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  • Functional
  • Functional imaging biomarkers of cancer treatment response offer the potential for early determination of outcome through the assessment of biochemical, physiologic, and microenvironmental readouts. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Some changes in functional state may involve rapid changes of structural connectivity at the synaptic level, as has been elucidated by two-photon imaging experiments showing the rapid appearance and disappearance of dendritic spines (Bonhoeffer and Yuste, 2002). (wikipedia.org)
  • histological
  • Histological examination supports the model that the observed increase in diffusion reflects an increase of extracellular space following treatment. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Because these structures are extremely complex, methods within this field use a high-throughput application of neural imaging and histological techniques in order to increase the speed, efficiency, and resolution of maps of the multitude of neural connections in a nervous system. (wikipedia.org)
  • tissue
  • We develop a technique that uses anisotropic diffusion properties of brain tissue available from diffusion tensor (DT)-MRI to segment brain structures. (spiedigitallibrary.org)
  • In this study, we examined whether a standard diffusion-weighted sequence can be used to get an estimation of normal or abnormal brain tissue volume. (frontiersin.org)
  • To provide clinically prognostic and useful information, changes in imaging biomarker readouts must provide consistent changes reflective of specific underlying alterations in tissue properties including cellular viability, biochemical, and molecular responses to therapeutic intervention. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Using diffusion tensor sequences on MRI machines, the rate at which molecules diffuse in and out of a specific area of tissue, anisotropy can be measured and used as an indirect measurement of anatomical connection strength. (wikipedia.org)
  • In medical imaging, these segments often correspond to different tissue classes, organs, pathologies, or other biologically relevant structures. (wikipedia.org)
  • Manual segmentation, using tools such as a paint brush to explicitly define the tissue class of each pixel, remains the gold standard for many imaging applications. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 2015, AdMeTech Foundation, American College of Radiology and European Society of Eurogenital Radiology developed Prostate Imaging Reporting and Data System (PI-RADS v2) for global standardization of image acquisition and interpretation, which similarly to BI-RADS standardization of breast imaging, is expected to improve patient selection for biopsies and precisely-targeted tissue sampling. (wikipedia.org)
  • The factors leading to image contrast (differences in tissue relaxation time values) had been described nearly 20 years earlier by Erik Odeblad (physician and scientist) and Gunnar Lindström. (wikipedia.org)
  • scans
  • At the same time, the diffusion weighting renders the scans sensitive to other motion, including bulk patient motion. (epfl.ch)
  • value of diffusion
  • The study proposes to validate the diagnostic value of diffusion kurtosis in major basal ganglia regions using a cross-sectional study and to assess the prognostic value through 3-year longitudinal follow-up. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • modalities
  • Many different imaging modalities are being used with various actions. (wikipedia.org)
  • Fan-like images due to modalities such as curved-array ultrasound are also common and require different representational and algorithmic techniques to process. (wikipedia.org)
  • differences
  • Macroscopically the hemispheres are roughly mirror images of each other, with only subtle differences, such as the Yakovlevian torque seen in the human brain, which is a slight warping of the right side, bringing it just forward of the left side. (wikipedia.org)
  • tumor cells
  • More specifically, as the tumor cells are killed during treatment, diffusion values have been shown to increase in those regions of positive response, thus providing an opportunity for the use of DW-MRI-determined changes in ADC as a surrogate for cellular death. (aacrjournals.org)
  • computational
  • We develop a computational pipeline starting from raw diffusion tensor data through computation of invariant anisotropy measures to construction of geometric models of the brain structures. (spiedigitallibrary.org)
  • This field develops computational and mathematical methods for solving problems pertaining to medical images and their use for biomedical research and clinical care. (wikipedia.org)
  • contrast
  • Image registration methods are successfully used to correct for bulk motion in other MRI time series, but their performance in diffusion-weighted MRI is limited since diffusion weighting introduces strong signal and contrast changes between serial image volumes. (epfl.ch)
  • Medical image segmentation is made difficult by low contrast, noise, and other imaging ambiguities. (wikipedia.org)
  • A study correlating MRI and surgical pathology specimens demonstrated a sensitivity of 59% and specificity of 84% in identifying cancer when T2-weighted, dynamic contrast enhanced, and diffusion-weighted imaging were used together. (wikipedia.org)
  • Hagmann
  • In his 2005 Ph.D. thesis, From diffusion MRI to brain connectomics, Hagmann wrote: It is clear that, like the genome, which is much more than just a juxtaposition of genes, the set of all neuronal connections in the brain is much more than the sum of their individual components. (wikipedia.org)
  • angular
  • This thesis describes a conceptually novel method for reconstructing neuronal pathways inside the brain from diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) measurements with high angular resolution and short data acquisition time. (epfl.ch)
  • Orientation distribution function (ODF) characterizes the angular profile of the diffusion probability density function of water molecules and can be reconstructed from High Angular Resolution Diffusion Imaging (HARDI). (wikipedia.org)
  • Radiology
  • In 1975, the University of California, San Francisco Radiology Department founded the Radiologic Imaging Laboratory (RIL). (wikipedia.org)
  • reveal
