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  • FasL
  • A fail-safe mechanism for negative selection of isotype-switched B cell precursors is regulated by the Fas/FasL pathway. (nih.gov)
  • These isotype-switched B cells are negatively selected by Fas pathway, as blocking the Fas/FasL interaction rescues the development of isotype-switched B cells in vivo and in vitro. (nih.gov)
  • This developmental pathway, however, is strictly controlled by Fas/FasL interaction to prevent B cell autoimmunity. (nih.gov)
  • Blocking the Fas/FasL interaction in vivo rescues isotype-switched B cells in μMT mice. (nih.gov)
  • To test whether blocking the Fas/FasL interaction in vivo would rescue isotype-switched B cell precursors, PLGA microcapsules containing recombinant FasIg were injected into μMT mice. (nih.gov)
  • Fasl
  • Death receptor ligands (FasL, TRAIL) activate apoptosis in cells expressing the cognate receptors. (biomedsearch.com)
  • In the tumor microenvironment, "Fas counterattack" mounted by tumors against immune cells is mediated by tumor-associated FasL. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Lack of association between gene polymorphisms of Angiotensin converting enzyme, Nod-like receptor 1, Toll-like receptor 4, FAS/FASL and the presence of Helicobacter pylori-induced premalignant gastric lesions and gastric cancer in Caucasians. (biomedsearch.com)
  • The aim of our study was to evaluate potential associations between the presence of gastric cancer (GC) and high risk atrophic gastritis (HRAG) and polymorphisms of genes encoding Angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE), Nod-like receptor 1 (NOD1), Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) and FAS/FASL. (biomedsearch.com)
  • CONCLUSIONS: ACE, NOD1, TRL4 and FAS/FASL gene polymorphisms are not linked with gastric carcinogenesis in Caucasians, and therefore they should not be considered as potential biomarkers for identifying individuals with higher risk for GC. (biomedsearch.com)
  • and (2) subsequently contacting the cell surface with a composition comprising a second member of the binding pair selected from the group consisting of avidin or streptavidin linked to a death ligand selected from the group consisting of Fas ligand (FasL), and the extracellular portion of Fas ligand to form a decorated cell surface, wherein the decorated cell surface is capable of inducing apoptosis. (google.com)
  • 5. The method of claim 1 , wherein said death ligand is FasL. (google.com)
  • Tumor necrosis factor (TNF) and Fas ligand (FasL) play major roles in the homeostasis of the peripheral immune system. (nih.gov)
  • Furthermore, interruption of the Fas-FasL interaction allows the regeneration of viral-specific CTL responses in pJ5-infected animals. (nih.gov)
  • The results for PBMC and CEM are equivalent, and demonstrate that pJ5-infected but not pC8- infected cells induce killing of Jurkat cells which is abrogated by Fas-Fc fusion protein, implying upregulation of FasL in the pJ5-infected cells. (nih.gov)
  • When this method is used to deliver the Fas ligand (FasL) gene, some tumor cells are highly susceptible to its death-promoting effects, while others are resistant. (akcchf.org)
  • The images show two osteosarcoma cell lines, OSCA-2 and OSCA-36, infected with a control adenovirus encoding a green fluorescent protein (Ad-GFP) gene or the therapeutic adenovirus encoding the FasL gene (Ad-FasL). (akcchf.org)
  • In this pathway, a Fas ligand (FasL) on the CTL binds to Fas receptor (FasR) on the target cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • Fas ligand (FasL or CD95L) is a type-II transmembrane protein that belongs to the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) family. (wikipedia.org)
  • Fas ligand or FasL is a homotrimeric type II transmembrane protein expressed on cytotoxic T lymphocytes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Soluble Fas ligand is generated by cleaving membrane-bound FasL at a conserved cleavage site by the external matrix metalloproteinase MMP-7. (wikipedia.org)
  • DcR3 is a soluble receptor that has no signal transduction capabilities (hence a "decoy") and functions to prevent FasR-FasL interactions by competitively binding to membrane-bound Fas ligand and rendering them inactive. (wikipedia.org)
  • A typical example is FasR, which forms the DISC upon trimerization as a result of its ligand (FasL) binding. (wikipedia.org)
