• infectious disease outbreaks
  • In our interconnected world we are all vulnerable" when countries lack the will or the ability to detect and contain infectious-disease outbreaks, Laura Holgate, senior director for Weapons of Mass Destruction Terrorism and Threat Reduction at the U.S. National Security Council, told reporters ahead of the Thursday meeting. (voanews.com)
  • Washington, Dec 7 (ANI): A team of epidemiologists and computer scientists from the Models of Infectious Disease Agent Study have developed a new software program, called TranStat, to aid early detection of infectious disease outbreaks. (thaindian.com)
  • TranStat is a great example of how MIDAS is providing tools to help communities prepare for emerging infectious disease outbreaks, said Jeremy M. Berg, Ph.D., director of the National Institute of General Medical Sciences, the National Institutes of Health (NIH) component that funds MIDAS. (thaindian.com)
  • influenza
  • Illustration of an influenza virus attaching to a cell membrane: Professor Louise Ryan is working with CSIRO to distinguish cases of the flu from other disease events. (terradaily.com)
  • Using this technique, they were able to predict influenza outbreaks in the U.S., Poland, Japan and Thailand, the spread of dengue in Brazil, and a spike in the number of tuberculosis cases in Thailand. (ibtimes.com)
  • Another goal is to detect threats early, such as by strengthening and linking disease-monitoring systems of individual countries, developing real-time electronic reporting systems, and promoting faster sharing of biological samples, such as throat swabs and blood samples from people with a new form of influenza. (voanews.com)
  • They included novel diseases, such as new strains of influenza and outbreaks of known threats such as Ebola. (voanews.com)
  • In the event of an influenza pandemic or other communicable disease situation, [Name of Company] may implement these social distancing guidelines to minimize the spread of the influenza and other communicable diseases among the staff. (shrm.org)
  • The intermittent spread to humans will continue, and the virus will continue to evolve.Map As of the July 25, 2008 FAO Avian Influenza Disease Emergency Situation Update, H5N1 pathogenicity is continuing to gradually rise in endemic areas but the avian influenza disease situation in farmed birds is being held in check by vaccination. (wikipedia.org)
  • Country-specific totals of cases and deaths kept current by the WHO may be viewed by clicking through the links provided at http://www.who.int/csr/disease/avian_influenza/country/en/ Epidemic and Pandemic Alert and Response (EPR) Confirmed Human Cases of Avian Influenza A(H5N1) A strain of H5N1 killed chickens in 1959 in Scotland and turkeys in 1991 in England. (wikipedia.org)
  • 1993
  • The increase in the number of outbreaks since 1993 could reflect improved surveillance and reporting at the local and state level, a true increase in the number of WBDOs, or a combination of these factors. (cdc.gov)
  • 2016
  • In early 2016, we knew about outbreaks of C. auris infections on multiple continents, but we were not sure whether C. auris was in the United States. (cdc.gov)
  • The West African Ebola virus epidemic (2013-2016) was the most widespread outbreak of Ebola virus disease (EVD) in history-causing major loss of life and socioeconomic disruption in the region, mainly in the countries of Guinea, Liberia, and Sierra Leone. (wikipedia.org)
  • As of 8 May 2016[update], the World Health Organization (WHO) and respective governments reported a total of 28,616 suspected cases and 11,310 deaths (39.5%), though the WHO believes that this substantially understates the magnitude of the outbreak. (wikipedia.org)
  • On 29 March 2016, the WHO terminated the Public Health Emergency of International Concern status of the outbreak. (wikipedia.org)
  • In December 2016, the WHO announced that a two-year trial of the rVSV-ZEBOV vaccine appeared to offer protection from the strain of Ebola responsible for the West Africa outbreak. (wikipedia.org)
  • Ebola had been discovered to be endemic to West Africa decades prior to the 2013-2016 outbreak, but this was not well understood in West Africa or by the international health community. (wikipedia.org)
  • The 2013-2016 outbreak was the first anywhere in the world to reach epidemic proportions. (wikipedia.org)
  • EPIDEMICS
  • The first recognized dengue epidemics occurred almost simultaneously in Asia, Africa, and North America in the 1780s, shortly after the identification and naming of the disease in 1779. (wikipedia.org)
  • 2017
