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  • alveolar
  • In Chapter 2, I describe the isolation of two luminal progenitor cell populations (Sca1+ and Sca1- luminal cells) and show that they are differentially primed in their gene expression towards ductal and alveolar cell fates, respectively. (ed.ac.uk)
  • In Chapter 3, I show that C/EBPβ is required for the appropriate specification of ductal and alveolar lineages, and in its absence, alveolar lineage priming is lost, and ductal lineage priming is up-regulated in both Sca1+ and Sca1- cells. (ed.ac.uk)
  • Lastly, in Chapter 4, I describe the genome-wide binding characteristics of C/EBPβ in Sca1+, Sca1- and P16.5 alveolar cells. (ed.ac.uk)
  • These experiments reveal that genome-wide C/EBPβ occupancy is correlated with alveolar cells fate, and that C/EBPβ target genes perform distinct cellular functions in alveolar cells (Sca1- cells and P16.5). (ed.ac.uk)
  • Furthermore, I show that Elf5 is directly regulated by C/EBPβ, and posit that direct regulation of Elf5 by C/EBPβ may be one mechanism through which C/EBPβ exerts its alveolar cell fate programming. (ed.ac.uk)
  • State-dependent inactivation of K+ currents in rat type II alveolar epithelial cells. (rupress.org)
  • Inactivation of K+ channels responsible for delayed rectification in rat type II alveolar epithelial cells was studied in Ringer, 160 mM K-Ringer, and 20 mM Ca-Ringer. (rupress.org)
  • Growth
  • They maintain impressive growth rates of up to 4 μm/s for several millimeters or centimeters, depending on the species, without ever dividing and are one of the fastest elongating cells in nature. (plantcell.org)
  • respectively
  • The actin cytoskeleton and focal adhesions were detected by staining of cells with rhodamine-phalloidin and antibodies to phosphotyrosine, respectively. (arvojournals.org)
  • important
  • The corneal epithelium plays an essential role in maintenance of corneal homeostasis, with the healing of corneal epithelial wounds being important for restoration of corneal transparency. (arvojournals.org)
  • protein
  • RNA is important to cells because it relays information encoded in DNA to tiny organs within the cell, called ribosomes, which produce protein according to. (reference.com)
  • Signal transduction is the process by which a chemical or physical signal is transmitted through a cell as a series of molecular events, most commonly protein phosphorylation catalysed by protein kinases, which ultimately results in a cellular response. (wikipedia.org)
  • The plasma membranes of cells contain combinations of glycosphingolipids and protein receptors organised in glycolipoprotein microdomains termed lipid rafts. (wikipedia.org)
  • Applying epithelial model cells - MDCK (Madin-Darby canine kidney), he investigated lipid transport, protein sorting and their role in polarizing cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • In next years, Simons continued to work on the role of lipid rafts, and more generally lipids, in cell polarization and protein sorting. (wikipedia.org)
  • Further evidence that MUC16 can protect tumor cells from the immune system is the discovery that the heavily glycosylated tandem repeat domain of MUC16 can bind to galectin-1 (an immunosuppressive protein). (wikipedia.org)
  • In mammals, the protein makes up about 96% of the red blood cells' dry content (by weight), and around 35% of the total content (including water). (wikipedia.org)
  • In 1851, German physiologist Otto Funke published a series of articles in which he described growing hemoglobin crystals by successively diluting red blood cells with a solvent such as pure water, alcohol or ether, followed by slow evaporation of the solvent from the resulting protein solution. (wikipedia.org)
  • Barrier
  • The cells join together to create a semi-permeable barrier that protects muscles, blood vessels and organs from dirt and other debris in the environment. (reference.com)
  • In response to physical, chemical or microbial perturbation of the epithelial barrier, these cells provide a valid defensive line by the expression of an array of soluble mediators with direct antimicrobial and/or chemotactic activities towards distinct immune cell populations and also towards cytokines and adhesion molecules that affect their functional activation. (els.net)
  • Since MUC16 is highly glycosylated it creates a hydrophilic environment that acts as a lubricating barrier against foreign particles and infectious agents on the apical membrane of epithelial cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • membranes
  • Epithelial cells are joined together by junctions, of which there are four types: Tight junctions or zona occludens are where the membranes of the adjacent cells become fused together. (google.com)
  • The membranes of the adjacent cells come very close, and the tiny gap between them is bridged by tiny tubular channels which form the pores between the cells through which substances can pass. (google.com)
