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  • Gene
  • The method is based on digesting a mixture of PCR amplified variants of a single gene using one or more restriction enzymes and detecting the size of each of the individual resulting terminal fragments using a DNA sequencer. (wikipedia.org)
  • addition
  • In addition to these steps the TRFLP protocol often includes a cleanup of the PCR products prior to the restriction and in case a capillary electrophoresis is used a desalting stage is also performed prior to running the sample. (wikipedia.org)
  • agarose gel electrophor
  • Separation by agarose gel electrophoresis of an Eco RI digest of lambda DNA will yield 6 bands (5 distinct bands, two are very close in size) corresponding to the DNA fragments. (edvotek.com)
  • reaction buffer
  • Increasing the ionic strength of the solution environment, including the addition of DNA polymerase I reaction buffer significantly decreased the equilibrium dissociation constant values. (fiu.edu)
  • buffer
  • Instructions, DNA samples (packaged as either Pre-aliquoted QuickStrip™ connected tubes or as individual 1.5 ml (or 0.5 ml) microcentrifuge tubes), UltraSpec-Agarose™, Electrophoresis Buffer (50X), Practice Gel Loading Solution, FlashBlue™ DNA Stain, InstaStain® Blue Cards, & Disposable Pipets. (edvotek.com)
  • digestion
  • Immunoprecipitated chromatin was analyzed by PCR using two primer sets - one for the specific detection of precipitated TFBSs and one for the validation of completeness of the enzyme digestion step. (biomedsearch.com)
  • The established site-specific enzyme digestion enables a reliable and individual detection option for densely arranged binding motifs in vivo not provided by e.g. (biomedsearch.com)
  • genomic
  • Using DNA from their own cheek cells, students learn a simple method that enables genomic biologists to analyze human DNA in this lab developed in partnership with Brookhaven National Laboratories. (wardsci.com)
  • fragment
  • These blunt ended fragments can be joined to any other DNA fragment with blunt ends, making these enzymes useful for certain types of DNA cloning experiments. (encyclopedia.com)
  • specificity
  • They are closely related in their specificity and protect the DNA of a given bacterial species. (curehunter.com)
  • Because of their inherent specificity, REs can be used to cut DNA into fragments of manageable size which can be isolated and studied. (coursehero.com)
  • protein
  • The structure of M.EcoKI Type I DNA methyltransferase with a DNA mimic antirestriction protein. (mendeley.com)
  • DNA vs. protein, or arise from differentially labeled components, e.g. having one protein in a complex deuterated while the rest are protonated. (wikipedia.org)
  • The validity of this opinion was later corroborated by studies of chromosomal structure, genetic distance determined by protein variation at polymorphic loci, and mitochondrial DNA restriction enzyme analysis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Also, the Argonaute-miRNA complex can adjust protein production by recruiting cellular factors such as peptides or post translational modifying enzymes, which degrade the growing of polypeptides. (wikipedia.org)
  • mitochondrial
  • After extracting the DNA, a Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) is performed to amplify a section of the mitochondrial genome that can vary between individuals. (wardsci.com)
  • cuts
  • Both of these enzymes produce irregular cuts leaving short single- stranded ends (or overhangs,) and these overhangs can be spliced back together. (coursehero.com)
  • Nobel
  • He shared the 1978 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for the discovery of restriction enzymes. (wikipedia.org)
  • He was awarded the 1993 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine with Phillip Allen Sharp for the discovery of introns in eukaryotic DNA and the mechanism of gene-splicing. (wikipedia.org)
  • before moving to Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, where he was hired by James Dewey Watson, a co-discoverer of the structure of DNA and a fellow Nobel laureate. (wikipedia.org)
  • genome
  • The Bss HII restriction site (GC) 3 resides in a 9bp region of alternating pyrimidine and purine residues within the &phis;X174 genome. (fiu.edu)
  • Patterns
  • Differences between terminal region patterns of DNA restriction enzyme digests of different RCN isolates suggest that varied passaging has promoted the advancement of polymorphisms since the virus was first isolated in 1961. (wikipedia.org)
  • structural
  • The high binding potential of DNA polymerase I for each of the motifs described, is hypothesized to be due to recognition of the structural DNA anomalies by the 3 ′ -5 ′ exonuclease domain. (fiu.edu)
  • found
  • In many eukaryotes, including animals, the RNA interference pathway is found, and it is initiated by the enzyme Dicer. (wikipedia.org)
  • different
  • Along the way, you'll learn about the practical techniques that scientists use to analyze our genetic risks, to manipulate DNA, and to develop new treatments for a range of different diseases. (coursera.org)
  • polymerase
