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  • shown
  • In fact, it is shown by this study that the electrochemical impedance behavior of mortars varies in the process of carbonation. (mdpi.com)
  • electrodes
  • Time difference EIT (td-EIT) has one major advantage over absolute EIT (a-EIT): inaccuracies resulting from interindividual anatomy, insufficient skin contact of surface electrodes or impedance transfer can be dismissed because most artifacts will eliminate themselves due to simple image subtraction in f-EIT. (wikipedia.org)
  • The transverse impedance was measured between narrow electrodes on either side of the axon with a Wheatstone bridge having an amplifier and cathode ray oscillograph for detector. (rupress.org)
  • As an impulse passed between impedance electrodes after the axon had been stimulated at one end, the oscillograph line first broadened into a band, indicating a bridge unbalance, and then narrowed down to balance during recovery. (rupress.org)
  • Experimental and numerical study on optimal spot-electrodes arrays in transthoracic electrical impedance cardiography. (biomedsearch.com)
  • In our previous reports, we have confirmed that a thorax is nearly assumed as an electrical cylinder model when a pair of current injection spot-electrodes are placed far from the thorax like a placement of the forehead - left medial knee or the mastoid process - lower right abdomen, and that the changes in current distributions associated with cardiac blood ejection are roughly homogeneous around the medial line of the thorax. (biomedsearch.com)
  • The present study concerns with determination of an optimal spot-electrodes array for voltage pick-up through the detailed measurements of pulsatile components of the thoracic impedance along the medial line of the thorax using an 11x2 channels impedance mapping system. (biomedsearch.com)
  • EIT images were generated from 32 impedance electrodes placed around the chest at the level of the axilla. (biomedsearch.com)
  • measurements
  • Then a small electrical current is passed through the body and measurements are made. (thebody.com)
  • R. P. Henderson and J. G. Webster, "Impedance camera for spatially specific measurements of thorax," IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Engineering , vol. 25, no. 3, pp. 250-254, 1978. (hindawi.com)
  • F. Yang and R. P. Patterson, "The contribution of the lungs to thoracic impedance measurements: a simulation study based on a high resolution finite difference model," Physiological Measurement , vol. 28, no. 7, pp. (hindawi.com)
  • Alternating current impedance measurements have been made over a wide frequency range on the giant axon from the stellar nerve of the squid, Loligo pealii , during the passage of a nerve impulse. (rupress.org)
  • Laboratory measurements of the complex electrical conductivity in a broad frequency range (i.e. mHz to kHz) using spectral induced polarization (SIP) measurements have shown great promise to characterize important hydrological properties (e.g. hydraulic conductivity) and biogeochemical processes. (uni-bonn.de)
  • The aim of this study is to present recent improvements in the inversion and processing of broadband field EIT measurements, and to evaluate the accuracy and spectral consistency of the obtained images of the real and imaginary part of the electrical conductivity. (uni-bonn.de)
  • In a first case study, time-lapse surface EIT measurements were performed during an infiltration experiment to investigate the spectral complex electrical conductivity as a function of water content. (uni-bonn.de)
  • Results showed consistent spectral and spatial variation of the phase of the complex electrical conductivity in a broad frequency range, and a complex dependence on water saturation that was reasonably consistent with laboratory EIT measurements. (uni-bonn.de)
  • Thus, by recording time-resolved impedance measurements, cell shape changes can be followed in real time with sub-microscopic resolution and can be used for bioanalytic purposes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Giaever & Keese: A morphological biosensor for mammalian cells, Nature 366(1993)591-2 Wegener, Zink, Roesen, Galla: Use of electrochemical impedance measurements to monitor b-adrenergic stimulation of bovine aortic endothelial cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • capacitance
  • The introduction of the concept of impedance in AC circuit is justified by the fact that there are two additional impeding mechanisms to be taken into account besides the normal resistance of DC circuits: the induction of voltages in conductors self-induced by the magnetic fields of currents (inductance), and the electrostatic storage of charge induced by voltages between conductors (capacitance). (wikipedia.org)
  • These can generate an impedance equivalent to a negative inductance or capacitance. (wikipedia.org)
  • Device
  • To overcome this difficulty it has been proposed to provide a device known as a gyrator, which has the property of producing at one port an impedance which is proportional to the inverse of the impedance connected across another port, so that if a capacitor is connected across the other port the device, together with the capacitor, when viewed from the one port behaves like an inductor. (google.com)
