• pathogens
  • Microbial Drug Resistance (MDR) is an international, peer-reviewed journal that covers the global spread and threat of multi-drug resistant clones of major pathogens that are widely documented in hospitals and the scientific community. (liebertpub.com)
  • Persistent microbial contamination of hospital surfaces has been suggested to contribute to HAI s onset, representing a reservoir for hospital pathogens. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • The potential induction of antibiotic resistance represents a highly undesirable side‐effect of chemical cleaning, as MDR pathogens have been constantly and rapidly growing in the recent decades and a high proportion of HAIs is caused by MDR bacteria (Caini et al . (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • The lack of newly emerging antimicobrial drugs have resulted in the revisit of old antibiotic drugs such as colistin and fosfomycin (Polymyxins), which are traditionally considered to be toxic but have gained a principal role in the treament of the most problematic MDR Gram-negative pathogens including Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Acinetobacter baumannii, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Stenotrophomonas maltophilia. (wikipedia.org)
  • The term is used in the context of resistance that pathogens or cancers have "acquired", that is, resistance has evolved. (wikipedia.org)
  • Irradiation is the use of ionising gamma rays emitted by cobalt-60 and caesium-137, or, high-energy electrons and X-rays to inactivate microbial pathogens, particularly in the food industry. (wikipedia.org)
  • It stated that infectious diseases were a leading cause of death, accounting for a quarter to a third of the estimated 54 million deaths worldwide in 1998, and that the spread of infectious diseases results as much from changes in human behavior-including lifestyles and land use patterns, increased trade and travel, and inappropriate use of antibiotic drugs-as from mutations in pathogens. (wikipedia.org)
  • microbes
  • In short, the lack of concerted effort by governments and the pharmaceutical industry, together with the innate capacity of microbes to develop resistance at a rate that outpaces development of new drugs, suggests that existing strategies for developing viable, long-term anti-microbial therapies are ultimately doomed to failure. (wikipedia.org)
  • PEF treatment is an adequate process for inactivation of microbes in acids and other thermosensitive media, but holds inherent resistance dangers because of incomplete destruction. (wikipedia.org)
  • phenotype
  • This study tests the hypothesis that salvage regimens selected on the basis of HIV-1 resistance genotype, phenotype [AS PER AMENDMENT 02/19/02: virtual phenotype], and treatment history will be more effective if there is a period of treatment interruption before initiating that regimen. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • The phenotype for pleiotropic drug resistance (PDR) in Saccharomyces cerevisiae (SACE) was discovered in 1973 by R ANK and B ECH -H ANSEN [ 1 ], who reported that single gene mutations were responsible for resistance to multiple drugs of different chemical structures and different targets. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Physical
  • Drugs that do not bind to receptors produce their corresponding therapeutic effect by simply interacting with chemical or physical properties in the body. (wikipedia.org)
  • Due to the physical interactions between the labeled molecule and a protein, biochemical methods can be used to determine the toxicity, efficacy, and the mechanism of action of the drug. (wikipedia.org)
  • genes
  • Isolates were investigated by polymerase chain reaction for aadA, strA, and strB streptomycin resistance genes. (wur.nl)
  • None of the 60 Salmonella isolates exhibiting MIC 4¿mg/L harbored resistance genes. (wur.nl)
  • A rapid process of sharing resistance exists among single-celled organisms, and is termed horizontal gene transfer in which there is a direct exchange of genes, particularly in the biofilm state. (wikipedia.org)
  • mutation
  • By knowing what cellular structure an anti-infective or anticancer drug acts upon, it is possible to administer a cocktail that inhibits multiple targets simultaneously, thereby reducing the risk that a single mutation in microbial or tumor DNA will lead to drug resistance and treatment failure. (wikipedia.org)
  • proteins
  • We have analyzed the complex evolution of the pleiotropic drug resistance proteins (Pdrp) subfamily where gene duplications and deletions occur independently in individual genomes. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Discovery that sildenafil inhibits phosphodiesterase-5 (PDE-5) proteins, for example, enabled this drug to be repurposed for pulmonary arterial hypertension treatment, since PDE-5 is expressed in pulmonary hypertensive lungs. (wikipedia.org)
  • regimen
  • Resistance testing is likely to be beneficial as an aid in selecting a salvage regimen. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • At entry, patients are randomized to Arm A (sequencing) or Arm B (phenotyping) and have a resistance test drawn while still receiving the current regimen even though regimen failure is suspected. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • If virologic failure is confirmed, a new regimen is chosen and prescribed at the first visit after resistance test results are available. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • AS PER AMENDMENT 12/6/00: If the resistance assay fails to yield results, another regimen is chosen and prescribed based on the patient's medical and medication history. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • If virologic failure is not confirmed, the current drug regimen is not changed. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • An OB regimen is chosen by the physician and patient based on the patient's prior treatment history, prior and current laboratory abnormalities, the screening GT/PT antiretroviral resistance testing, and any prior GT/PT antiretroviral resistance (if available). (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • The drugs in the OB regimen are chosen from among the currently approved antiretrovirals and permitted newly approved/investigational antiretrovirals available in the countries where the study is implemented, and must consist of 3 to 5 drugs, including no more than 1 newly approved/investigational agent. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Studies suggest that treatment interruption prior to initiation of a multiple-drug rescue regimen may improve virologic response in individuals who have failed several prior antiretroviral regimens. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • molecule
  • Direct biochemical methods include methods in which a protein or a small molecule, such as a drug candidate, is labeled and is traced throughout the body. (wikipedia.org)
  • Typically, computation inference methods are primarily used to predict protein targets for small molecule drugs based on computer based pattern recognition. (wikipedia.org)
  • By identifying the pharmacophore of the drug molecule, the profiling method of pattern recognition can be carried out where a new target is identified. (wikipedia.org)
  • Molecular
  • A mechanism of action usually includes mention of the specific molecular targets to which the drug binds, such as an enzyme or receptor. (wikipedia.org)
  • organisms
  • Individual organisms vary in their sensitivity to the drug used and some with greater fitness may be capable of surviving drug treatment. (wikipedia.org)
  • acquisition
  • Without alternative strategies, the acquisition of drug resistance by pathogenic microorganisms looms as possibly one of the most significant public health threats facing humanity in the 21st century. (wikipedia.org)
  • chemical
  • Drug, toxin, or chemical resistance is a consequence of evolution and is a response to pressures imposed on any living organism. (wikipedia.org)
  • Receptor sites have specific affinities for drugs based on the chemical structure of the drug, as well as the specific action that occurs there. (wikipedia.org)
  • single
  • The microbial cells growing in a biofilm are physiologically distinct from planktonic cells of the same organism, which, by contrast, are single-cells that may float or swim in a liquid medium. (wikipedia.org)
  • possible
  • This provides an insight at a possible mechanism of action, as it is known what certain functional components of the drug are responsible for interacting with a certain area on a protein, thus, leading to a therapeutic effect. (wikipedia.org)