  • An outbreak of plague in Madagascar began in August 2017 and expanded rapidly, with about two-thirds of cases transmitted person-to-person as pneumonic plague, the most dangerous form of the disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • The outbreak began in August 2017 with the death from pneumonic plague of a 31-year-old man who had been traveling in a crowded minibus toward the capital city of Antananarivo in the central highlands. (wikipedia.org)
  • H5N1
  • Eleven outbreaks of H5N1 were reported worldwide in June 2008 in five countries (China, Egypt, Indonesia, Pakistan and Vietnam) compared to 65 outbreaks in June 2006 and 55 in June 2007. (wikipedia.org)
  • A highly pathogenic strain of H5N1 caused flu outbreaks with significant spread to numerous farms, resulting in great economic losses in 1959 in Scotland in chickens and in 1991 in England in turkeys. (wikipedia.org)
  • The first report, in the current wave of HPAI A(H5N1) outbreaks, was of an outbreak that began December 10, 2003 in the Republic of Korea and continued for fourteen weeks. (wikipedia.org)
  • cause of the o
  • The cause of the outbreak was traced back to the Opera House Hotel on July 10, 2015 and was declared as over as of August 20. (wikipedia.org)
  • While the Center for Disease Control responded rapidly, as did the Pennsylvania Health Department, it wasn't until nearly a year later that Joseph McDade made the discovery that a previously identified bacterium was the cause of the outbreak. (wikipedia.org)
  • Ebola
  • For issues like Ebola, I don't think people at the beginning of the outbreak in West Africa would have (been searching for it), because they wouldn't have had it (Ebola) before. (ibtimes.com)
  • The outbreak left about 17,000 survivors of the disease, many of whom report post-recovery symptoms termed post-Ebola syndrome, often severe enough to require medical care for months or even years. (wikipedia.org)
  • Ebola virus disease (commonly known as "Ebola") was first described in 1976 in two simultaneous outbreaks in the Democratic Republic of the Congo and what is now South Sudan. (wikipedia.org)
  • Zika
  • French Polynesia In October 2013, an independent outbreak of the Zika virus occurred in the Society, Marquesas and Tuamotu Islands of French Polynesia. (wikipedia.org)
  • The outbreak abated in October 2014, with 8,723 suspected cases of Zika reported. (wikipedia.org)
  • French Polynesia On 20 March, researchers discover that two mothers and their newborns test positive for Zika, perinatal transmission confirmed by polymerase chain reaction performed on serum collected within four days of birth during the outbreak. (wikipedia.org)
  • Japan In December 2013, a Japanese tourist returning to Japan was diagnosed with Zika virus infection by the National Institute of Infectious Diseases after visiting the French Polynesian island of Bora Bora, becoming the first imported case of Zika fever in Japan. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cook Islands In February 2014, an outbreak of Zika started in the Cook Islands. (wikipedia.org)
  • The outbreak ended on 29 May, with 50 confirmed and 932 suspected cases of Zika virus infection. (wikipedia.org)
  • Solomon Islands An outbreak of Zika begins on the Solomon Islands, with 302 cases reported by 3 May. (wikipedia.org)
  • Wikipedia
  • Wikipedia page views could, in the future, become an important tool in predicting disease outbreaks, according to the findings of a new study published in the journal PLOS Computational Biology. (ibtimes.com)
  • The research, carried out by a group of data scientists from the Los Alamos National Laboratory in New Mexico, argued that Wikipedia traffic data could also be used to estimate the current rates of disease outbreaks across the world. (ibtimes.com)
  • The team of scientists tracked the progress of seven diseases across 11 countries -- using language as an approximate measure for people's locations -- between 2010 and 2013, and compared page views on Wikipedia articles about those diseases with data obtained from health ministries. (ibtimes.com)
  • The researchers claimed that Wikipedia is the best bet to create an Internet-based model to predict outbreaks because data on Wikipedia page views are publicly available. (ibtimes.com)
  • However, the Wikipedia-based model was not successful in predicting the spread of slow-progressing diseases like HIV/AIDS, according to the paper. (ibtimes.com)
  • World Health Organ
  • The World Health Organization warned that there was a high risk the disease could spread to nine other countries in Africa and the Indian Ocean (Ethiopia, Kenya, Tanzania, Mozambique, South Africa, Seychelles, Comoros, Reunion, and Mauritius) because of frequent trade and travel with Madagascar. (wikipedia.org)