  • As an MGH pathology resident, he co-authored research papers on intercellular junctions, cancer cell, and red cell membranes. (wikipedia.org)
  • He continued his research on normal cell membranes and cancer cell membranes and initiated research on animal models for urinary bladder cancer. (wikipedia.org)
  • Until 1982, it was widely accepted that phospholipids and membrane proteins were randomly distributed in cell membranes, according to the Singer-Nicolson fluid mosaic model, published in 1972. (wikipedia.org)
  • In his works from 1988, together with Gerit van Meer, Simons for the first time postulated the existence of lipid microdomains in cell membranes. (wikipedia.org)
  • cytokines
  • In particular, T‐cell‐derived cytokines have been identified as the most effective inducers of pro‐inflammatory signals in epithelial cells, in turn responsible for further recruitment and local activation of immune cells, leading to the eventual amplification of the inflammatory reaction. (els.net)
  • Dysregulated expression of cytokines and chemokines in skin keratinocytes leads to sustained skin infiltration and local activation of a variety of immune cell populations in chronic skin inflammatory disorders including atopic dermatitis. (els.net)
  • Epidermal keratinocytes respond to a variety of exogenous stimuli with the release of a plethora of cytokines, chemokines and antimicrobial peptides implicated in the attraction and local activation of immune cells, including polymorphonucleates (PMN), macrophages (Mφ), dendritic cells (DC) and T cells. (els.net)
  • membrane
  • The emphasis is on the analysis and assessment of epithelial cells, for example, by looking at apoptosis and integrins or by measuring membrane capacitance and confluence. (springer.com)
  • Terminal differentiation begins when basal cells withdraw from the cell cycle and lose their ability to adhere to the basement membrane zone. (els.net)
  • In cancer cells, EpCAM is expressed in a dispersed pattern across the cell membrane. (wikipedia.org)
  • It does this by expressing a very large proportion of its genome, and expressing as many 'self' proteins on its cell membrane as possible. (wikipedia.org)
  • Each typically has a cell membrane formed of phospholipids, cytoplasm and a nucleus. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although more common in plasma membrane, lipid rafts have also been reported in other parts of the cell, such as the Golgi apparatus and lysosomes. (wikipedia.org)
  • The extraction would take advantage of lipid raft resistance to non-ionic detergents, such as Triton X-100 or Brij-98 at low temperatures (e.g., 4 °C). When such a detergent is added to cells, the fluid membrane will dissolve while the lipid rafts may remain intact and could be extracted. (wikipedia.org)
  • pluripotent
  • Much of the effects of expanding these cells are unknown and scientists are continuing to study ways to cultivate these cells without changing their pluripotent properties. (wikipedia.org)
  • Some cells, however, will remain trapped in the interior and will become the inner cell mass (ICM), and are pluripotent. (wikipedia.org)
  • days post fertilization
  • Amniotic epithelial cells start to develop around 8 days post fertilization. (wikipedia.org)
  • A morula is distinct from a blastocyst in that a morula (3-4 days post fertilization) is a 16-cell mass in a spherical shape whereas a blastocyst (4-5 days post fertilization) has a cavity inside the zona pellucida along with an inner cell mass. (wikipedia.org)
  • tumors
  • One way that MUC16 helps the growth of tumors is by suppressing the response of natural killer cells, thereby protecting cancer cells from the immune response. (wikipedia.org)
  • Biology
  • Kai Simons (born 24 May 1938) is a Finnish professor of biochemistry and cell biology living and working in Germany. (wikipedia.org)
  • In years 1982-1998 Simons was a coordinator of the Cell Biology Programm there. (wikipedia.org)
  • He was one of the initiators of establishing and building Max Planck Institute of Molecular Cell Biology and Genetics in Dresden (Germany), where he moved. (wikipedia.org)
  • extracellular
  • Scientists have found that freezing amniotic epithelial cells causes them to not function as they normally would, which have scientists thinking that the extracellular matrix is the part of the cell that controls its functions. (wikipedia.org)
  • Upon cleavage, the extracellular domain (EpEX) is released into the area surrounding the cell, and the intracellular domain (EpICD) is released into the cytoplasm of the cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • The extracellular region of MUC16 can be released from the cell surface by undergoing proteolytic cleavage. (wikipedia.org)
  • mitosis
  • Initiation of the centrosome cycle occurs early in the cell cycle, so that by the time mitosis occurs there are two centrosomes. (wikipedia.org)
