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  • yolk
  • Rat embryos were explanted on late day 11 of gestation and cultured with open yolk sacs for 40 h. (biologists.org)
  • His innovation was to use the vitelline membrane of chick eggs (the coating of the yolk) to grow embryos, in contrast to previous work that had focused on using clots of plasma. (ivf.net)
  • Vogt used small chips of agar impregnated with a vital dye, (such as Nile Blue or Nile Red) which he placed on a particular cell or population of cells in Xenopus embryos until the dye absorbed into the yolk platelets within the desired cell(s). (wikipedia.org)
  • small embryo
  • The fruits contain a seed single, which is large, globose to pyriform with two seed coats and two large firm, almost hemi-spherical cotyledons, 2-4 cm in diameter enclosing a small embryo. (fao.org)
  • Cells
  • G-I) Quantification of MT growth-track parameters in cultured embryonic neural crest cells. (nih.gov)
  • Gamborg OL, Miller RA, Ojima K (1968) Nutrient requirements of suspension cultures of soybean root cells. (springer.com)
  • Especially, collagen-gel embedded culture of bacteria and mammalian cells with ultra-small volume (tens to several nL) has been successfully demonstrated on glass or silicon chip to microfabricate various types of cellular arrays. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Both plant and animal cells, tissues and organ culture is possible in artificial nutrient medium in controlled laboratory conditions. (wikipedia.org)
  • He also co-cultured human embryos with helper cells to promote growth. (wikipedia.org)
  • Brinster first showed that it was possible to colonize a mouse blastocyst with stem cells from older embryos. (wikipedia.org)
  • Early embryologists used "vital dyes" (which would stain but not harm the cells) to follow movements of individual cells or groups of cells over time in Xenopus frog embryos. (wikipedia.org)
  • Once the cells were effectively labeled, the agar chip could be removed and the embryo was allowed to develop normally. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although innovative for the time, this technique is limiting in that the size of a chip of agar may not accommodate single-cell resolution studies at later stages of development, since successive cell divisions will yield smaller cells (until the embryo develops into a larval form that can eat, and thereby grow larger). (wikipedia.org)
  • In 1978, David Weisblat and colleagues in Gunther Stent's lab at Berkeley improved the technique of single-cell resolution fate mapping by injection of horseradish peroxidase (HRP) enzyme, and later fluorescent peptides (1980), into individual cells in Helobdella triserialis (leech) embryos during early development. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 2004 and 2005, Hwang Woo-suk, a professor at Seoul National University, published two separate articles in the journal Science claiming to have successfully harvested pluripotent, embryonic stem cells from a cloned human blastocyst using somatic-cell nuclear transfer techniques. (wikipedia.org)
  • The resultant mice developed normally and their tissues were a mixture of cells derived from the two donor embryos. (wikipedia.org)
  • She developed a technique that involved mixing cells from a black mouse strain into the blastocysts of white or brown mice in vitro. (wikipedia.org)
  • In other studies, Mintz demonstrated that, when combined with normal mouse embryo cells, teratocarcinoma tumor cells could be reprogrammed to contribute to a healthy mouse. (wikipedia.org)
  • In this technique a donor's blood cells are MHC typed by mixing them with serum containing the anti-HLA antibodies. (wikipedia.org)
  • Fischbach used this technique to reconstruct neuromuscular junctions from dissociated spinal cord and muscle cells from chick embryos to show that functional synaptic connections reformed and were capable of sending spontaneous or induced action potentials. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, cultures containing isolated spinal cord cells were unable to send similar action potentials. (wikipedia.org)
  • At Yale, Burrows also successfully established tissue cultures of embryonic chick cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • developmental
  • New set out what was to become the preeminent guide to embryo culture for a generation of developmental biologists, in a 1955 paper published in the Journal of Embryology and Experimental Morphology. (ivf.net)
  • The first attempts at fate mapping were made by inferences based on the examination of embryos that had been fixed, sectioned, and stained at different developmental timepoints. (wikipedia.org)
  • The disadvantage of this technique was that observation of single points in developmental time provide only snapshots of what cell movements are actually occurring and what fates are being assigned. (wikipedia.org)
  • Seth Blair, also in Stent's lab, introduced a novel ablation technique that could be used in tandem with lineage tracing to pursue the questions relating to developmental potential changes in cell fate in experimentally perturbed embryos that were first raised by Roux and Driesch (1980). (wikipedia.org)
  • surrogate
  • Furthermore, preservation of endangered avian and development of transgenic birds using surrogate egg shell culture have been contrived by scientists across the globe. (wikipedia.org)
  • She then surgically transferred these early embryos into surrogate mothers and, after birth, traced the tissue contribution of each cell type made by studying the coat colour. (wikipedia.org)
  • teratogens
