6. (wikipedia.org)
  • pathway
  • NADPH is also formed by the pentose phosphate pathway which converts glucose into ribose, which can be used in synthesis of nucleotides and nucleic acids, or it can be catabolized to pyruvate. (wikipedia.org)
  • Citric Acid
  • For example, the set of carboxylic acids that are best known as the intermediates in the citric acid cycle are present in all known organisms, being found in species as diverse as the unicellular bacterium Escherichia coli and huge multicellular organisms like elephants. (wikipedia.org)
  • PGG2
  • The absence of endoperoxide-containing products derived from 10,10-difluoroarachidonic acid has been thought to indicate the importance of a C-10 carbocation in PGG2 synthesis. (wikipedia.org)
  • silica
  • Polyvinyl chloride development Polyethylene terephthalate development Neoprene, the world's first synthetic rubbers Dacron polyester Polyethylene terephthalate fibers Teflon Polytetrafluoroethylene dispersions 2,4-d 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid herbicides Sulfonylurea herbicides and preemergent herbicides Ludox colloidal silica Vazo free radical initiators The Bunker (building number not recorded) Though it is not shown on the map, there was an underground bunker between buildings 228 and 262. (wikipedia.org)
  • high
  • Aluminium - color (silver) Aluminium ammonium sulfate - mineral salt Aluminium potassium sulfate - mineral salt Aluminium silicate - anti-caking agent Aluminium sodium sulfate - mineral salt Aluminium sulfate - mineral salt Amaranth - color (red) (FDA: [DELISTED] Red #2) Note that amaranth dye is unrelated to the amaranth plant Amaranth oil - high in squalene and unsaturated fatty acids - used in food and cosmetic industries. (wikipedia.org)
  • example
  • Metabolism is usually divided into two categories: catabolism, the breaking down of organic matter for example, the breaking down of glucose to pyruvate, by cellular respiration, and anabolism, the building up of components of cells such as proteins and nucleic acids. (wikipedia.org)
  • fuel
  • The three main purposes of metabolism are the conversion of food/fuel to energy to run cellular processes, the conversion of food/fuel to building blocks for proteins, lipids, nucleic acids, and some carbohydrates, and the elimination of nitrogenous wastes. (wikipedia.org)
  • food
  • includes acid and base Baking soda - food base Balm, lemon - Balm oil[disambiguation needed]- Balsam of Peru - used in food and drink for flavoring Barberry - Barley flour - Basil (Ocimum basilicum) - Basil extract - Bay leaves - Beeswax - glazing agent Beet red - color (red) Beetroot red - color (red) Ben oil - extracted from the seeds of the moringa oleifera. (wikipedia.org)