  • The encoded protein is postulated to play a regulatory role in suppressing FasL- and LIGHT-mediated cell death and T cell activation as well as to induce angiogenesis via neutralization of TL1A. (wikipedia.org)
  • FOXO1 upregulate Fas ligand (FasL) transcriptionally that result in promotes apoptotic cell death. (wikipedia.org)
  • CD95
  • Upon binding, the CAP proteins and procaspase-8 (composed of FLICE, MACH, and Mch5) bind to CD95 through death domain and death effector domain interactions. (wikipedia.org)
  • Gene
  • Methods and compositions are provided for the persistent modification of cell membranes with exogenous proteins so as to alter the function of the cell to achieve effects similar to those of gene therapy, without the introduction of exogenous DNA. (google.com)
  • In gene therapy as it is generally termed, specific DNA is introduced into a tissue and organ, where it is produces various proteins that will correct or ameliorate the condition. (google.com)
  • FASLG (Fas Ligand) is a Protein Coding gene. (genecards.org)
  • This trial, supported through grants from the National Cancer Institute of the National Institutes of Health and the AKC Canine Health Foundation, was meant to define the safety, efficacy, and mechanisms of Fasaret®, a formulation for the Fas ligand gene expressed in a viral vector and produced by ApopLogic Pharmaceuticals, Inc. (akcchf.org)
  • Sorting nexin-18 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SNX18 gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • Early growth response protein 3 is a protein in humans, encoded by the EGR3 gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • The gene encodes a transcriptional regulator that belongs to the EGR family of C2H2-type zinc-finger proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • The protein encoded by this gene participates in the transcriptional regulation of genes in controlling biological rhythm. (wikipedia.org)
  • When the Krox20 is deleted in mice, the protein coding ability of the Krox20 gene (including the DNA-binding domain of the zinc finger) is diminished. (wikipedia.org)
  • Amyloid beta A4 precursor protein-binding family B member 1-interacting protein (APBB1IP), also known as APBB1-interacting protein 1 or Rap1-GTP-interacting adapter molecule (RIAM) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the APBB1IP gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • Optineurin is a protein that in humans is encoded by the OPTN gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • This gene encodes the coiled-coil containing protein optineurin. (wikipedia.org)
  • FAS-associated factor 1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the FAF1 gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • Initiation of apoptosis by the protein encoded by this gene requires a ubiquitin-like domain but not the FAS-binding domain. (wikipedia.org)
  • Forkhead box protein O1 (FOXO1) also known as forkhead in rhabdomyosarcoma is a protein that in humans is encoded by the FOXO1 gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • Tumour growth can occur by a combination of factors, including a mutation in a cell cycle gene which removes the restraints on cell growth, combined with mutations in apoptopic proteins such as Caspases that would respond by inducing cell death in abnormally growing cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Antigens
  • Cytotoxic T-cell activity: Fas-induced apoptosis and the perforin pathway are the two main mechanisms by which cytotoxic T lymphocytes induce cell death in cells expressing foreign antigens. (wikipedia.org)
  • The vast majority of T cells express alpha-beta TCRs (αβ T cells), but some T cells in epithelial tissues (like the gut) express gamma-delta TCRs (γδ T cells), which recognize non-protein antigens. (wikipedia.org)
  • CD95L
  • Evasion of cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) responses by nef-dependent induction of Fas ligand (CD95L) expression on simian immunodeficiency virus-infected cells. (nih.gov)
  • The entire process is initiated when the cell registers the presence of CD95L, the cognate ligand for APO-1. (wikipedia.org)
  • induce
  • Low doses of ionizing radiation (LDR) are reported to induce transient changes in mouse lymphocytes, such as enhanced response to polyclonal T cell mitogens, increased expression of heat shock proteins, and p53. (biomedsearch.com)
  • antibody
