• mast cells
  • The recruited T-cells are typically of the Th2 variety and the cytokines they produce lead to further recruitment of mast cells and eosinophils, and in plasma cell isotype switching to IgE which will bind to the mast cell FcεRI receptors and prime the individual for further allergic responses. (wikipedia.org)
  • Eosinophils, along with basophils and mast cells, are important mediators of allergic responses and asthma pathogenesis and are associated with disease severity. (wikipedia.org)
  • chemokines
  • Clinical studies have demonstrated a link between the eosinophil-selective chemokines, eotaxins (eotaxin-1/CCL11 and eotaxin-2/CCL24), eosinophils, and the inflammatory bowel diseases, Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis (UC). (jimmunol.org)
  • This finding contributes to an understanding of CC chemokines in eosinophil biology and to the development of novel therapies for the treatment of eosinophilic disorders. (springer.com)
  • After maturation, eosinophils circulate in blood and migrate to inflammatory sites in tissues, or to sites of helminth infection in response to chemokines like CCL11 (eotaxin-1), CCL24 (eotaxin-2), CCL5 (RANTES), 5-hydroxyicosatetraenoic acid and 5-oxo-eicosatetraenoic acid, and certain leukotrienes like leukotriene B4 (LTB4) and MCP1/4. (wikipedia.org)
  • chloride
  • Other than its role in collagen IV production and its facultative use in eosinophils by the body, bromide is not known in other cases necessary for animal life, as its functions may generally be replaced (though in some cases not as well) by chloride. (wikipedia.org)
  • Inflammation
  • A feature of the inflammation in GI tissue biopsy specimens from patients with IBD, particularly UC, is elevated levels of eosinophils ( 2 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • In these mice, the response to SEA, OVA, and CRA showed impaired Th2 cytokine production that was associated with aberrant type 2 inflammation displaying a 50 to 80% reduction in eosinophils. (rupress.org)
  • For instance, patients with eosinophilic asthma have high levels of eosinophils that lead to inflammation and tissue damage, making it more difficult for patients to breathe. (wikipedia.org)
  • eosinophilic
  • These data demonstrate that intestinal macrophage and epithelial cell-derived eotaxin-1 plays a critical role in the regulation of eosinophil recruitment in colonic eosinophilic disease such as pediatric UC and provides a basis for targeting the eosinophil/eotaxin-1 axis in UC. (jimmunol.org)
  • effector
  • Analysis of eosinophil-deficient mice defined an effector role for eosinophils in disease pathology. (jimmunol.org)
  • Eosinophils are multifunctional leukocytes involved in the initiation and propagation of inflammatory reactions and the modulation of innate and adaptive immunity and can serve as a major effector cell, inducing tissue damage and dysfunction ( 5 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • oxidation
  • In general, diatomic gases only bind to the reduced heme, as ferrous Fe(II) while most peroxidases cycle between Fe(III) and Fe(IV) and hemeproteins involved in mitochondrial redox, oxidation-reduction, cycle between Fe(II) and Fe(III). (wikipedia.org)
  • recruitment
  • DSS treatment of eotaxin-2 −/− and eotaxin-1/2 −/− mice demonstrated that eosinophil recruitment was dependent on eotaxin-1. (jimmunol.org)
  • Mechanistic analyses indicated that Th2 cells developed normally and that the reduction in eosinophil recruitment was likely due to systemic reduction in interleukin 5. (rupress.org)
  • These studies revealed impaired Th2 cytokine production and eosinophil recruitment during Th2-mediated responses, with no abrogation of the Th1 response. (rupress.org)
  • inflammatory
  • These findings indicate a mechanism by which two inflammatory cells, the eosinophil and neutrophil, may interact to enhance the destruction of a target organism. (ajtmh.org)
  • These results suggest that under inflammatory conditions associated with asthma, phenolic β 2 -agonists may be subject to peroxidase-catalyzed nitration that could potentially diminish their therapeutic efficacy. (aspetjournals.org)
  • persist
  • Eosinophils persist in the circulation for 8-12 hours, and can survive in tissue for an additional 8-12 days in the absence of stimulation. (wikipedia.org)
  • asthmatic
  • Because peroxidase activity and nitrogen oxides are increased in the asthmatic airway, we examined whether salbutamol, a clinically important β 2 -agonist, is subject to potentially inactivating nitration. (aspetjournals.org)
  • toxic
  • These mediators are released by a process called degranulation following activation of the eosinophil, and are toxic to both parasite and host tissues. (wikipedia.org)
  • immune
  • Eosinophils, sometimes called eosinophiles or, less commonly, acidophils, are a variety of white blood cells and one of the immune system components responsible for combating multicellular parasites and certain infections in vertebrates. (wikipedia.org)
  • found
  • Hemes are most commonly recognized as components of hemoglobin, the red pigment in blood, but are also found in a number of other biologically important hemoproteins such as myoglobin, cytochromes, catalases, heme peroxidase, and endothelial nitric oxide synthase. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although
  • Although eosinophils usually represent only a small percentage of the infiltrating leukocytes ( 2 , 3 ), their level has been proposed to be a negative prognostic indicator ( 3 , 4 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • Although eosinophils express both receptors, the role of Lkn-1 in immature eosinophils remains to be elucidated. (springer.com)
  • Levels
  • We show that elevated levels of eotaxin-1 mRNA positively correlated with rectosigmoid eosinophil numbers. (jimmunol.org)
  • Further, colonic eosinophils appeared to be degranulating, and the levels positively correlated with disease severity. (jimmunol.org)
  • Using the dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced intestinal epithelial injury model, we show that DSS treatment of mice strongly induced colonic eotaxin-1 and eotaxin-2 expression and eosinophil levels. (jimmunol.org)
  • cells
  • Lkn-1 enhanced the butyric acid-induced differentiation via PKCδ after binding to the increased CCR1 because Lkn-1 caused EoL-1 cells to change morphologically into mature eosinophil-like cells. (springer.com)
  • Bromide from the diet, naturally present in the blood, is used by eosinophils, white blood cells of the granulocyte class, specialized for dealing with multi-cellular parasites. (wikipedia.org)
  • In normal individuals, eosinophils make up about 1-3% of white blood cells, and are about 12-17 micrometres in size with bilobed nuclei. (wikipedia.org)