  • Flag icons denote the first announcements of confirmed cases by the respective nation-states, their first deaths (and other events such as their first reported cases of microcephaly and major public health announcements), and relevant sessions and announcements of the World Health Organization (WHO), and the U.S. Centers for Disease Control (CDC), as well as relevant virological, epidemiological, and entomological studies. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 1980 the World Health Organization (WHO) announced the eradication of smallpox, a highly contagious and incurable disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • occurrence
  • Professor Ryan will be contributing to the development of a model of what the 'usual' behaviour of a disease occurrence would be. (terradaily.com)
  • diarrhoea
  • Cramped living conditions, limited clean water, and poor sanitation increases the risk of diarrhoea and other disease outbreaks. (who.int)
  • The WHO spokeswoman said Haitian authorities asked for assistance with the outbreak of diarrhoea and vomiting. (medindia.net)
  • pandemic
  • Japan has inoculated 6,000 health care workers with a pre-pandemic vaccine, and is planning how to proceed with widespread vaccinations, particularly workers who would provide utilities during an outbreak. (wikipedia.org)
  • illnesses
  • Meeting in Washington, D.C., the countries include several that have been Ground Zero for recent outbreaks of potentially fatal contagious illnesses such as H7N9 bird flu, which was detected in China a year ago, and Middle East Respiratory Syndrome, which was first reported in Saudi Arabia in 2012. (voanews.com)
  • Nurses have always played a vital role in the response to outbreaks of deadly illnesses. (uleth.ca)
  • Legionella
  • Legionella isolation can be conducted using the method developed by the US Center for Disease Control using buffered charcoal yeast extract agar with antibiotics. (wikipedia.org)
  • cases
  • and parasites, 2% of outbreaks and 5% of cases. (cdc.gov)
  • Based on this comparison, the researchers found that, in eight out of 14 cases, there was a clear increase in page views nearly a month before an official declaration of an outbreak. (ibtimes.com)
  • According to the OIE, several cases of Newcastle disease have been recorded in different districts with high morbidity and mortality. (thepoultrysite.com)
  • According to the team, the newly released software program will enable health authorities at the site of an infectious disease outbreak quickly analyse data, speeding the detection of new cases and the implementation of effective interventions. (thaindian.com)
  • The disease is reported to begin as a skin rash, and in numerous cases appears to have led to the death of the sufferers through organ failure. (wikipedia.org)
  • Four deaths were registered in the official adverse event register, and while in only two cases a clear causal link was considered to be in place, two other cases were diagnosed with a disease which in scientific peer-reviewed articles (case descriptions) have been mistakenly first made, and afterward have been noticed to be disseminated BCG infections. (wikipedia.org)
  • The outbreak appeared to peak in Mid-October with the number of new cases declining. (wikipedia.org)
  • The outbreak expanded rapidly, transmitted person-to-person in the pneumonic form of the disease, which accounted for more than 60 percent of cases. (wikipedia.org)
  • Authorities called the outbreak "quite worrisome" because the number of cases per day was growing rapidly, and many cases were in urban areas where there are more opportunities for contact between people. (wikipedia.org)
  • By the late 1990s, dengue was the most important mosquito-borne disease affecting humans after malaria, with around 40 million cases of dengue fever and several hundred thousand cases of dengue hemorrhagic fever each year. (wikipedia.org)
  • Nearby Guadeloupe and Martinique, in the French Caribbean, were affected as well: over 40000 clinical cases in each island required medical assistance (the outbreak peaked in August 2010 and was practically over by October). (wikipedia.org)
  • Two linked cases of a rare infectious disease may be sufficient to constitute an outbreak. (wikipedia.org)
  • The outbreak peaked in April, with the number of confirmed cases reaching 1,400 by 17 September. (wikipedia.org)
  • Small outbreaks occurred in Nigeria and Mali, and isolated cases were recorded in Senegal, the United Kingdom and Sardinia. (wikipedia.org)
  • contagious
  • Public health officials could use social media platforms like Twitter and Facebook to track contagious diseases, according to research published Tuesday. (ibtimes.com)
  • Salmonella
  • For example, if Health Canada was trying to determine the cause of a Salmonella outbreak in humans, the database would specify any related outbreaks in farm or pet animals and related contaminated food products. (uoguelph.ca)
