• ester
  • Many substances have been developed which inhibit glycolysis, and such inhibitors are currently the subject of intense research as anticancer agents, including SB-204990, 2-deoxy-D-glucose (2DG), 3-bromopyruvate (3-BrPA, bromopyruvic acid, or bromopyruvate), 3-bromo-2-oxopropionate-1-propyl ester (3-BrOP), 5-thioglucose and dichloroacetic acid (DCA). (wikipedia.org)
  • fatty acids
  • I predict that this will have the effect of increasing the rate of conversion of carbohydrates to stored fat in a person with ME/CFS, because when citric acid goes high, it is shunted out of the mitochondria and is converted to fatty acids (particularly palmitic acid) and that is put into triglycerides that are stored in adipose (fat) cells. (phoenixrising.me)
  • citric acid
  • Malfunction of the citric acid cycle due to PDH deficiency deprives the body of energy and leads to an abnormal buildup of lactate. (wikipedia.org)
  • Even neutral salts however, tend to be significantly toxic, because the ions interfere in biological processes (such as the citric acid cycle) that normally process plain acetate ions. (wikipedia.org)
  • Salts
  • Acids form aqueous solutions with a sour taste, can turn blue litmus red, and react with bases and certain metals (like calcium) to form salts. (wikipedia.org)
  • alcohols and amines
  • Interestingly, although alcohols and amines can be Brønsted-Lowry acids, they can also function as Lewis bases due to the lone pairs of electrons on their oxygen and nitrogen atoms. (wikipedia.org)
  • lipoic acid
  • There is a U.S. Patent showing that alpha lipoic acid works well with dichloroacetate. (thedcasite.com)
  • You need to know there is synergism of DCA and alpha lipoic acid. (thedcasite.com)
  • One likely mechanism of action of the blocked lipoate (this is the base of lipoic acid) derivatives that are the object of this invention is that they inhibit PDC specifically in cancer cells resulting in loss of mitochondrial membrane polarization and consequent induction of apoptosis in cancer cells. (thedcasite.com)
  • Lipoic acid is covalently bound to dihydrolipoamide acetyltransferase (E2), which is the second catalytic component enzyme of PDC. (wikipedia.org)
  • aqueous solution
  • An aqueous solution of an acid has a pH less than 7 and is colloquially also referred to as 'acid' (as in 'dissolved in acid'), while the strict definition refers only to the solute. (wikipedia.org)
  • cancer
  • However, most cancer cells predominantly produce their energy through a high rate of glycolysis followed by lactic acid fermentation even in the presence of abundant oxygen. (wikipedia.org)
  • molecule
  • An acid is a molecule or ion capable of donating a hydron (proton or hydrogen ion H+), or, alternatively, capable of forming a covalent bond with an electron pair (a Lewis acid). (wikipedia.org)
  • reactions
  • Chloroformic acid itself is too unstable to be handled for chemical reactions. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the context of acid-base reactions, the abbreviation HAc is sometimes used, where Ac in this case is a symbol for acetate (rather than acetyl). (wikipedia.org)
  • Modern definitions are concerned with the fundamental chemical reactions common to all acids. (wikipedia.org)
  • unless otherwise specified, acid-base reactions are assumed to involve the transfer of a proton (H+) from an acid to a base. (wikipedia.org)
  • Note that chemists often write H+(aq) and refer to the hydrogen ion when describing acid-base reactions but the free hydrogen nucleus, a proton, does not exist alone in water, it exists as the hydronium ion, H3O+. (wikipedia.org)
  • sequence
  • Oligonucleotide synthesis is the chemical synthesis of relatively short fragments of nucleic acids with defined chemical structure (sequence). (wikipedia.org)
  • Definition
  • Lewis considered this as a generalization of the Brønsted definition, so that an acid is a chemical species that accepts electron pairs either directly or by releasing protons (H+) into the solution, which then accept electron pairs. (wikipedia.org)
  • found
  • Dichloroacetic acid was found near the helix bundle in the N-terminal domain of PDK1. (wikipedia.org)
  • Chloramine has become a popular disinfectant in the US, and it has been found to produce N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA), which is a possible human carcinogen, as well as highly genotoxic iodinated DBPs, such as iodoacetic acid, when iodide is present in source waters. (wikipedia.org)
  • Thus
  • Thus, an Arrhenius acid can also be described as a substance that increases the concentration of hydronium ions when added to water. (wikipedia.org)
  • Thus, an Arrhenius acid could also be said to be one that decreases hydroxide concentration, while an Arrhenius base increases it. (wikipedia.org)
  • enzyme
  • Namely, glutathione depletion causes a partial block of the enzyme aconitase, which operates just beyond citric acid in the cycle, and it also inhibits at least one enzme in the respiratory chain. (phoenixrising.me)