  • In vivo studies showed that in contrast to wild-type mice, AhR knockout mice are protected from the lethal effects of the anti-Fas Jo2 antibody. (biomedsearch.com)
  • This event is also mimicked by binding of an agonistic Fas antibody, though some evidence suggests that the apoptotic signal induced by the antibody is unreliable in the study of Fas signaling. (wikipedia.org)
  • viral
  • In contrast, pJ5-infected macaques had little, if any, detectable CTL response to the viral proteins after three months. (nih.gov)
  • mice
  • Reintroduction of the AhR into the AhR-negative BP8 hepatoma cells as well as into primary hepatocytes from AhR knockout mice increases the magnitude of cell death in response to Fas ligand. (biomedsearch.com)
  • We evaluated the role of cell cycle proteins and apoptosis in lymphocytes of C57BL/6 mice exposed to 20 cGy fractionated LDR. (biomedsearch.com)
  • The results demonstrated that FXR was downregulated at the mRNA and protein level in the liver specimens of mice induced with ConA‑induced hepatitis. (nih.gov)
  • Genes
  • The expression levels of apoptosis‑associated genes and proteins were determined by reverse transcription‑quantitative polymerase chain reaction and western blotting, respectively. (nih.gov)
  • This highly-variable genetic rearrangement product in the TCR genes helps create millions of different T cells with different TCRs, helping the body's immune system respond to virtually any protein of an invader. (wikipedia.org)
  • vitro
  • 2. The method of claim 1 , wherein (2) subsequently contacting the cell surface with a composition comprising a second member of the binding pair linked to a death ligand, occurs in vitro. (google.com)
  • peptide
  • Several trials are ongoing in MS after success in EAE, including altered peptide ligands of myelin, DNA vaccines and statins. (jove.com)
  • cells
  • Fas ligand is a protein that is normally made by cells of the immune system. (akcchf.org)
  • It is the prototypical member of a family of proteins that promote "programmed death" (also called programmed suicide or apoptosis) of unwanted cells. (akcchf.org)
  • These cells are dubbed Type 1 cells and are characterized by the inability of anti-apoptotic members of the Bcl-2 family (namely Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL) to protect from Fas-mediated apoptosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Its functions include: T-cell homeostasis: the activation of T-cells leads to their expression of the Fas ligand. (wikipedia.org)
  • T cells are initially resistant to Fas-mediated apoptosis during clonal expansion, but become progressively more sensitive the longer they are activated, ultimately resulting in activation-induced cell death (AICD). (wikipedia.org)
  • Hematopoietic stem cells in the bone marrow migrate into the thymus, where they undergo VDJ recombination of their beta-chain TCR DNA to form a developmental form of the TCR protein, known as pre-TCR. (wikipedia.org)
  • expression
  • There was no change in the expression of Fas and Fas ligand. (biomedsearch.com)
  • B) The protein expression of FXR in ConA-induced hepatitis and normal controls was detected by western blotting. (nih.gov)
  • D) The protein expression of FXR in CDCA-treated hepatitis and normal controls was detected by western blotting. (nih.gov)
  • Western blots and immunohistochemical staining were used to assess the fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (CSPGs) proteins expression. (cognizantcommunication.com)
  • The structural and functional recovery after MSCs + EA treatment may be due to downregulated GFAP and CSPGs protein expression, which prevented axonal degeneration as well as improved axonal regeneration. (cognizantcommunication.com)
  • transcription factor
  • The early growth response protein 2 is a transcription factor with three tandem C2H2-type zinc fingers. (wikipedia.org)
  • Optineurin may also function in cellular morphogenesis and membrane trafficking, vesicle trafficking, and transcription activation through its interactions with the RAB8, huntingtin, and transcription factor IIIA proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • kinase
  • 18.Shu-Lan Qiu, Zhi-Cheng Xiao, Chun-Mei Piao, Ying-Lin Xian, Li-Xin Jia, Young-Fen Qi, Jiahuai Han, You-Yi Zhang, Jie Du: AMP-Activated Protein Kinase α2 Protects Against Liver Injury from Metastasized Tumors via Reduced Glucose Deprivation-Induced Oxidative Stress. (54doctor.net)
