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  • inorganic phosphate
  • The reactions of the cycle also convert three equivalents of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+) into three equivalents of reduced NAD+ (NADH), one equivalent of flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) into one equivalent of FADH2, and one equivalent each of guanosine diphosphate (GDP) and inorganic phosphate (Pi) into one equivalent of guanosine triphosphate (GTP). (wikipedia.org)
  • intermediates
  • In addition, the flavin cofactor is proposed to function as a "molecular scaffold" in the formation of UDP-galactofuranose and alkyl-dihydroxyacetonephosphate by forming a covalent adduct with reaction intermediates. (mdpi.com)
  • molecules
  • In the light-independent reactions (also known as the Calvin cycle), two 3-phosphoglycerate molecules are synthesized, one of which continues through the Calvin cycle to be regenerated to RuBP and the other is reduced to form one molecule of glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate (G3P). (wikipedia.org)
  • Escherichia
  • Structural Anayysis of Glyeraldehyde 3-Phosphate Dehydrogenase from Escherichia coli: Direct Evidence for Substrate Binding and Cofactor-Induced Confromational Changes. (wikipedia.org)
  • accumulation
  • A marked decrease in TPI activity and an accumulation of dihydroxyacetone phosphate have been detected in erythrocyte extracts of homozygous (two identical mutant alleles) and compound heterozygous (two different mutant alleles) TPI deficiency patients. (wikipedia.org)
  • ions
  • This returns ADP, phosphate ions Pi, and NADP+ to the light-dependent reactions of photosynthesis for their continued function. (wikipedia.org)
  • molecule
  • It is then changed into fructose 6-phosphate, with the assistance of phosphoglucose isomerase, which is then changed into fructose 1,6-biphosphate when the fructose molecule receives a phosphate group from another ATP. (wikipedia.org)
  • Atom balance is maintained by the two phosphate (Pi) groups: Each exists in the form of a hydrogen phosphate anion (HPO42−), dissociating to contribute 2 H+ overall Each liberates an oxygen atom when it binds to an ADP (adenosine diphosphate) molecule, contributing 2 O overall Charges are balanced by the difference between ADP and ATP. (wikipedia.org)
  • form
  • Fructose 1,6-bis(phosphate) has also been implicated in the ability to bind and sequester Fe(II), a soluble form of iron whose oxidation to the insoluble Fe(III) is capable of generating reactive oxygen species via Fenton chemistry. (wikipedia.org)
  • Groups
  • When these differences along with the true charges on the two phosphate groups are considered together, the net charges of −4 on each side are balanced. (wikipedia.org)
  • Role
  • Certain neurodegenerative diseases, like Alzheimer's and Parkinson's, have been linked to metal deposits with high iron content, although it is uncertain whether Fenton chemistry plays a substantial role in these diseases, or whether fructose 1,6-bis(phosphate) is capable of mitigating those effects. (wikipedia.org)
  • accumulation
  • The results show that glycerol-3-phosphate supply co-limits oil accumulation in developing seeds. (uliege.be)
  • A marked decrease in TPI activity and an accumulation of dihydroxyacetone phosphate have been detected in erythrocyte extracts of homozygous (two identical mutant alleles) and compound heterozygous (two different mutant alleles) TPI deficiency patients. (wikipedia.org)
  • lipid
  • PA is degraded by conversion into DAG by lipid phosphate phosphohydrolases (LPPs) or into lyso-PA by phospholipase A (PLA). (wikipedia.org)
  • molecules
  • Phosphatidic acids: those lipids which on hydrolysis give rise to one molecule of glycerol and phosphoric acid and two molecules of fatty acids Phosphatidic acid consists of a glycerol backbone, with, in general, a saturated fatty acid bonded to carbon-1, an unsaturated fatty acid bonded to carbon-2, and a phosphate group bonded to carbon-3. (wikipedia.org)
  • form
  • Atom balance is maintained by the two phosphate (Pi) groups: Each exists in the form of a hydrogen phosphate anion (HPO42−), dissociating to contribute 2 H+ overall Each liberates an oxygen atom when it binds to an ADP (adenosine diphosphate) molecule, contributing 2 O overall Charges are balanced by the difference between ADP and ATP. (wikipedia.org)
  • Glycerol-3-phosphate is first acylated with acyl-coenzyme A (acyl-CoA) to form lysophosphatidic acid, which is then acylated with another molecule of acyl-CoA to yield phosphatidic acid. (wikipedia.org)
  • Binding
  • Within the wide V-groove, there are twelve hydrogen bonds and six salt bridges between the monomers in the presence of phosphate binding. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the absence of phosphate binding, ten hydrogen bonds and two salt bridges hold the monomers together. (wikipedia.org)
  • At the peak interfaces, ten hydrogen bonds and no salt bridges connect the monomers regardless of phosphate binding. (wikipedia.org)
  • groups
  • When these differences along with the true charges on the two phosphate groups are considered together, the net charges of −4 on each side are balanced. (wikipedia.org)