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  • neurological
  • Beginning in this period, he published widely on his psychiatric and neurological research findings in the medical press developing the thesis that mental illnesses had their origins in specific regions of the brain. (wikipedia.org)
  • researchers
  • In a paper published today by Neuroreport, researchers at Oxford University and Imperial College London report that they have found the exact area of the brain that controls blood pressure and how to make use of it. (innovations-report.com)
  • risks
  • Aside from effects in the brain, the general physical risks of ECT are similar to those of brief general anesthesia. (wikipedia.org)
  • treatment
  • Deep brain stimulation is also being studied as an experimental treatment for major depression, stroke recovery, addiction and dementia. (mayoclinic.org)
  • However, other research groups are working on less invasive methods of stimulating exact locations in the brain, for example using nanotechnology, and if this becomes available then the treatment would be attractive to a much larger number of people. (innovations-report.com)
  • In 1877 he published a historical treatment of psychiatric and psychological theories of the functional regions of the brain. (wikipedia.org)
  • Compared with transcranial magnetic stimulation for people with treatment-resistant major depressive disorder, ECT relieves depression about twice as well, reducing the score on the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression by about 15 points, while TMS reduced it by 9 points. (wikipedia.org)
  • Stroke
  • CT scans may be used to diagnose headache when neuroimaging is indicated and MRI is not available, or in emergency settings when hemorrhage, stroke, or traumatic brain injury are suspected. (wikipedia.org)
  • neuronal
  • The technique, which produces a low-frequency signal at the target region by crossing two high-frequency electrical signals, was tested in live mice and was found to enable activation of highly specific brain regions without causing neuronal damage. (smartbrief.com)
  • holes
  • The surgeon bores two holes into Luke s skull and inserts wires deep into a targeted area of his brain. (abc.net.au)
  • Physical
  • Physical stimulation of neuromas can increase C fiber activity, thus increasing phantom pain, but pain still persists once the neuromas have ceased firing action potentials. (wikipedia.org)
  • precisely
  • It was found that blood pressure could indeed be changed, and that it could be raised or lowered very precisely by stimulating different, very specific parts of the brain. (innovations-report.com)
  • 2017
  • The funding, which was re-issued by the NIH for 2017, is part of President Obama's Brain Research through Advancing Innovative Neurotechnologies (BRAIN) Initiative. (wikipedia.org)
  • typically
  • Activa RC is typically implanted subcutaneously near the clavicle, and connected to an extension and leads, which are implanted in the brain. (medtronic.com)
  • regions
  • Therefore, one long-term objective is to better manage such outcomes by using the knowledge base created in this study to prescribe stimulation protocols that avoid activating these regions. (utah.edu)
  • Achieve
  • citation needed] There are few sites in the brain that can be targeted to achieve differing results, so each patient must be assessed individually, and a site will be chosen based on their needs. (wikipedia.org)
  • physiology
  • In this article he proposed that there were "cortical dispersion centres" which were "rooted in physiology and anatomy in the brain" and that these played a crucial role in the development of mental illness. (wikipedia.org)
  • similar
  • We found that the stimulation settings chosen using ImageVis3D Mobile were similar to those used in standard care, but they were selected in drastically less time. (utah.edu)
  • Blood Brain B
  • Unlike hydroxyzine, cetirizine is not reported to appreciably cross the blood-brain barrier, but it has been reported to be associated with dystonic reactions as well as sedation. (wikipedia.org)
  • neural
  • The IPG is a battery-powered neurostimulator encased in a titanium housing, which sends electrical pulses to the brain that interferes with neural activity at the target site. (wikipedia.org)
  • A brain-computer interface (BCI), sometimes called a neural-control interface (NCI), mind-machine interface (MMI), direct neural interface (DNI), or brain-machine interface (BMI), is a direct communication pathway between an enhanced or wired brain and an external device. (wikipedia.org)
  • Neuroprosthetics is an area of neuroscience concerned with neural prostheses, that is, using artificial devices to replace the function of impaired nervous systems and brain related problems, or of sensory organs. (wikipedia.org)
  • The consensus view in neuroscience is that the sorts of memory involved in complex tasks are likely to be distributed among a variety of neural systems, yet certain types of knowledge may be processed and contained in specific regions of the brain. (wikipedia.org)
  • structures
  • Pleasure centers or "hedonic hotspots" are a set of brain structures within the reward system that are directly responsible for mediating the "liking" or pleasure component of an intrinsic reward, as opposed to brain structures that activate in correlation with or as a consequence of the perception of pleasure. (wikipedia.org)
  • It does not need to "reach out" to other brain structures for assistance in forming some memories of simple association. (wikipedia.org)
  • electrical
  • As described in a 2010 interview with Benabid in the medical journal Lancet, electrical stimulation was used during surgery to locate the ablation target and predict lesioning effects. (wikipedia.org)
  • Scientists have discovered that focusing on targeted brain regions in animals has been proven to alter their behavior, their cells' electrical properties (electrophysiology), and their synaptic plasticity, which is essentially the neuron's ability to function. (wikipedia.org)
  • The history of brain-computer interfaces (BCIs) starts with Hans Berger's discovery of the electrical activity of the human brain and the development of electroencephalography (EEG). (wikipedia.org)
  • study