  • S-allyl cysteine attenuates free fatty acid-induced lipogenesis in human HepG2 cells through activation of the AMP-activated protein kinase-dependent pathway. (labome.org)
  • Neph-Nephrin proteins bind the Par3-Par6-atypical protein kinase C (aPKC) complex to regulate podocyte cell polarity. (uni-koeln.de)
  • 10(-8)), a CpG site located in protein kinase C zeta (PRKCZ), a gene previously shown to be entrained by light. (jove.com)
  • In response to interferon, cells produce large amounts of an enzyme known as protein kinase R (PKR). (wikipedia.org)
  • tumor
  • Interferons (IFNs) are a group of signaling proteins made and released by host cells in response to the presence of several pathogens, such as viruses, bacteria, parasites, and also tumor cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • As a member of the death-associated protein (DAP) family, DAP3 can also be found outside of the mitochondria to initiate the extrinsic apoptotic pathway through its interactions with apoptotic factors, such as tumor necrosis factor-alpha, Fas ligand, and gamma interferon. (wikipedia.org)
  • bind
  • The result of this sequential cascade is to bind ubiquitin to lysine residues on the protein substrate via an isopeptide bond, cysteine residues through a thioester bond, serine and threonine residues through an ester bond, or the amino group of the protein's N-terminus via a peptide bond. (wikipedia.org)
  • Integrins bind to extra-cellular proteins via short amino acid sequences, such as the RGD motif (found in proteins such as fibronectin, laminin, or vitronectin), or the DGEA and GFOGER motifs found in collagen. (wikipedia.org)
  • cytokines
  • These data are similar to an airway hypersensitivity model showing similar IL-5 secretion, but reduced IL-4 secretion in response to sensitization with Ova protein, indicating a defect in Th2 cytokine secretion, but not a defect in Th1 differentiation as both IL-4 and IL-5 are Th2-associated cytokines. (wikipedia.org)
  • molecule
  • The protein encoded by this gene is a death domain containing adaptor molecule that interacts with TNFRSF1A/TNFR1 and mediates programmed cell death signaling and NF-κB activation. (wikipedia.org)
  • The first ubiquitin molecule is covalently bound through its C-terminal carboxylate group to a particular lysine, cysteine, serine, threonine or N-terminus of the target protein. (wikipedia.org)
  • Crystal structures of the enterotoxins reveals that they are compact, ellipsoidal proteins sharing a characteristic two-domain folding pattern comprising an NH2-terminal β barrel globular domain known as the oligosaccharide / oligonucleotide fold, a long α-helix that diagonally spans the center of the molecule, and a COOH terminal globular domain. (wikipedia.org)
  • membrane
  • Cisplatin can enhance some solid tumors or leukaemic cell surface expression of Fas [ 9 - 11 ] via the activation of the acid sphingomyelinase (aSMase) and the generation of ceramide at the plasma membrane. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Expression of this protein is restricted to hematopoietic cells where its movement from the cytosol to the plasma membrane is mediated by tyrosine phosphorylation. (wikipedia.org)
  • domain
  • Both the cyclooxygenase and the peroxidase active sites are located in the catalytic domain, which accounts for approximately 80% of the protein. (wikipedia.org)
  • MDS1 and EVI1 complex locus protein EVI1 (MECOM) also known as ecotropic virus integration site 1 protein homolog (EVI-1) or positive regulatory domain zinc finger protein 3 (PRDM3) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the MECOM gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • The MECOM protein contains 2 domains characterized by 7 zinc finger motifs followed by a proline-rich transcription repression domain, 3 more zinc finger motifs and an acidic C-terminus. (wikipedia.org)
  • When the Krox20 is deleted in mice, the protein coding ability of the Krox20 gene (including the DNA-binding domain of the zinc finger) is diminished. (wikipedia.org)
  • enzyme
  • Quaternary descriptions of enzyme function have been useful in studying regulatory proteins-most notably hemoglobin, widely considered the poster child of protein allosteric theory. (rupress.org)
  • MoaD, which is involved in molybdenum cofactor biosynthesis, interacts with MoeB, which acts like an E1 ubiquitin-activating enzyme for MoaD, strengthening the link between these prokaryotic proteins and the ubiquitin system. (wikipedia.org)