  • These early genes are expressions are mediated by virally encoded transcriptional machinery that includes: a heterodimeric transcription factor (vETF), a seven-subunit RNA polymerase, the heterodimeric capping enzyme/ termination protein, and the heterodimeric poly(A) polymerase. (wikipedia.org)
  • After hybridization, the temperature is lowered to 37◦C, and then dTTP and Virtual Terminator nucleotides corresponding to dATP, dCTP, and dGTP are added along with DNA polymerase. (wikipedia.org)
  • genes
  • Using high-density DNA microarrays and Northern analyses, we demonstrated that the activation of a nutrient-sensing pathway, the hexosamine biosynthesis pathway (HBP), rapidly decreased the expression of a cluster of nuclear-encoded mitochondrial genes involved in skeletal muscle oxidative phosphorylation. (jci.org)
  • The genetically engineered bacteria will now manufacture any protein coded by genes on the newly inserted DNA. (hhmi.org)
  • In ATL cell lines, complete DNA methylation of 5'-LTR was associated with transcriptional silencing of viral genes. (biomedcentral.com)
  • A curated database of genes associated with dietary restriction in model organisms either from genetic manipulation experiments or gene expression profiling. (ageing-map.org)
  • In order for DNA cloning to be completed, it is necessary to obtain discrete, small regions of an organism's DNA that constitute specific genes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Genes involved in controlling cell death encode proteins with three distinct functions: "Killer" proteins are required for a cell to begin the apoptotic process "Destruction" proteins do things such as digest DNA in a dying cell "Engulfment" proteins are required for phagocytosis of the dying cell by another cell The cleavage of chromosomal DNA into smaller fragments is an integral part, and biochemical hallmark, of apoptosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Comparison of DNA samples allowed scientists to work on the Human Genome Project, which maps out many of the genes on human DNA. (wikipedia.org)
  • Samples from the DNA bank have been used to identify patterns and determine which genes lead to specific disorders. (wikipedia.org)
  • Conservation of Plant Genes : Dna Banking and in Vitro Biotechnology. (wikipedia.org)
  • Genes are a fundamental part of DNA that is aligned linearly on a eukaryotic chromosome. (wikipedia.org)
  • Human populations studies show that single-nucleotide polymorphisms in DNA repair genes, causing up-regulation of their expression, correlate with increases in longevity. (wikipedia.org)
  • This is in contrast to the more variable, terminally located genes that have been shown to encode a diverse array of proteins involved in host range restriction. (wikipedia.org)
  • Late viral genes are now being transcribed (most encode for structural proteins, enzymes and transcriptions factors) and are then translated. (wikipedia.org)
  • gene
  • Research applications such as gene editing, gene expression, and directed differentiation depend on the effective, efficient delivery of DNA, RNA and/or Cas9 protein complexes into stem cells. (thermofisher.com)
  • For gene editing, Lipofectamine Stem reagent allows the co-transfection of Cas9 protein complexed with guide RNAs along with single-stranded DNA for homology directed repair. (thermofisher.com)
  • In addition, this study shows the presence of another reversible mechanism that suppresses the tax gene transcription without DNA methylation and hypoacetylated histone. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Projects focused on gene expression profiling of ageing and of dietary manipulations of ageing, such as caloric restriction. (ageing-map.org)
  • These phenotypes were unexpectedly linked to mutations in the gene encoding a subunit of the Go-Ichi-Ni-San (GINS) complex, which is essential for DNA replication prior to cell division. (jci.org)
  • Of particular interest are DNA regions involved in gene regulation, nucleosome positions, and epigenetic modifications to chromatin such as DNA methylation and histone modifications. (thermofisher.com)
  • In the case of M13 filamentous phage display, the DNA encoding the protein or peptide of interest is ligated into the pIII or pVIII gene, encoding either the minor or major coat protein, respectively. (wikipedia.org)
  • The phage gene and insert DNA hybrid is then inserted (a process known as "transduction") into Escherichia coli (E. coli) bacterial cells such as TG1, SS320, ER2738, or XL1-Blue E. coli. (wikipedia.org)
  • 26S proteasome non-ATPase regulatory subunit 7, also known as 26S proteasome non-ATPase subunit Rpn8, is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the PSMD7 gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • Analyzing an individual's DNA can allow scientists to predict genetic disorders, as used in preventative genetics or gene therapy, and prove that person's identity, as used in the criminal justice system. (wikipedia.org)