  • This cell line is used for a variety of application in biomedical research but is particularly popular as a model for mitosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • This makes these cells particularly suited to studying mitosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • ions
  • Gap junctions (also called nexuses) allow communication between cells, by enabling the passage of cell messenger molecules, some hormones, ions etc from one cell to another. (google.com)
  • A cavity forms inside the morula, by the active transport of sodium ions from trophoblast cells and osmosis of water. (wikipedia.org)
  • various
  • There have been several studies conducted on the potential benefits of using Amniotic epithelial cells in various parts of the body. (wikipedia.org)
  • Additionally, EpCAM has oncogenic potential via its capacity to upregulate c-myc, e-fabp, and cyclins A & E. Since EpCAM is expressed exclusively in epithelia and epithelial-derived neoplasms, EpCAM can be used as diagnostic marker for various cancers. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is considered that these cell rests proliferate to form epithelial lining of various odontogenic cysts such as radicular cyst under the influence of various stimuli. (wikipedia.org)
  • form
  • First, procentrioles begin to form near each preexisting centriole as the cell moves from the G1 phase to the S phase. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cycle
  • The centrosome cycle is important to ensure that daughter cells receive a centrosome after cell division. (wikipedia.org)
  • The centrosome cycle consists of four phases that are synchronized to cell cycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • One centriole originates from the mother cell and the other is replicated from the mother centriole during the cell cycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • During S and G2 phase of the cell cycle, the procentrioles elongate until they reach the length of the older mother and daughter centrioles(which takes on characteristics of a mother centriole). (wikipedia.org)
  • Cell Cycle Regulation of Centrosome Duplication Centrosome duplication is heavily regulated by cell cycle controls. (wikipedia.org)
  • This link between the cell cycle and the centrosome cycle is mediated by cyclin-dependent kinase 2 (Cdk2). (wikipedia.org)
  • mechanisms
  • Wide-ranging and highly practical, Epithelial Cell Culture Protocols offers both novices and expert investigators alike a step-by-step guide toward a deeper understanding of cellular and molecular mechanisms in general, as well as a set of robust techniques for specifically evaluating the nature and behavior of epithelial cells. (springer.com)
  • Patients with atopic dermatitis are more susceptible to cutaneous fungal, viral and bacterial pathogens because of an articulate defect in the innate immunity mechanisms of the epithelial cell. (els.net)
  • Epithelial cells possess a number of effective regulatory mechanisms to control intensity and duration of inflammatory events. (els.net)
  • types
  • Expression levels are substantially higher in small intestine, and in colon EpCAM is probably expressed at the highest levels among all epithelial cell types. (wikipedia.org)
  • EpCAM expression differs between different types of renal cell carcinomas, and EpCAM expression increases during development of androgen resistance in prostate cancer. (wikipedia.org)
  • body
  • Most epithelial cells also produce mucous as a means of protecting the body. (reference.com)
  • Epithelial cells organise the physical barriers of the body, the first defensive lines against environmental, physical, chemical and microbial insults. (els.net)
  • In response to any damage to the physical barriers of the body, epithelial cells display their nature of resident components of the immune system and provide a second defensive line by the release of a plethora of active mediators. (els.net)
  • This mixture is constantly produced by the cells of the vagina and cervix and it exits the body through the vaginal opening. (wikipedia.org)
  • role
  • Far from simply representing passive targets of environmental or immunological attack, epithelial cells play an active role in the generation and expression of protective immune responses. (els.net)
  • The epithelial cell rests of Malassez--a role in periodontal regeneration? (wikipedia.org)
  • zona
  • A morula (Latin, morus: mulberry) is an early stage embryo consisting of cells (called blastomeres) in a solid ball contained within the zona pellucida. (wikipedia.org)
  • resemble
  • Once the embryo has divided into 16 cells, it begins to resemble a mulberry, hence the name morula (Latin, morus: mulberry). (wikipedia.org)
  • Studies
  • However, some studies have shown that once these cells are duplicated in the lab, some of the pluripotentency is lost. (wikipedia.org)