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  • functional
  • We compare four different configurations of rectifying synapse placement and polarity, and we investigate how rectification changes the functional output of this network. (jneurosci.org)
  • Based on our findings, we predict that modulation of rectifying electrical synapses could have functional consequences for the neuronal circuits that express them. (jneurosci.org)
  • The goal of the research is to investigate the normal developmental steps that occur during M circuit wiring (Aim1), to identify mutations that specifically affect electrical synapse formation and investigate their defects at the cell-biological and functional levels (Aim2), and to identify the underlying mutated genes providing the first insight into the molecular mechanisms that build electrical synapses (Aim3). (grantome.com)
  • receptors
  • The result of the underlying-LTD molecular mechanism is the phosphorylation of AMPA glutamate receptors and their elimination from the surface of the parallel fiber-Purkinje cell (PF-PC) synapse. (wikipedia.org)
  • interneuron
  • The GFs dye-couple to the TTM motoneuron between 30 and 45 hr of metamorphosis, to the peripherally synapsing interneuron that drives the DLM motoneurons at approximately 48 hr, and to giant commissural interneurons in the brain at approximately 55 hr. (core.ac.uk)
  • plasticity
  • There is also evidence for "plasticity" at some of these synapses-that is, that the electrical connection they establish can strengthen or weaken as a result of activity, or during changes in the intracellular concentration of magnesium. (wikipedia.org)
  • mechanisms
  • Chemical Electrical Both types of synapses relay information, but do so by very different mechanisms. (slideserve.com)
  • Because of the speed of transmission, electrical synapses are found in escape mechanisms and other processes that require quick responses, such as the response to danger of the sea hare Aplysia, which quickly releases large quantities of ink to obscure enemies' vision. (wikipedia.org)
  • We discuss the possible molecular mechanisms underlying electrical rectification, as well as the potential contribution of intracellular soluble factors to this phenomenon. (frontiersin.org)
  • connexon
  • A connexon channel pair: Allows for direct electrical communication between cells, although different connexin subunits can impart different single channel conductances, from about 30 pS to 500 pS. (wikipedia.org)
  • nervous system
  • Electrical synapses are often thought to promote speed and synchrony in excitable tissues, such as the heart and in the nervous system. (jneurosci.org)
  • Electrical synapses are present throughout the central nervous system and have been studied specifically in the neocortex, hippocampus, thalamic reticular nucleus, locus coeruleus, inferior olivary nucleus, mesencephalic nucleus of the trigeminal nerve, olfactory bulb, retina, and spinal cord of vertebrates. (wikipedia.org)
  • In addition, the artificial synapses may simplify the design and functions of nervous system simulations. (ufl.edu)
  • molecules
  • They directly connect the cytoplasm of two cells, which allows various molecules, ions and electrical impulses to directly pass through a regulated gate between cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • circuits
  • The prevalence of rectifying electrical synapses makes it important to understand the role of rectification in the circuits in which these junctions are found. (jneurosci.org)
  • Neural circuits are organized by synapses, which are specialized sites of adhesion and communication whose patterns and properties form the basis of all of brain function. (grantome.com)
  • Of these, the chemical synapse has received more attention in recent years;however growing evidence suggests that electrical synapses are widespread in the brain where they modulate neural circuits from sensory perception to cortical processing to motor output. (grantome.com)
  • cells
  • Gap junctions are formed exclusively from hexamericpores, called connexons (Cx36), which connect cells with each other for robust electrical coupling. (slideserve.com)
  • At gap junctions, such cells approach within about 3.8 nm of each other, a much shorter distance than the 20- to 40-nanometer distance that separates cells at chemical synapse. (wikipedia.org)
  • These properties, in conjunction with genetic tools that specifically mark the cells of the neural circuit and their stereotyped chemical and electrical synapses, provide a unique opportunity to investigate circuit wiring and to find mutations that affect electrical synaptogenesis. (grantome.com)
