• developmental
  • New set out what was to become the preeminent guide to embryo culture for a generation of developmental biologists, in a 1955 paper published in the Journal of Embryology and Experimental Morphology. (ivf.net)
  • Chick embryos and other avian embryos have been biological models to visualize the developmental stages of embryos for education and to instigate embryological manipulations. (wikipedia.org)
  • The first attempts at fate mapping were made by inferences based on the examination of embryos that had been fixed, sectioned, and stained at different developmental timepoints. (wikipedia.org)
  • The disadvantage of this technique was that observation of single points in developmental time provide only snapshots of what cell movements are actually occurring and what fates are being assigned. (wikipedia.org)
  • Seth Blair, also in Stent's lab, introduced a novel ablation technique that could be used in tandem with lineage tracing to pursue the questions relating to developmental potential changes in cell fate in experimentally perturbed embryos that were first raised by Roux and Driesch (1980). (wikipedia.org)
  • yolk
  • Rat embryos were explanted on late day 11 of gestation and cultured with open yolk sacs for 40 h. (biologists.org)
  • His innovation was to use the vitelline membrane of chick eggs (the coating of the yolk) to grow embryos, in contrast to previous work that had focused on using clots of plasma. (ivf.net)
  • Vogt used small chips of agar impregnated with a vital dye, (such as Nile Blue or Nile Red) which he placed on a particular cell or population of cells in Xenopus embryos until the dye absorbed into the yolk platelets within the desired cell(s). (wikipedia.org)
  • teratogens
  • these allowed the researcher to observe the normal development of the embryo, and assess the impact of potential teratogens (substances causing abnormal cell development, which may lead to defects in the fetus). (ivf.net)
  • Using this technique, observations can be made, whether it is a induced-malformation caused due to effect of teratogens or the route of viruses inoculations such as HIV or herpes simplex. (wikipedia.org)
  • hybridization
  • Chickpea Hybridization Using In vitro Techniques Nalini Mallikarjuna and Fred J. Muehlbauer 9. (buchfreund.de)
  • Breeding of incompatible interspecific and intergeneric species Overcoming seed dormancy Determination of seed viability Recovery of maternal haploids that develop as a result of chromosome elimination following interspecific hybridization Used in studies on the physiology of seed germination and development Depending on the organ cultured, it may be referred to as either embryo, ovule, or ovary culture. (wikipedia.org)
  • gestation
  • He succeeded in growing rat and mouse embryos to beyond the halfway stage of gestation, through periods of substantial growth and elaboration, without a placenta. (ivf.net)
  • sperm
  • Spermatozoa were acquired by microepididymal sperm aspiration and processed using swim-up technique. (springer.com)
  • Cohen is known for the application of micromanipulation techniques to operate on eggs, sperm and embryos. (wikipedia.org)
  • He developed a precursor technique of Intracytoplasmic Sperm Injection (ICSI), which is now used for treatment of nearly all male factor infertility diagnoses. (wikipedia.org)
  • morphology
  • Nuhoglu, A. The effect of pronuclear morphology on embryo quality parameters and blastocyst transfer outcome. (springer.com)
  • Tews, G. Elective transfer of embryos selected on the basis of first polar body morphology is associated with increased rates of implantation and pregnancy. (springer.com)
  • Through this process the vigor and morphology of the embryos is improved and the tendency to germinate prematurely is significantly reduced. (google.com)
  • development
  • Culturing from this point continues in an embryo development medium having a high osmotic potential in which the osmotic potential is preferably raised during embryo development to a final level of about 450 mM/kg. (google.com)
  • 2. The method of claim 1 which further includes generating the proembryos in an initial induction culture medium having a sufficient level of growth hormones, then transferring the proembryos to a maintenance and multiplication medium having a reduced level of growth hormones and an osmotic level at least as high as the induction medium prior to transferring the proembryos to the cotyledonary embryo development medium. (google.com)
  • 3. The method of claim 2 which further includes transferring the proembryos from the initiation or maintenance and multiplication media to a culture medium having a sufficient amount of growth hormones and an osmotic potential sufficient to induce late stage proembryo development prior to transferring the proembryos to the cotyledonary embryo development medium. (google.com)
  • 6. The method of claim 1 in which the osmotic potential of the development medium is controlled by a mixture comprising a readily metabolized carbohydrate energy source and at least one additional osmoticant poorly metabolized by the developing embryos. (google.com)
  • A great fascination for biologists, the study of embryo development provides indispensable information concerning the origins of the various forms and structures that make up an organism, and our ever-increasing knowledge gained through the study of plant embryology promises to lead to the development of numerous useful applications. (buchfreund.de)
  • This will generally depend on the stage of development of the embryo. (wikipedia.org)
  • Isolating the embryoblast or inner cell mass (ICM) results in destruction of the blastocyst, which raises ethical issues, including whether or not embryos at the pre-implantation stage should be considered to have the same moral or legal status as embryos in the post-implantation stage of development. (wikipedia.org)
  • During the 1960s, Brinster pioneered the development of techniques to manipulate mouse embryos-his techniques have made the mouse the major genetic model for understanding the basis of human biology and disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • Laboratory