  • 1990s
  • While avian flu has been a prominent public health issue since the 1990s, ongoing outbreaks have never been so widely spread around the world - something infectious disease experts put down to greater resilience of strains currently circulating, rather than improved detection or reporting. (perelandra-ltd.com)
  • laboratory
  • Also, a single case of chemical poisoning constitutes an outbreak if laboratory studies indicate that the water has been contaminated by the chemical. (cdc.gov)
  • In addition, the Health Effects Research Laboratory of the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) contacts all state water-supply agencies annually to obtain information about waterborne disease outbreaks. (cdc.gov)
  • Traditional disease surveillance techniques involve collecting data from laboratory tests and tracking the number of visits to health care facilities. (ibtimes.com)
  • Time is key in these events -- people can become very ill or die during disease outbreaks -- so speedy recognition and evaluation are critical," said Beverly McEwen, one of the project co-ordinators from the University's Animal Health Laboratory. (uoguelph.ca)
  • Claude Surena, president of the Haitian Medical Association, told AFP that laboratory analysis on the outbreak in Saint Marc, about 100 kilometers (60 miles) north of the capital Port-Au-Prince, showed it was cholera. (medindia.net)
  • In outbreaks identified through notifiable disease surveillance, reports are often linked to laboratory results and verifying the diagnosis is straight forward. (wikipedia.org)
  • pinpoint
  • Children's Hospital Boston, said in a press release, said it can pinpoint outbreaks reported in the vicinity of a user and let them search for additional information by location or disease. (newsmax.com)
  • University of Guelph researchers have received a $375,000 Health Canada grant to develop a database program to help pinpoint causes of disease outbreaks. (uoguelph.ca)
  • smallpox
  • Although the disease has been eliminated in the wild, frozen stocks of smallpox virus are still maintained by the governments of the United States and Russia. (wikipedia.org)
  • authorities
  • The likelihood of an outbreak's coming to the attention of health authorities varies considerably from one locale to another and depends largely upon consumer awareness, physician interest, and disease surveillance activities of state and local health and environmental agencies. (cdc.gov)
  • BOTSWANA - The veterinary authorities in Botswana have reported five fresh outbreaks of Newcastle disease in Central Serowe, Kgatleng, South-east Ramotswa, Southern Kanye and Kweneng. (thepoultrysite.com)
  • The outbreak was initially recognized on 11 September by local authorities and confirmed by the Institut Pasteur de Madagascar. (wikipedia.org)
  • spread
  • Disease threats spread faster than ever before," and "outbreaks anywhere in the world are only a plane ride away" from everyplace else. (voanews.com)
  • The program uses this information to statistically determine the probability that people contracted the disease from each other, a driving factor in the spread of infections. (thaindian.com)
  • By the 8th November, deaths had risen to 165 with infections totalling over 2000, however the rate of spread had slowed, raising hope that the outbreak was starting to come under control. (wikipedia.org)
  • Verify the diagnosis related to the outbreak Create a case definition to define who/what is included as a case Map the spread of the outbreak using Information technology as diagnosis is reported to insurance Develop a hypothesis (What appears to be causing the outbreak? (wikipedia.org)
  • Epidemic - when this disease is found to infect a significantly larger number of people at the same time than is common at that time, and among that population, and may spread through one or several communities. (wikipedia.org)
  • later, the disease spread to neighboring Liberia and Sierra Leone, with minor outbreaks occurring elsewhere. (wikipedia.org)
  • These agents are typically found in nature, but could be mutated or altered to increase their ability to cause disease, make them resistant to current medicines, or to increase their ability to be spread into the environment. (wikipedia.org)
  • 2001
  • A highly relevant pathogen in this context is the foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) virus, which is capable of causing widespread economic damage and public concern (as witnessed in the 2001 and 2007 FMD outbreaks in the UK), whilst having almost no capacity to infect humans. (wikipedia.org)
  • epidemiologists
