Loading...
  • traits
  • In addition, Schnell extended the theory of selection for quantitative traits to multiple stages and developed models for assessing the influence of epistasis on heterosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • functional
  • Leaving aside terminological issues, there are several problems with the use of epistasis as a way to uncover the functional structure of a biological system, which should make us concerned. (cam.ac.uk)
  • variants
  • In an effort to better understand the mechanism of the illness we propose to analyze the genetic variation in a rare family heavily burdened by the disorder and then examine variants associated with those found in that family in a much larger set of unrelated people. (grantome.com)
  • Hypothesis: The investigators hypothesize that genetic variants will alter gene expression in response to ischemia during cardiopulmonary bypass. (bioportfolio.com)
  • variation
  • Extensive research is therefore being conducted worldwide to characterise genetic variation in normal and disease contexts. (wikipedia.org)
  • August Weismann picked up the thread in 1889, arguing that sex served to generate genetic variation, as detailed in the majority of the explanations below. (wikipedia.org)
  • Apart from work on genetic variation in environment-dependent developmental processes, his group is known for the generation of extensive genomic resources, such as the first haplotype map for a non-mammalian species. (wikipedia.org)
  • To further exploit and advance the understanding of genetic variation, Weigel and colleagues initiated the 1001 Genomes project for Arabidopsis thaliana. (wikipedia.org)
  • evolution
  • This re‐wiring of epistasis across cell types is likely to be a basic feature of genetic architecture, with important implications for understanding the evolution of multicellularity and human genetic diseases. (embopress.org)
  • This plasticity of epistasis across cell types has important implications for cancer therapy, genetic architecture and evolution. (embopress.org)
  • Mendelian
  • However, the details of how these relationships work are far from clear, even in the case of most Mendelian disorders where single genetic alterations are fully penetrant (essentially causative, rather than risk modifying). (wikipedia.org)
  • consequences
  • It is well established that the genetic alterations that drive cancer often interact epistatically, having greater or weaker consequences in combination than expected from their individual effects. (embopress.org)
  • abstract
  • This is fine in the abstract genetic world of phenotypes since, as those who grew up in metabolism know, when dealing with metabolic pathways, the reverse is true. (cam.ac.uk)
  • Synthetic
  • Biotechnology - new and sometimes controversial branch of biology that studies the manipulation of living matter, including genetic modification and synthetic biology. (wikipedia.org)
  • alterations
  • 3,000 tumors shows that co‐occurrence and mutual exclusivity between cancer driver alterations change extensively in different cancer types, thus indicating plasticity of epistasis across cell types. (embopress.org)
  • selection
  • Genetic correlations and responses to selection most often exemplify pleiotropy. (wikipedia.org)
  • Ignoring frequency-dependent selection, the genetic load L {\displaystyle L} may be calculated as: L = w max − w ¯ w max {\displaystyle L={{w_{\max }-{\bar {w}}} \over w_{\max }}} where w max {\displaystyle w_{\max }} is either some theoretical optimum, or the maximum fitness observed in the population. (wikipedia.org)
  • QLE greatly simplifies population genetic equations while making the assumption of weak selection and weak epistasis. (wikipedia.org)
  • effects
  • 2010 ). Regardless of preferred definitions, a common ground for describing epistasis covers an effect deviating from the combined individual effects of each genetic factor. (springeropen.com)
  • single
  • With the availability of genome-wide genotyping technologies, a large number of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) can be considered during epistasis detection (Heidema et al. (springeropen.com)
  • the loss of B in an A mutant, or the loss of A in a B mutant i.e the reaction of an established and adapted genetic system (the single mutant), one we know little about, to the loss of a gene. (cam.ac.uk)
  • fitness
  • Genetic load is the difference between the fitness of an average genotype in a population and the fitness of some reference genotype, which may be either the best present in a population, or may be the theoretically optimal genotype. (wikipedia.org)
  • Genetic load can also be seen as reduced fitness at the population level compared to what the population would have if all individuals had the reference high-fitness genotype. (wikipedia.org)