  • Several groups in the U.S., and Europe, have demonstrated that targeted biopsies obtained with fusion imaging are more likely to reveal cancer than blind systematic biopsies. (wikipedia.org)
  • segmentation
  • Segmentation of anatomical regions of the brain is one of the fundamental problems in medical image analysis. (spiedigitallibrary.org)
  • Leonid Zhukov, Ken Museth, David E. Breen , Ross T. Whitaker, Alan H. Barr, "Level set modeling and segmentation of diffusion tensor magnetic resonance imaging brain data," Journal of Electronic Imaging 12(1), (1 January 2003). (spiedigitallibrary.org)
  • The methods can be grouped into several broad categories: image segmentation, image registration, image-based physiological modeling, and others. (wikipedia.org)
  • Segmentation is the process of partitioning an image into different meaningful segments. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although there are many computer vision techniques for image segmentation, some have been adapted specifically for medical image computing. (wikipedia.org)
  • Image-Based segmentation: Some methods initiate a template and refine its shape according to the image data while minimizing integral error measures, like the Active contour model and its variations. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, there are some other classification of image segmentation methods which are similar to above categories. (wikipedia.org)
  • gradients
  • Meanwhile, Paul Lauterbur at Stony Brook University expanded on Carr's technique and developed a way to generate the first MRI images, in 2D and 3D, using gradients. (wikipedia.org)
  • clinically
  • The main goal of MIC is to extract clinically relevant information or knowledge from medical images. (wikipedia.org)
  • On 28 August 1980 they used this machine to obtain the first clinically useful image of a patient's internal tissues using MRI, which identified a primary tumour in the patient's chest, an abnormal liver, and secondary cancer in his bones. (wikipedia.org)
  • noninvasive
  • These results suggest that diffusion measurements are sensitive to therapy-induced changes in cellular structure and may provide an early noninvasive indicator of treatment efficacy. (aacrjournals.org)
  • biopsy
  • Additional imaging (PET-CT), a biopsy or surgical treatment is necessary in combination with histopathology of the lesion. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • In the fusion MRI-US prostate biopsy, a prostate MRI is performed before biopsy and then, at the time of biopsy, the MRI images are fused to the ultrasound images to guide the urologist to the suspicious targets. (wikipedia.org)
  • acquisition
  • The technique is based on a multi-channel approach where the diffusion weighted images are aligned according to the corresponding acquisition gradient directions. (springer.com)
  • The particular meaning of the data at the sample point depends on modality: for example a CT acquisition collects radiodensity values, while a MRI acquisition may collect T1 or T2-weighted images. (wikipedia.org)
  • initiation
  • Imaging readouts can be based on a pretreatment-measured parameter or a parameter that is found to change early on following treatment initiation. (aacrjournals.org)
  • anatomical
  • Also, in addition to the coregistration of the DT-MRI data sets, an appropriate reorientation of the diffusion tensor is worked out in order to remain consistent with the corresponding underlying anatomical structures. (springer.com)
  • relaxation
  • Diffusion and relaxation times returned to pretreatment levels by 12 days after treatment. (aacrjournals.org)
  • In the 1960s and 1970s the results of a very large amount of work on relaxation, diffusion, and chemical exchange of water in cells and tissues of all sorts appeared in the scientific literature. (wikipedia.org)
  • early
  • Promising approaches for the individualization of oncology patient care include the development of imaging-based biomarkers as early readouts of therapeutic efficacy ( 1 , 2 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • data
  • In this paper, we present an affine image coregistration technique for Diffusion Tensor Magnetic Resonance Imaging (DT-MRI) data sets based on mutual information. (springer.com)
  • It is traditionally solved by iso-surfacing or through the use of active contours/deformable models on a gray-scale magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data. (spiedigitallibrary.org)
  • Image analysis was performed on a Pentium III personal computer using the Interactive Data Language (IDL) software package (version 3.6.1), Research Systems Inc. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Data without (b0-image) and with diffusion weighting (1000 s/mm 2 ) from 492 patients were examined (in the age from 3 to 89 years). (frontiersin.org)
  • On the other hand, the quality of DWI was, for a long time, limited by the necessity to acquire all raw data for whole images after single excitations. (frontiersin.org)
  • Data presented herein show the temporal effect of treatment-associated inflammatory response following chemotherapeutic treatment on 2-[ 18 F]-fluoro-2-deoxy- d -glucose-positron emission tomography and diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging readouts. (aacrjournals.org)
  • In 2012, Poldrack undertook a project to collect brain imaging, behavior, and biological data on himself for an extended period of time. (wikipedia.org)
  • Poldrack's lab also develops informatics tools to help make sense of the growing body of neuroimaging data (including the OpenfMRI.org and neurovault.org data sharing projects and the Cognitive Atlas ontology) as well as tools to help improve the reproducibility of neuroimaging research (including the Brain Imaging Data Structure and BIDS-Apps projects). (wikipedia.org)
  • Medical image computing (MIC) is an interdisciplinary field at the intersection of computer science, data science, electrical engineering, physics, mathematics and medicine. (wikipedia.org)
  • techniques
  • Brown, L.: A survey of image registration techniques. (springer.com)
  • That research was in turn questioned, and ultimately gave way to more advanced imaging techniques that appeared to refute earlier correlations. (wikipedia.org)
  • changes
  • Interpretation of imaging biomarker readouts of tumor treatment response should take into consideration the potential for changes in cell type subpopulations within the tumor mass over time. (aacrjournals.org)