  • In 1910 during a visit to the laboratory of Ross Granville Harrison at Yale, Burrows studied tissue culture. (wikipedia.org)
  • Upon returning to Carrel's laboratory Burrows initiated Harrison's methods and went on to make significant improvements to Harrison's original techniques. (wikipedia.org)
  • Scientists
  • Scientists from all over the world came here to learn the technique. (university-discoveries.com)
  • Authoritative and convenient, Plant Embryo Culture: Methods and Protocols serves as a key reference that can be used by scientists of all backgrounds to help develop their own customized methods for many different species and for a variety of purposes. (buchfreund.de)
  • Soon after this, scientists began placing the embryos in various nutrient media. (wikipedia.org)
  • This "Brinster Method" of embryo manipulation is so ubiquitous in modern biology that other scientists rarely cite the work in current publications. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mintz was a pioneer of genetic engineering techniques, and was among the first scientists to generate both chimeric and transgenic mammals. (wikipedia.org)
  • human
  • The earliest archeological evidence for a dominant position of wine-making in human culture dates from 8,000 years ago in Georgia. (wikipedia.org)
  • In January 2008, Dr. Andrew French and Samuel Wood of the biotechnology company Stemagen announced that they successfully created the first five mature human embryos using SCNT. (wikipedia.org)
  • In this case, each embryo was created by taking a nucleus from a skin cell (donated by Wood and a colleague) and inserting it into a human egg from which the nucleus had been removed. (wikipedia.org)
  • Using these techniques Mintz was able to establish the genetic basis of certain kinds of cancer and in 1993 she produced the first mouse model of human malignant melanoma. (wikipedia.org)
  • tissue culture
  • Many desired products can be obtained through tissue culture like pharmaceutical drugs, vaccines, monoclonal antibodies. (wikipedia.org)
  • Before the tiny embryo aborts, it is removed from the developing fruit and grown in tissue culture until it is large enough to survive on its own. (wikipedia.org)
  • Along with Dr. Alexis Carrel, a surgeon at Rockefeller Institute (1906 - 1927), Dr. Burrows is credited with coining the phrase "tissue culture", and is among the first to adapt such methods to the study of tissues from warm-blooded animals. (wikipedia.org)
  • These improvements include the substitution of blood plasma for lymph and the addition of embryo extract in the tissue culture medium that improved the growth of tissue cultures. (wikipedia.org)
  • Survival
  • Earlier work with wheat-rye crosses was difficult due to low survival of the resulting hybrid embryo and spontaneous chromosome doubling. (wikipedia.org)
  • Embryos are manually excised and placed immediately onto a culture medium that provides the proper nutrients to support survival and growth (Miyajima 2006). (wikipedia.org)
  • early stage
  • The method comprises a multistage culturing process in which early stage proembryos are cultured on a late stage proembryo medium comprising a significantly higher osmotic. (google.com)
  • The method comprises a multistage culturing process in which early stage proembryos are cultured on a late stage proembryo medium comprising a significantly higher osmotic potential along with abscisic acid and an absorbent material to gradually reduce the level of available abscisic acid over time. (google.com)
  • The map was a representation of an early-stage embryo (such as a blastula) that has particular regions highlighted which are known to give rise to specific tissues in the adult organism. (wikipedia.org)
  • Inspired by Mintz's earlier work, he wanted to know whether injecting virus into early-stage embryos would result in the DNA being incorporated, and what types of cancer would occur. (wikipedia.org)
  • species
  • The temperature and light requirement is generally species specific and thus its usually regulated to be the within the same temperature requirement as that of its parent with embryos of cool-season crops requiring lower temperatures than those of warm-season crops. (wikipedia.org)
  • develop
  • Under these conditions, TM-treated placodes were found to develop cleft lip in 14 out of 15 embryos compared to 0 for the controls. (biologists.org)
  • Plant embryos are multicellular structures that have the potential to develop into a new plant. (wikipedia.org)
  • For instance, young embryos would require a complex medium with high sucrose concentrations, while more mature embryos can usually develop on a simple medium with low levels of sucrose. (wikipedia.org)
  • The first person to develop and use this technique to study cell fate was embryologist Walter Vogt in 1929. (wikipedia.org)
  • establish
  • by the end of gastrulation, the embryo has begun differentiation to establish distinct cell lineages, set up the basic axes of the body (e.g. dorsal-ventral, anterior-posterior), and internalized one or more cell types including the prospective gut. (wikipedia.org)
  • Maternally deposited mRNAs establish the organizing center of the sea urchin embryo. (wikipedia.org)
  • widely
  • Many imaging techniques can be used to analyze samples of all sizes, from the single molecule to the cellular level in biology and medicine, and to images of planetary systems in astronomy, but different instrumentation is employed for making observations on such widely different systems. (wikipedia.org)
  • study
  • The purpose of this study was to ascertain whether localized administration of tunicamycin (TM) an inhibitor of protein glycosylation, into the region of the developing primary palate would induce cleft lip in culture. (biologists.org)
  • Any material that depends on chemical gradients for functionality may be amenable to study by an analytical technique that couples spatial and chemical characterization. (wikipedia.org)
  • operate
  • Bruner,who directs Vanderbilt's fetal diagnosis and therapy program,and Tulipan, director ofpediatric neurosurgery,developed a dramatic new technique to operate on a stricken child while still in its mother's womb. (university-discoveries.com)