  • population
  • Overall, the findings indicate the detection of pure epistasis in the presence of genetic heterogeneity and provide an alternative explanation for the aetiology of T1D in the UK population. (springeropen.com)
  • The average individual taken from a population with a low genetic load will generally, when grown in the same conditions, have more surviving offspring. (wikipedia.org)
  • High genetic load may put a population in danger of extinction. (wikipedia.org)
  • One problem with calculating genetic load is that it is difficult to evaluate either the theoretically optimal genotype, or the maximally fit genotype actually present in the population. (wikipedia.org)
  • role
  • Initial genetic research excluded a role for the melanocortin 1 receptor and the Agouti locus as being the cause of the black dilution trait in dogs. (wikipedia.org)
  • INTERACTIONS
  • Developmental biologists suggest that complex interactions in genetic networks and communication among cells can lead to heritable variations that may underlie some of the mechanics in developmental plasticity and canalization. (wikipedia.org)
  • Additionally
  • RAD54 was initially described in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae as being a member of the evolutionarily conserved RAD52 epistasis group, which additionally includes RAD51, RAD52, RAD55, and RAD57 factors. (wikipedia.org)
  • trait
  • The mating design in plant breeding has two main objectives: (1) to obtain information and understand the genetic control of a trait or behavior that is observed, and (2) to get the base population for the development of plant cultivars. (wikipedia.org)
  • In addition to genetic sequences, one might attempt to track the changing of one character trait to another, such as fins turning to legs. (wikipedia.org)
  • Initial genetic research excluded a role for the melanocortin 1 receptor and the Agouti locus as being the cause of the black dilution trait in dogs. (wikipedia.org)
  • gene
  • The archaeological and genetic data suggest that long-term bidirectional gene flow between wild and domestic stocks - including donkeys, horses, New and Old World camelids, goats, sheep, and pigs - was common. (wikipedia.org)
  • Even if an organism is used to express the gene of interest, by mutagenising only that gene, the rest of the organism's genome remains the same and can be ignored for the evolution experiment (to the extent of providing a constant genetic environment). (wikipedia.org)
  • These states include the genetic sequence (ancestral sequence reconstruction), the amino acid sequence of a protein, the composition of a genome (e.g., gene order), a measurable characteristic of an organism (phenotype), and the geographic range of an ancestral population or species (ancestral range reconstruction). (wikipedia.org)
  • methods
  • Learning classifier systems, or LCS, are a paradigm of rule-based machine learning methods that combine a discovery component (e.g. typically a genetic algorithm) with a learning component (performing either supervised learning, reinforcement learning, or unsupervised learning). (wikipedia.org)
  • Osborn, T. C. Plant Ggenomes: Methods for Genetic and Physical Mapping. (wikipedia.org)
  • DATA
  • The flexible and data-corrected probability distribution allows W-test to give relatively accurate p-values under complex genetic architectures. (wikipedia.org)
  • background
  • Our results provide new insight into the genetic risk background of UC, confirming that there is a genetic risk component that differentiates from Crohn's Disease, the other major form of inflammatory bowel disease. (jove.com)
  • common
  • This is perhaps the most common way that genetic architecture is studied, and though it is useful for supplying pieces of information, it does not generally provide a complete picture of the genetic architecture as a whole. (wikipedia.org)
  • complex
  • Some researchers recognize that the interplay of various genetic mechanisms is incredibly complex, but believe that these mechanisms can be averaged and treated, more or less, like statistical noise. (wikipedia.org)
  • human
  • A study published in 2006 used phylogeny to compare the genetic architecture of differing human skin color. (wikipedia.org)
  • important
  • This leads to the assumption that other members of the RAD52 epistasis group, including RAD54, are also important in tumor development and suppression because of their homologous relationship. (wikipedia.org)
  • specific
  • Keeping in mind that LCS is a paradigm for genetic-based machine learning rather than a specific method, the following outlines key elements of a generic, modern (i.e. post-XCS) LCS algorithm. (wikipedia.org)