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  • melanogaster
  • 1. The optomotor control of orientation and locomotion in the fruitfly Drosophila melanogaster requires the conveyance of information from distinct movement detectors in the visual system to distinct movement effectors in the motor system. (biologists.org)
  • sequence
  • Early insights into the DNA binding specificity of Smad proteins came from oligonucleotide binding screens, which identified the palindromic duplex 5'-GTCTAGAC-3' as a high affinity binding sequence for SMAD3 and SMAD4 MH1 domains. (wikipedia.org)
  • Patched has sequence similarity to known membrane transport proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • synaptic
  • 3 Greengard and coworkers have shown that phosphorylation of a set of synaptic membrane proteins, collectively known as protein I is stimulated specifically in response to cAMP and calcium. (springer.com)
  • fruit flies
  • The pathway takes its name from its polypeptide ligand, an intercellular signaling molecule called Hedgehog (Hh) found in fruit flies of the genus Drosophila. (wikipedia.org)
  • intracellular
  • Other than the typical seven-transmembrane region, characteristic structural features include an amino-terminal extracellular domain involved in ligand binding, and an intracellular loop (IC3) required for specific G-protein coupling. (wikipedia.org)
  • phosphorylation
  • W.B. Huttner and P. Greengard, Multiple phosphorylation sites in protein I and their differential regulation by cyclic AMP and calcium, Proc. (springer.com)
  • GPCR
  • This family is known as Family B, the secretin-receptor family or family 2 of the G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCR). (wikipedia.org)
  • found
  • For example, the residues found at the C-terminus of drosophila PIMT (dPIMT) are rotated 90 degrees so as to allow more space for a substrate to interact with the enzyme. (wikipedia.org)
  • During Drosophila research, it was found that a mutation in the gene MAD in the mother repressed the gene decapentaplegic in the embryo. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is found in a single copy in Drosophila proteins and is often associated with the MADF domain. (wikipedia.org)
  • In Drosophila, Fzo is found in postmeiotic spermatids and the dysfunction of this protein results in male sterility. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Vasa protein is found primarily in germ cells in embryos and adults, where it is involved in germ cell determination and function, as well as in multipotent stem cells, where its exact function is unknown. (wikipedia.org)
  • For example, Oskar protein was found to localize to pole plasm and may be involved in anchoring Vasa to polar granules in the posterior pole of the oocyte. (wikipedia.org)
  • residues
  • Dual-specificity protein phosphatases remove phosphate groups from phosphorylated tyrosine and serine / threonine residues. (wikipedia.org)
  • human
  • However, given their location close to regulatory elements, it is possible that they are involved in gene regulation, which suggests that common variance in brain structure could be associated with differences in gene regulation rather than protein structure, consistent with findings in other complex human traits. (wikipedia.org)
  • The enzyme is present in human cytosol in two forms due to alternative splicing and differs among individuals in the population due to a single polymorphism at protein 119, either valine or isoleucine. (wikipedia.org)
  • The protein encoded by this gene is the human ortholog of mouse and Drosophila four-jointed gene product. (wikipedia.org)
  • Human proteins containing this domain include: GPSM1, GPSM2, GPSM3 PCP2 RAP1GAP. (wikipedia.org)
  • As with other Vasa related proteins, human Vasa has a N terminus rich in glycine and RGG motif repeats that function in RNA binding. (wikipedia.org)
  • interaction
  • This process most likely involves the direct interaction of Smoothened and Costal-2 and may involve sequestration of the Ci protein-containing complex to a microdomain where the steps leading to Ci protein proteolysis are disrupted. (wikipedia.org)
  • receptors
  • In heterotrimeric G-protein signalling, cell surface receptors (GPCRs) are coupled to membrane-associated heterotrimers comprising a GTP-hydrolyzing subunit G-alpha and a G-beta/G-gamma dimer. (wikipedia.org)
  • implications