  • Since 1966, the quality of investigative reports has improved greatly, with more active participation by state and federal epidemiologists in outbreak investigations. (cdc.gov)
  • The reasons included lack of scientific capacity to conduct disease surveillance, such as to detect a new bird virus spreading to people, too few trained epidemiologists and the fact that "some things are just plain hard, like being able to detect and contain a disease at points of entry into a country," said Katz. (voanews.com)
  • detection
  • Serological evidence indicates additional human exposure and/or presence in some mosquito species between 1951 and 1981 in parts of Africa (Uganda and Tanzania having the first detection of antibody in humans, in 1952, followed by isolation of the virus from a young girl in Nigeria in 1954 during an outbreak of jaundice, and experimental infection in a human volunteer in 1956. (wikipedia.org)
  • public health
  • These early surveillance efforts led to the enactment of important public health measures (e.g., the Pasteurized Milk Ordinance) that led to decreased incidence of enteric diseases, particularly those transmitted by milk and water (2). (cdc.gov)
  • As people are equipped with more knowledge and awareness of infectious disease, the hope is that they will become more involved and proactive about public health," he said. (newsmax.com)
  • Public health departments investigate waterborne disease outbreaks in states, territories, and Freely Associated States and are essential contributors to the WBDOSS. (wikipedia.org)
  • Public health researchers and policy makers use the data to understand and reduce waterborne disease and outbreaks. (wikipedia.org)
  • Outbreak debriefing and review has also been recognized as an additional final step and iterative process by the Public Health Agency of Canada. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, some countries do manage the outbreaks using relevant acts, such as public health law. (wikipedia.org)
  • As part of this work, he has built and maintains several patient facing public health systems, including HealthMap, an internet-based global infectious disease intelligence system. (wikipedia.org)
  • On 8 August 2014, it declared the outbreak a public health emergency of international concern. (wikipedia.org)
  • hypothesis
  • Study hypotheses (collect data and perform analysis) Refine hypothesis and carry out further study Develop and implement control and prevention systems Release findings to greater communities The order of the above steps and relative amount of effort and resources used in each varies from outbreak to outbreak. (wikipedia.org)
  • HealthMap
  • We hope individuals will find the new app to be a useful source of outbreak information -- locally, nationally, and globally," said HealthMap co-founder John Brownstein, an assistant professor in the Children's Hospital Informatics Program. (newsmax.com)
  • evaluate
  • Representatives from CDC and EPA review and summarize outbreak data and also work together to investigate and evaluate waterborne disease outbreaks. (cdc.gov)
  • CDC uses surveillance data to identify the etiologic agents, types of aquatics venues, water-treatment systems, and deficiencies associated with outbreaks and to evaluate the adequacy of efforts (e.g., regulations and public awareness activities) for providing safe recreational water. (cdc.gov)
  • cholera
  • The WHO has revealed that UN health experts rushed to northern Haiti to help tackle a sudden outbreak of diarrhoeal disease that has left 150 dead, after some initial tests showed traces of cholera. (medindia.net)
  • The WHO said samples from hospitalized patients were being tested for different diarrheal-disease pathogens, including the cholera bacteria. (medindia.net)
  • data
  • The first-of-its-kind project will link animal health, food safety and human health data to speed up the identification and evaluation of disease outbreak sources. (uoguelph.ca)
  • During 1920--1970, statistical data regarding U.S. waterborne-disease outbreaks (WBDOs) were collected by different researchers and federal agencies ( 1 ). (cdc.gov)
  • initially
  • Initially called novel coronavirus 2012 or simply novel coronavirus, it was first reported in 2012 after genome sequencing of a virus isolated from sputum samples from a person who fell ill in a 2012 outbreak of a new flu. (wikipedia.org)
  • Initially, the disease appears as small purple or red brown flecks with a faint chlorotic halo on the leaf surface, which coalesce to form bright yellow pustules. (wikipedia.org)
  • viruses
  • Many people in outbreaks are not virally tested, therefore their infections may also be due to chikungunya, a coinfection of both, or even other similar viruses. (wikipedia.org)