  • To date, five different functions have been ascribed to gap junction protein: Electrical and metabolic coupling between cells Electrical and metabolic exchange through hemichannels Tumor suppressor genes (Cx43, Cx32 and Cx36) Adhesive function independent of conductive gap junction channel (neural migration in neocortex) Role of carboxyl-terminal in signaling cytoplasmic pathways (Cx43) Gap Junctions have been observed in various animal organs and tissues where cells contact each other. (wikipedia.org)
  • The granule cells of the olfactory bulb communicate exclusively through dendrodendritic synapses because they lack axons. (wikipedia.org)
  • These granule cells form dendrodendritic synapses with mitral cells to convey odor information from the olfactory bulb. (wikipedia.org)
  • Synapses are specialized junctions between two cells in close apposition to one another. (wikipedia.org)
  • Synapses are generally too small to be recognizable using a light microscope except as points where the membranes of two cells appear to touch, but their cellular elements can be visualized clearly using an electron microscope. (wikipedia.org)
  • The cells are also notable for their unusual use of both chemical and electrical synapses. (wikipedia.org)
  • relay
  • Many synapses just relay one type of signal, whereas others can convey both types simultaneously or can switch between the two. (ufl.edu)
  • vertebrates
  • Gap junction funnels are composed of two hemi-channels called connexons in vertebrates, one contributed by each cell at the synapse. (wikipedia.org)
  • investigate
  • The topic was then only explored sporadically due to difficulties with techniques and technology available to further investigate dendrodendritic synapses. (wikipedia.org)
  • weaken
  • LTD is one of several processes that serves to selectively weaken specific synapses in order to make constructive use of synaptic strengthening caused by LTP. (wikipedia.org)
  • membrane
  • However, sometimes the junctions are rectifying synapses, containing voltage-gated ion channels that open in response to depolarization of an axon's plasma membrane, and prevent current from traveling in one of the two directions. (wikipedia.org)
  • This then causes more channels to open, producing a greater electric current across the cell membrane, and so on. (wikipedia.org)
  • The electrical properties of a cell are determined by the structure of the membrane that surrounds it. (wikipedia.org)
  • The process begins with a wave of electrochemical excitation called an action potential traveling along the membrane of the presynaptic cell, until it reaches the synapse. (wikipedia.org)
  • The electrical depolarization of the membrane at the synapse causes channels to open that are permeable to calcium ions. (wikipedia.org)
  • extensively
  • Dendrodendritic synapses have been studied extensively in the olfactory bulb of rats where it is believed they help in the process of differentiating smells. (wikipedia.org)
  • impacts
  • In addition to our power sector modeling, Synapse frequently incorporates the use of economic models such as REMI and IMPLAN to estimate impacts of electric sector policies and investments on employment, gross domestic or state product, and other metrics. (synapse-energy.com)
  • Synapse performs operational and planning modeling analyses of electric power systems using industry-standard models such as Strategist, EnCompass, Market Analytics, PROMOD, and PLEXOS to evaluate long-term energy plans, assess the environmental and economic impacts of policy initiatives, and review utility system modeling. (synapse-energy.com)
  • Thus, this form of LTD impacts synapses nearby those receiving action potentials. (wikipedia.org)
  • stimulation
  • Although electrical stimulation of the M-cell is sufficient for eliciting a C-start, this C-start is normally weaker than the one evoked by a sensory stimulus. (wikipedia.org)
  • suggests
  • During epileptic seizures, pathological fields can be as strong as 100 millivolts per millimeter - such fields strongly entrain neural firing and give rise to super-synchronized states, which suggests that electric field activity - even from external fields - in certain brain areas, during specific brain states, may have strong cognitive and behavioral effects. (blogspot.com)
  • autapse
  • Upon the introduction of an electrical autapse, the periodic state switches to the chaotic state and displays an alternating behavior that increases in frequency with a greater autaptic intensity and time delay. (wikipedia.org)
  • However
  • Most current artificial synapses, however, are only capable of delivering one type of signal. (ufl.edu)