  • these allowed the researcher to observe the normal development of the embryo, and assess the impact of potential teratogens (substances causing abnormal cell development, which may lead to defects in the fetus). (ivf.net)
  • Using this technique, observations can be made, whether it is a induced-malformation caused due to effect of teratogens or the route of viruses inoculations such as HIV or herpes simplex. (wikipedia.org)
  • TACC3
  • D-F) Quantification of MT growth track parameters in cultured embryonic neuronal growth cones (GC) after TACC3 manipulation. (nih.gov)
  • First, we determined that manipulating overall TACC3 protein levels had a corresponding effect on XMAP215 protein levels in whole embryo lysates. (nih.gov)
  • gestation
  • He succeeded in growing rat and mouse embryos to beyond the halfway stage of gestation, through periods of substantial growth and elaboration, without a placenta. (ivf.net)
  • sperm
  • Spermatozoa were acquired by microepididymal sperm aspiration and processed using swim-up technique. (springer.com)
  • Cohen is known for the application of micromanipulation techniques to operate on eggs, sperm and embryos. (wikipedia.org)
  • He developed a precursor technique of Intracytoplasmic Sperm Injection (ICSI), which is now used for treatment of nearly all male factor infertility diagnoses. (wikipedia.org)
  • Scientists
  • Soon after this, scientists began placing the embryos in various nutrient media. (wikipedia.org)
  • This "Brinster Method" of embryo manipulation is so ubiquitous in modern biology that other scientists rarely cite the work in current publications. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mintz was a pioneer of genetic engineering techniques, and was among the first scientists to generate both chimeric and transgenic mammals. (wikipedia.org)
  • human
  • The earliest archeological evidence for a dominant position of wine-making in human culture dates from 8,000 years ago in Georgia. (wikipedia.org)
  • During the 1960s, Brinster pioneered the development of techniques to manipulate mouse embryos-his techniques have made the mouse the major genetic model for understanding the basis of human biology and disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • In January 2008, Dr. Andrew French and Samuel Wood of the biotechnology company Stemagen announced that they successfully created the first five mature human embryos using SCNT. (wikipedia.org)
  • In this case, each embryo was created by taking a nucleus from a skin cell (donated by Wood and a colleague) and inserting it into a human egg from which the nucleus had been removed. (wikipedia.org)
  • Using these techniques Mintz was able to establish the genetic basis of certain kinds of cancer and in 1993 she produced the first mouse model of human malignant melanoma. (wikipedia.org)
  • Chromosome
  • Earlier work with wheat-rye crosses was difficult due to low survival of the resulting hybrid embryo and spontaneous chromosome doubling. (wikipedia.org)
  • Breeding of incompatible interspecific and intergeneric species Overcoming seed dormancy Determination of seed viability Recovery of maternal haploids that develop as a result of chromosome elimination following interspecific hybridization Used in studies on the physiology of seed germination and development Depending on the organ cultured, it may be referred to as either embryo, ovule, or ovary culture. (wikipedia.org)
  • Survival
  • Embryos are manually excised and placed immediately onto a culture medium that provides the proper nutrients to support survival and growth (Miyajima 2006). (wikipedia.org)
  • development
  • Nevertheless, due to difficulties involved with the rearing of young embryos compared to those that have reached the autotrophic phase of development, embryos are normally allowed to develop in vivo as long as possible. (wikipedia.org)
  • This will generally depend on the stage of development of the embryo. (wikipedia.org)
  • This technique proved to be an important model for further studies to determine the essential mechanisms controlling neuromuscular junction development and maintenance. (wikipedia.org)
  • genetic
  • Preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD), or the genetic analysis of embryos prior to transfer into the body is an exciting new technology that could help reduce multiple births. (inciid.org)
  • Several tissue culture techniques can be used to generate genetic variation in plants. (springer.com)
  • Genetic engineering would not be possible without the involvement of in vitro plant tissue culture regeneration procedures. (springer.com)
  • This transcontinental collaboration constructed a body of work that formed the foundation for a generation of scientific progress in genetic modification via transgenesis, homologous recombination or "knock-out" techniques, and cloning. (wikipedia.org)
  • Fluorescent
  • Leech embryos injected with the fluorescent tracers could be visualized, and images collected of the same specimen at multiple timepoints, without fixation. (wikipedia.org)
  • concentrations
  • Duquenne B, Eeckhaut T, Werbrouck S, Van Huylenbroeck J (2007) Effect of enzyme concentrations on protoplast isolation and protoplast culture of Spathiphyllum and Anthurium . (springer.com)
  • For instance, young embryos would require a complex medium with high sucrose concentrations, while more mature embryos can usually develop on a simple medium with low levels of sucrose. (wikipedia.org)
  • establish
  • At this point the embryo can implant and establish a pregnancy. (ivf.net)
  • by the end of gastrulation, the embryo has begun differentiation to establish distinct cell lineages, set up the basic axes of the body (e.g. dorsal-ventral, anterior-posterior), and internalized one or more cell types including the prospective gut. (wikipedia.org)