  • 1 It has been suggested that the protein modification mechanisms might have wider functional implications and might form the basis for an understanding of complex phenomena such as information storage and retrieval. (springer.com)
  • melanogaster
  • 1. The optomotor control of orientation and locomotion in the fruitfly Drosophila melanogaster requires the conveyance of information from distinct movement detectors in the visual system to distinct movement effectors in the motor system. (biologists.org)
  • genes
  • The ubiquitous protein complexes AP-3, BLOC-1, and BLOC-2, which contain as subunits the products of genes defective in various types of Hermansky-Pudlak syndrome, have been likewise implicated in trafficking to melanosomes. (wiley.com)
  • The book's somewhat controversial argument is that evolution in animals (though no doubt similar processes occur in other organisms) proceeds mostly by modifying the way that regulatory genes, which do not code for structural proteins (such as enzymes), control embryonic development. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the cells of extant organisms, the vast majority of the proteins present in the mitochondria (numbering approximately 1500 different types in mammals) are coded for by nuclear DNA, but the genes for some, if not most, of them are thought to have originally been of bacterial origin, having since been transferred to the eukaryotic nucleus during evolution. (wikipedia.org)
  • Human genes that encode protein-tyrosine sulfotransferase enzymes include: Sulfotransferase Lee RW, Huttner WB (September 1983). (wikipedia.org)
  • They are synthesised by a family of nine genes (mrjp genes), which are in turn members of the yellow family of genes such as in the fruitfly (Drosophila) and bacteria. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 1994, Hanes and Šimuth's team identified genes called pRJP57-1 and pRJP57-2 from the bee head and found that these genes produce similar protein to the first MRJP. (wikipedia.org)
  • degradation
  • These proteolytic active sites located in the inner side of a chamber formed by 4 stacked rings of 20S subunits, preventing random protein-enzyme encounter and uncontrolled protein degradation. (wikipedia.org)
  • The 19S regulatory particles can recognize ubiquitin-labeled protein as degradation substrate, unfold the protein to linear, open the gate of 20S core particle, and guide the substate into the proteolytic chamber. (wikipedia.org)
  • WW domain-containing proteins are found in all eukaryotes and play an important role in the regulation of a wide variety of cellular functions such as protein degradation, transcription, and RNA splicing. (wikipedia.org)
  • binds
  • The encoded protein binds to 11-cis retinal and is activated when light hits the retinal molecule. (genecards.org)
  • The systematic arrestin name (1-4) plus the most widely used aliases for each arrestin subtype are listed in bold below: Arrestin-1 was originally identified as the S-antigen (SAG) causing uveitis (autoimmune eye disease), then independently described as a 48 kDa protein that binds light-activated phosphorylated rhodopsin before it became clear that both are one and the same. (wikipedia.org)
  • larval
  • In 2011, Kamakura discovered that RJP-1 is the main protein for controlling larval development that distinguishes the queen from workers. (wikipedia.org)
  • But researchers at the Martin Luther University of Halle-Wittenberg reported in 2016 that MRJP1 alone is not the main protein, but MRJP2, MRJP3, and MRJP5 are equally important in the larval development of the queen. (wikipedia.org)
  • substrates
  • Beyond these two proteins, other notable protein substrates include Cholecystokinin (CCK), Factor V and Factor VIII, gastrin, the leech enzyme hirudin, fibrinogen, Complement component 4, follicle-stimulating hormone receptor (FSHR), and other chemokine and G-protein coupled receptors. (wikipedia.org)
  • phosphorylation
  • Short coding motifs, which appear to lack secondary structure, include those that label proteins for delivery to particular parts of a cell, or mark them for phosphorylation. (wikipedia.org)
  • The first step is phosphorylation by a class of serine/threonine kinases called G protein coupled receptor kinases (GRKs). (wikipedia.org)
  • regulatory
  • The human protein 26S proteasome non-ATPase regulatory subunit 14 is 37 kDa in size and composed of 324 amino acids. (wikipedia.org)