  • An MIT study found that behavior based on high-level cognition, such as the expression of a specific memory, can be generated in a mammal by highly specific physical activation of a specific small subpopulation of brain cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Another study used optogenetics and chemogenetics to control neuronal activity in animals encoding and recalling the memory of a spatial context to investigate how the brain determines the lifetime of memories. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 2016, an MIT study found that memory loss in early stages of Alzheimer's disease could be reversed by strengthening specific memory engram cell connections in the brains of Alzheimer mouse models. (wikipedia.org)
  • At Brookhaven, positron emission tomography (PET) scanning was being used to study the brain in people with schizophrenia. (wikipedia.org)
  • changes
  • DBS directly changes brain activity in a controlled manner, its effects are reversible (unlike those of lesioning techniques), and it is one of only a few neurosurgical methods that allow blinded studies. (wikipedia.org)
  • This research has played a part in changing the public's view of drug addiction, from that of a moral violation or character flaw to an understanding that pathological changes to brain structure make it very difficult for addicts to give up their addictions. (wikipedia.org)
  • Volkow suggests that people with addictions are caught in a vicious circle of physical brain changes and the psychological consequences of those changes, leading to further changes. (wikipedia.org)
  • external
  • They discovered that this low-power ultrasound is able to stimulate high neuron activity which allows for the manipulation of the brain waves through an external source. (wikipedia.org)
  • control
  • Physiologically, the function of the brain is to exert centralized control over the other organs of the body. (wikipedia.org)
  • Some basic types of responsiveness such as reflexes can be mediated by the spinal cord or peripheral ganglia, but sophisticated purposeful control of behavior based on complex sensory input requires the information integrating capabilities of a centralized brain. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although this technology holds great potential to introducing new and beneficial alternatives to conventional brain manipulation, it is a relatively young science and has certain obstructions to its full development such as a lack of complete understanding and control of every safety measure. (wikipedia.org)
  • Volkow and colleagues studied the distribution of blood flow in the brain of chronic cocaine users and control patients who did use cocaine. (wikipedia.org)
  • article
  • This article compares the properties of brains across the entire range of animal species, with the greatest attention to vertebrates. (wikipedia.org)
  • specific
  • Karl S. Lashley's search for the engram found that it could not exist in any specific part of the rat's brain, but that memory was widely distributed throughout the cortex. (wikipedia.org)
  • Several
  • Due to its antagonistic effects on several receptor systems in the brain, hydroxyzine also has anxiolytic, antiobsessive, and antipsychotic activity. (wikipedia.org)
  • function
  • For instance, when focused on the motor cortex of mice, TPU has been shown to induce paw movements without changing the structure or function of that area of the brain. (wikipedia.org)
  • scientists
  • Recently, a team led by Stanford University scientists, published a clinical research paper on a brain-to-computer interface (BCI) that paralyzed patients can use to communicate. (labroots.com)
  • small
  • These patients bravely volunteered to have small electrode arrays surgically implanted in the motor cortices of their brains. (labroots.com)
  • activity
  • The brain acts on the rest of the body both by generating patterns of muscle activity and by driving the secretion of chemicals called hormones. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 1924 Berger was the first to record human brain activity by means of EEG. (wikipedia.org)
  • models
  • Recent models in modern neuroscience treat the brain as a biological computer, very different in mechanism from an electronic computer, but similar in the sense that it acquires information from the surrounding world, stores it, and processes it in a variety of ways. (wikipedia.org)
  • potential
  • In 1990 report was given on a bidirectional adaptive BCI controlling computer buzzer by an anticipatory brain potential, the Contingent Negative Variation (CNV) potential. (wikipedia.org)
  • The CNV brain potential was part of the BCI challenge presented by Vidal in his 1973 paper. (wikipedia.org)
  • size
  • The shape and size of the brain varies greatly between species, and identifying common features is often difficult. (wikipedia.org)
  • team
  • Dr. Tyler and his team still continue to improve their knowledge of brain stimulation therapy and hope to provide a strong foundation in the implementation of such methods. (wikipedia.org)
  • research
  • The papers published after this research also mark the first appearance of the expression brain-computer interface in scientific literature. (wikipedia.org)
  • EEGs permitted completely new possibilities for the research of human brain activities. (wikipedia.org)
  • wide
  • The pits are about 1 millimeter wide and 1 millimeter deep, hairless, and glandless. (wikipedia.org)
  • Nevertheless, there are a number of principles of brain architecture that apply across a wide range of species. (wikipedia.org)
  • unique
  • Klüver-Barrera and Nissl staining of vampire bat brain sections uncovered a unique nucleus located lateral to the descending trigeminal tract (dv). (wikipedia.org)
  • visual
  • The simplest way to gain information about brain anatomy is by visual inspection, but many more sophisticated techniques have been developed. (wikipedia.org)
  • The occipital lobe is the visual processing center of the mammalian brain containing most of the anatomical region of the visual cortex. (wikipedia.org)
  • different
  • The lead is a coiled wire insulated in polyurethane with four platinum-iridium electrodes and is placed in one or two different nuclei of the brain. (wikipedia.org)
  • results
  • Early results are promising, but researchers must evaluate longer-term safety and efficacy as well as the optimal amounts of drug and delivery locations in the brain. (michaeljfox.org)