  • Maternally deposited mRNAs establish the organizing center of the sea urchin embryo. (wikipedia.org)
  • early-stage
  • The map was a representation of an early-stage embryo (such as a blastula) that has particular regions highlighted which are known to give rise to specific tissues in the adult organism. (wikipedia.org)
  • Inspired by Mintz's earlier work, he wanted to know whether injecting virus into early-stage embryos would result in the DNA being incorporated, and what types of cancer would occur. (wikipedia.org)
  • transfer
  • In general, the best way to reduce multiple births is to transfer only single embryos. (inciid.org)
  • Ultimately, as the technique improves, PGD may allow us to offer all patients a single embryo transfer, eliminating the multiple pregnancy problem without sacrificing a high pregnancy rate. (inciid.org)
  • Brinster and longtime collaborator Richard Palmiter pioneered techniques to transfer foreign genes into mammals, and they utilized these methods to elucidate the activity and function of genes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cell
  • In: Davey RM, Anthony P (eds) Plant cell culture: essential methods. (springer.com)
  • Additionally, the cell or cell population of interest must be superficial, since the agar chip with the dye must be placed on the surface of the embryo. (wikipedia.org)
  • This technique allowed the experimenter greater control and selectivity over what cell was labeled and traced. (wikipedia.org)
  • The single-cell injection technique is now also in use by researchers studying other model organisms such as Xenopus (frogs), Danio rerio (zebrafish), and Caenorhabditis elegans (worms). (wikipedia.org)
  • It was created using SCNT - a nucleus was taken from a man's leg cell and inserted into a cow's egg from which the nucleus had been removed, and the hybrid cell was cultured, and developed into an embryo. (wikipedia.org)
  • Her cell fusion technique was successful where others had failed because she chose to remove the zona pellucida with pronase treatment, rather than physically. (wikipedia.org)
  • These experiments, which took eight years, utilized some of the first pluripotent stem cell cultures ever made. (wikipedia.org)
  • Throughout Fischbach's career, much of his research has focused on the formation and function of the neuromuscular junction, which stemmed from his innovative use of cell culture to study synaptic mechanisms. (wikipedia.org)
  • Much of Fischbach's research concentrated on the mechanisms controlling action potentials and synapses, from which he pioneered the use of neuron and muscle cell culture to study neuromuscular junctions. (wikipedia.org)
  • tissues
  • Each layer gives rise to specific tissues and organs in the developing embryo. (wikipedia.org)
  • Along with Dr. Alexis Carrel, a surgeon at Rockefeller Institute (1906 - 1927), Dr. Burrows is credited with coining the phrase "tissue culture", and is among the first to adapt such methods to the study of tissues from warm-blooded animals. (wikipedia.org)
  • One significant innovation was the method they developed for serial activation of tissues in culture. (wikipedia.org)
  • This technique demonstrated that growth of tissues could be maintained for prolonged periods of time. (wikipedia.org)
  • pluripotent
  • The ability to progress via a definitive ectoderm intermediate will underpin the development of rational and efficient methodologies for the derivation of specific ectodermal cell populations from pluripotent cells in culture for use as experimental models or to produce cells with therapeutic applications. (biologists.org)
  • A series of experiments, first turning a mouse embryo green by fluorescently tagging STAP cells, then videotaping the transformation of T-cells into pluripotent cells, finally convinced skeptics that the results were real. (wikipedia.org)
  • The aim of carrying out this procedure is to obtain pluripotent cells from a cloned embryo. (wikipedia.org)
  • dilute
  • To promote the long-term culture of the embryonic heart at late stages of gestation, we developed a protocol in which the excised heart is cultured in a semi-solid, dilute Matrigel. (jove.com)
  • If an embryo has not initiated the thinning process naturally, a small "window" is created chemically in the wall of the protein coat using a dilute acidic solution pulsed onto the embryo surface through an extremely fine glass needle. (arizonafertility.com)
  • reproductive
  • He has performed and published research in men's reproductive health issues including genetic infertility, ejaculatory duct obstruction, immunologic infertility, quality of life issues with infertility, testis cancer and stem cell science, and has developed several techniques for evaluating and treating male infertility. (wikipedia.org)
  • This technique has been important because it has improved identification of men who are likely to have a successful sperm retrieval while at the same time avoiding costly and unnecessary assisted reproductive techniques. (wikipedia.org)
  • Stem cells can then be obtained by the destruction of this clone embryo for use in therapeutic cloning or in the case of reproductive cloning the clone embryo is implanted into a host mother for further development and brought to term. (wikipedia.org)
  • hormone
  • As such, women of advanced age, or with an elevated follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) level may have decreased chance for embryo implantation. (arizonafertility.com)