  • A dummy load is a device used to simulate an electrical load, usually for testing purposes. (wikipedia.org)
  • methods
  • The resulting one-dimensional governing equation of motion, which includes the effect of damping, is solved with the appropriate damped boundary conditions using impedance methods. (spie.org)
  • conductivity
  • Electrical conductivity varies considerably among various biological tissues (absolute EIT) or the movement of fluids and gases within tissues (difference EIT). (wikipedia.org)
  • State-of-the-art data processing and inversion approaches were used to obtain images of the complex electrical conductivity in a frequency range of 100 mHz to 1 kHz, and integral parameters were obtained using Debye decomposition. (uni-bonn.de)
  • It has been used for investigation of imaging electrical activity in the brain, and monitoring conductivity changes during radio-frequency ablation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Grid
  • This poses a particular problem when distributed generation, such as wind farms and rooftop solar power, is added to an existing electric grid. (wikipedia.org)
  • current
  • The electrical current is so small that it can not be felt at all. (thebody.com)
  • Electrical impedance is the measure of the opposition that a circuit presents to a current when a voltage is applied. (wikipedia.org)
  • Quantitatively, the impedance of a two-terminal circuit element is the ratio of the complex representation of a sinusoidal voltage between its terminals to the complex representation of the current flowing through it. (wikipedia.org)
  • Impedance is defined as the frequency domain ratio of the voltage to the current. (wikipedia.org)
  • the phase of the complex impedance is the phase shift by which the current lags the voltage. (wikipedia.org)
  • If cell shape changes occur, the current pathways through and around the cell bodies change as well, leading to a corresponding increase or decrease of impedance. (wikipedia.org)
  • This then causes more channels to open, producing a greater electric current across the cell membrane, and so on. (wikipedia.org)
  • The devices are handheld and are pressed against the skin area corresponding to a specific muscle group, an electrical current flows, impedance is measured and the output is a muscle quality score. (wikipedia.org)
  • In this case, the phase angle is the phase difference between the voltage applied to the impedance and the current driven through it. (wikipedia.org)
  • From 1959 until 1973 Ranck analyzed the flow of electric current in brain, electrical properties of glia, electric impedance of brain, release of potassium from neurons in a seizure, and which elements are activated in electric stimulation of brain. (wikipedia.org)
  • frequencies
  • The impedances were obtained at 10 kHz and 100 kHz frequencies and at three body sites - upper arm (Large Intestine meridian), thigh (Liver), and lower leg (Bladder). (harvard.edu)
  • We found significantly reduced electrical impedance at the Large Intestine meridian compared to adjacent control for both frequencies. (harvard.edu)
  • The AC impedance of the cell-covered electrode is then measured at one or several frequencies as a function of time. (wikipedia.org)
  • increases
  • Using a unique and proprietary concept of magnetic-flux alteration - requiring no superconducting or cryogenic components - the self-triggered FCL instantaneously increases its impedance tenfold upon fault condition. (wikipedia.org)
  • procedure
  • Bio-electrical Impedance Analysis (BIA) is a simple painless procedure which enables a doctor or healthcare provider to analyze the amounts of fat, muscle and water in the body. (thebody.com)
  • Transmission Line
  • Electromagnetic waves traveling along Transmission Line (TL) enter in soil medium whose impedance is different from TL a part of the energy is reflected back to transmitter. (wikipedia.org)
  • amplifiers
  • Used for small venue PA cabinets and small stage monitor speakers (with a horn), and lightweight bass guitar or electric guitar combination amplifiers ("combos") and cabinets designed for rehearsal monitoring or practice. (wikipedia.org)
  • cell
  • Scientists experimented with variations on this model until 1940, when Kenneth Cole developed a circuit model that accounted for the impedance properties of both cell membranes and intracellular fluid. (wikipedia.org)
  • Electric cell-substrate impedance sensing or ECISTM (a trademark of Applied BioPhysics Inc.) refers to a non-invasive biophysical approach to monitor living animal cells in vitro, i.e. within a well-defined laboratory environment. (wikipedia.org)
  • In confluent cell layers the measured impedance is mainly determined by the three-dimensional shape of the cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • The electrical properties of a cell are determined by the structure of the membrane that surrounds it. (wikipedia.org)