  • According to the protein interaction and topological characteristics of this multisubunit complex, the 19S regulatory particle is composed of a base and a lid subcomplex. (wikipedia.org)
  • Pathways
  • Arrestin binding to the receptor blocks further G protein-mediated signaling and targets receptors for internalization, and redirects signaling to alternative G protein-independent pathways, such as β-arrestin signaling. (wikipedia.org)
  • mitochondria
  • In this phase, the cell increases its supply of proteins, increases the number of organelles (such as mitochondria, ribosomes), and grows in size. (wikipedia.org)
  • synthesis
  • In order for the cell to continue through the G1-pm, there must be a high amount of growth factors and a steady rate of protein synthesis, otherwise the cell will move into G0 phase. (wikipedia.org)
  • Molecular
  • Am J Med Genet A. doi:10.1002/ajmg.a.34122 Melko M, Douguet D, Bensaid M, Zongaro S, Verheggen C, Gecz J, Bardoni B (2011) Functional characterization of the AFF (AF4/FMR2) family of RNA-binding proteins: insights into the molecular pathology of FRAXE intellectual disability. (wikipedia.org)
  • kinases
  • Studies of the similar gene in mouse suggested that this protein may interact with, and regulate the activity of numerous protein kinases of the JNK signaling pathway, and thus function as a scaffold protein in neuronal cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • consists
  • It consists of a short cytosolic region that contains the N-terminus of the protein, a single transmembrane region of about 17 amino acids in length, a small stem region of about 40 amino acids in length, and a larger, catalytic region that is located on the luminal side of the membrane. (wikipedia.org)
  • The family consists of nine proteins, of which MRJP1 (also called royalactin), MRJP2, MRJP3, MRJP4, and MRJP5 are present in the royal jelly secreted by worker bees. (wikipedia.org)
  • interactions
  • Evidence is accumulating that base damage, particularly that produced by oxidation reactions, can modulate DNA protein interactions and affect promoter function. (springer.com)
  • affinity
  • For example, many DNA binding proteins that have affinity for specific DNA binding sites bind DNA in only its double-helical form. (wikipedia.org)
  • cytoplasmic
  • First, arrestin binding to the cytoplasmic face of the receptor occludes the binding site for heterotrimeric G-protein, preventing its activation (desensitization). (wikipedia.org)
  • Rhodopsin
  • Arrestins were first discovered as a part of a conserved two-step mechanism for regulating the activity of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) in the visual rhodopsin system by Hermann Kühn, Scott Hall, and Ursula Wilden and in the β-adrenergic system by Martin J. Lohse and co-workers. (wikipedia.org)
  • HUMAN
  • The proteins were called Ten-ms in zebrafish, teneurins in chicken, Ten-m1-4, Odz1-4, Ten-m/Odz1-4, DOC4 in mouse, neurestin in rat, and teneurin or Odz in human. (wikipedia.org)
  • cell
  • Genetic combinatorial marking using lentiviral vectors encoding fluorescent proteins (FPs) enabled cell fate mapping through advanced microscopy imaging. (jove.com)
  • Once the required proteins and growth are complete, the cell enters the next phase of the cell cycle, S phase. (wikipedia.org)
  • In addition to GPCRs, arrestins bind to other classes of cell surface receptors and a variety of other signaling proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • functional
  • These observations suggest functional links between OCA2 and these three protein complexes involved in melanosome biogenesis. (wiley.com)
  • species
  • In that species it is a universal adapter protein as it is used by almost all TLRs (except TLR 3) to activate the transcription factor NF-κB. (wikipedia.org)
  • different
  • p>When browsing through different UniProt proteins, you can use the 'basket' to save them, so that you can back to find or analyse them later. (uniprot.org)
  • activity
  • Gene Ontology (GO) annotations related to this gene include calcium ion binding and protein heterodimerization activity . (genecards.org)
  • GO annotations related to this gene include G-protein coupled receptor activity and photoreceptor activity . (genecards.org)
  • Activity of ABL1 protein is negatively regulated by its SH3 domain, and deletion of the SH3 domain turns ABL1 into an oncogene. (wikipedia.org)