  • Fishel demonstrated for the first time that human embryos secrete the pregnancy hormone hCG in a 1984 publication with Edwards and Chris Evans in Science that has been cited 196 times and identified by Outi Hovatta as the first description of the potential of IVF and stem cell technology in terms of medicinal benefit. (wikipedia.org)
  • cell
  • Aggregation chimeras are produced by a technique that involves removing the zonae pellucidae from around 8-16 cell embryos of different strains of mice and pushing the morulae together so that the cells can aggregate. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Briefly, peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) are isolated from routine phlebotomy samples and then cultured in defined growth factors to yield a highly proliferative erythrocyte progenitor cell population that is remarkably amenable to reprogramming. (jove.com)
  • In genetics and developmental biology, somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) is a laboratory strategy for creating a viable embryo from a body cell and an egg cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • this approach has been championed as an answer to the many issues concerning embryonic stem cells (ESC) and the destruction of viable embryos for medical use, though questions remain on how homologous the two cell types truly are. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is a technique for cloning in which the nucleus of a somatic cell is transferred to the cytoplasm of an enucleated egg. (wikipedia.org)
  • Only a handful of the labs in the world are currently using SCNT techniques in human stem cell research. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the United States, scientists at the Harvard Stem Cell Institute, the University of California San Francisco, the Oregon Health & Science University, Stemagen (La Jolla, CA) and possibly Advanced Cell Technology are currently researching a technique to use somatic cell nuclear transfer to produce embryonic stem cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • While the majority of miRNAs are located within the cell, some miRNAs, commonly known as circulating miRNAs or extracellular miRNAs, have also been found in extracellular environment, including various biological fluids and cell culture media. (wikipedia.org)
  • It has been actively used in cell-free cloning, which is the enzymatic method of amplifying DNA in vitro without cell culturing and DNA extraction. (wikipedia.org)
  • Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) is a type of immunoprecipitation experimental technique used to investigate the interaction between proteins and DNA in the cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • Thus
  • Thus, we present a novel method for long-term culture of embryonic hearts. (jove.com)
  • Thus, in X. laevis embryos, the ectoderm is patterned by the secretion of BMP antagonists from the dorsal blastopore lip, or Spemann's organizer: BMP signalling is active ventrally, and induces the formation of surface ectoderm, whereas dorsal BMP signalling is inhibited, and the cells adopt a neural fate ( Hemmati-Brivanlou and Melton, 1997 ). (biologists.org)
  • known
  • Edwin Carlyle "Carl" Wood, AC, CBE, FRCS, FRANZCOG (28 May 1929 - 23 September 2011) was a prominent Australian gynaecologist, best known for his pioneering work developing and commercialising the technique of in-vitro fertilisation (IVF). (wikipedia.org)
  • However, British regulators would not grant Fishel a licence for a pilot scheme, meaning he had to pioneer the technique, known as sub-zonal insemination (SUZI), in Italy. (wikipedia.org)
  • women
  • The embryos of women with endometriosis and poor quality embryos also may have this problem. (arizonafertility.com)
  • Gender hierarchies, cultural norms, values and image of women in society are very important factors in Indian culture and the topic of abortion is considered very personal. (wikipedia.org)
  • stem
  • In 2008, while working at Harvard Medical School, she verified at the request of Charles Vacanti that some of the cultured cells she was working with shrank to the size of stem cells after being mechanically injured in a capillary tube. (wikipedia.org)
  • After modifying the technique, Obokata was able to show that white blood cells from newborn mice could be transformed into cells that behaved much like stem cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Development
  • The development of molecular cytogenetics involving techniques such as fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) followed, permitting the detection of more subtle changes in the karyotype. (wikipedia.org)
  • environment
  • The transient and dynamic appearance of differentiation intermediates during mammalian gastrulation, and the complex differentiation environment created within the embryo, has precluded identification of definitive ectoderm in mammals. (biologists.org)
  • This technique is similar to a field gene bank in that plants are maintained in the ambient environment, but the collections are typically not as genetically diverse or extensive. (wikipedia.org)
  • cold
  • In brief, hearts are excised from the embryo and placed in a mixture of cold Matrigel diluted 1:1 with growth medium. (jove.com)
  • baby
  • One of his earliest contributions was to move away from test tubes (hence the term 'test-tube baby') and towards the use of petri dishes with culture medium overlaid with paraffin oil in the practice of clinical embryology, a step which made it more practical when IVF was eventually used to retrieve multiple eggs during ovarian stimulation for the purpose of producing multiple follicles. (wikipedia.org)
  • Fishel introduced embryo vitrification to the UK in 1991, with the first baby to be born in the country from this technique being delivered in October 1992. (wikipedia.org)