  • putative
  • Moreover, cyclic AMP (cAMP) response element-binding protein (CREB) as a putative target of miR-134 was downregulated and upregulated by miR-134 overexpression or inhibition, respectively. (jove.com)
  • regulatory
  • Ubiquitin is a small (8.5 kDa) regulatory protein found in most tissues of eukaryotic organisms i.e. it occurs ubiquitously. (wikipedia.org)
  • mitochondrial
  • DAP3 is a 28S subunit protein of mitoribosomes and localizes to the mitochondrial matrix. (wikipedia.org)
  • As part of the mitoribosome, DAP3 participates in the translation of the 13 ETC complex proteins encoded in the mitochondrial genome, and consequently, in the regulation of cellular respiration. (wikipedia.org)
  • motifs
  • During her crystallographic studies, Jane Richardson had come to realize that a general classification scheme can be developed from the recurring structural motifs of the proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Richardson Laboratory currently studies structural motifs in RNA as well as proteins, as part of the RNA Ontology Consortium (ROC), acted as assessors in the CASP8 structure-prediction experiment (CASP), is one of the four developer teams on the PHENIX software system for x-ray crystallography of macromolecules, and hosts the MolProbity web service for validation and accuracy improvement of protein and RNA crystal structures. (wikipedia.org)
  • interactions
  • Ubiquitination affects proteins in many ways: it can mark them for degradation via the proteasome, alter their cellular location, affect their activity, and promote or prevent protein interactions. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the 1990s they developed the kinemage system of molecular graphics and David wrote the Mage program to display them on small computers, for the then-new journal Protein Science, and they developed all-atom contact analysis (see image) to measure "goodness of fit" inside proteins and in interactions with surrounding molecules. (wikipedia.org)
  • bound
  • The LBD also contains the activation function 2 (AF-2) whose action is dependent on the presence of bound ligand. (wikipedia.org)
  • flux
  • Focal adhesions are in a state of constant flux: proteins associate and disassociate with it continually as signals are transmitted to other parts of the cell, relating to anything from cell motility to cell cycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • found
  • A heat-stable polypeptide present in these extracts, ATP-dependent proteolysis factor 1 (APF-1), was found to become covalently attached to the model protein substrate lysozyme in an ATP- and Mg2+-dependent process. (wikipedia.org)
  • chemistry
  • The discovery that ubiquitin chains target proteins to the proteasome, which degrades and recycles proteins, was honored with the Nobel Prize in chemistry in 2004. (wikipedia.org)
  • These proteins also share sulfur chemistry with ubiquitin. (wikipedia.org)
  • Her iconic images first appeared in the review journal Advances in Protein Chemistry in 1981 (available in annotated form on-line at Anatax), an early hallmark publication in structural bioinformatics. (wikipedia.org)
  • cell
  • Inducible T-cell costimulator is an immune checkpoint protein that in humans is encoded by the ICOS gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • the phosphorylated eIF-2 forms an inactive complex with another protein, called eIF2B, to reduce protein synthesis within the cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • Focal adhesions are large, dynamic protein complexes through which the cytoskeleton of a cell connects to the ECM. (wikipedia.org)
  • Initially, small (0.25μm²) focal adhesions called focal complexes (FXs) are formed at the leading edge of the cell in lamellipodia: they consist of integrin, and some of the adapter proteins, such as talin, paxillin and tensin. (wikipedia.org)
  • domains
  • The N-terminal (A/B), DNA-binding (C), and ligand binding (E) domains are independently well folded and structurally stable while the hinge region (D) and optional C-terminal (F) domains may be conformationally flexible and disordered. (wikipedia.org)
  • function
  • Peter Agre, Nobel laureate and fellow Duke professor, said of the Richardsons' work: "Jane and David's work allowed us to reveal the form of proteins, and from there it was easier to understand their function. (wikipedia.org)