  • Methylation of histones is important biologically because it is the principal epigenetic modification of chromatin that determines gene expression, genomic stability, stem cell maturation, cell lineage development, genetic imprinting, DNA methylation, and cell mitosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • If a cell retains DNA damage, transcription of a gene can be prevented and thus translation into a protein will also be blocked. (wikipedia.org)
  • DNA2.0/ATUM also provides free access to research tools such as Gene Designer, DNA Atlas and a gRNA designer. (wikipedia.org)
  • Following λ-red operon activity induction, a linear, double-stranded cassette encoding a selectable marker, such as antibiotic resistance, is transformed into the cells in place of the target gene and incorporated into the DNA behind a specific inducible promoter. (wikipedia.org)
  • In this case, a gene cassette with a dual selectable marker can be incorporated into the DNA at the specific location of mutagenesis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Nucleotide
  • Mouse models of nucleotide-excision-repair syndromes reveal a striking correlation between the degree to which specific DNA repair pathways are compromised and the severity of accelerated aging, strongly suggesting a causal relationship. (wikipedia.org)
  • chromatin
  • Research assessing protein-DNA interactions at a genome-wide level can be used to understand chromatin dynamics and epigenetic modifications during normal development and disease. (thermofisher.com)
  • The nucleus of senescent cells is characterized by senescence-associated heterochromatin foci (SAHF) and DNA segments with chromatin alterations reinforcing senescence (DNA-SCARS). (wikipedia.org)
  • complexes
  • Designed for dramatically improved transfection efficiency, Invitrogen Lipofectamine Stem Transfection Reagent offers a simple, robust and reproducible method for delivering DNA, RNA and RNP such as Cas9/gRNA complexes into a wide range of stem cells, including pluripotent stem cells, neural stem cells and mesenchymal stem cells (Figure 2) . (thermofisher.com)
  • Lipofectamine Stem Reagent outperforms FuGENE HD Reagent in pluripotent stem cell transfection, delivering both small and large DNA plasmids, mRNA, and Cas9 protein complexes. (thermofisher.com)
  • An antibody specific to the protein of interest is used to immunoprecipitate the crosslinked protein-DNA complexes. (thermofisher.com)
  • Positive Selection in Rapidly Evolving Plastid-Nuclear Enzyme Complexes. (ebscohost.com)
  • cellular
  • Consistent with this, telomerase-immortalised cells continued to age (according to the epigenetic clock) without having been treated with any senescence inducers or DNA-damaging agents, re-affirming the independence of the process of epigenetic ageing from telomeres, cellular senescence, and the DNA damage response pathway. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cellular senescence occurs in response to DNA damage and external stress and usually constitutes an arrest in G1. (wikipedia.org)
  • Nuclear DNA damage can contribute to aging either indirectly (by increasing apoptosis or cellular senescence) or directly (by increasing cell dysfunction). (wikipedia.org)
  • After selection of recombinants, a subsequent transformation to transfect linear DNA with the desired mutation is performed, which will then be homologously recombined into the cellular DNA in place of the marker. (wikipedia.org)
  • occurs
  • In humans and other mammals, DNA damage occurs frequently and DNA repair processes have evolved to compensate. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cas9
  • Instead, in this method, the λ-Red recombination system facilitates donor DNA integration while Cas9 cleaves double-stranded DNA to counter-select against wild-type cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • mutation
  • citation needed] To understand the DNA damage theory of aging it is important to distinguish between DNA damage and mutation, the two major types of errors that occur in DNA. (wikipedia.org)
  • Given these properties of DNA damage and mutation, it can be seen that DNA damages are a special problem in non-dividing or slowly dividing cells, where unrepaired damages will tend to accumulate over time. (wikipedia.org)
  • double-strand breaks
  • DNA damage is any physical abnormality in the DNA, such as single and double strand breaks, 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine residues and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon adducts. (wikipedia.org)
  • sites
  • These proteolytic active sites located in the inner side of a chamber formed by 4 stacked rings of 20S subunits, preventing random protein-enzyme encounter and uncontrolled protein degradation. (wikipedia.org)
  • synthesis
  • The first phase within interphase, from the end of the previous M phase until the beginning of DNA synthesis, is called G1 (G indicating gap). (wikipedia.org)
  • binds
  • By immobilizing a relevant DNA or protein target(s) to the surface of a microtiter plate well, a phage that displays a protein that binds to one of those targets on its surface will remain while others are removed by washing. (wikipedia.org)
  • Vector
  • If a "phagemid" vector is used (a simplified display construct vector) phage particles will not be released from the E. coli cells until they are infected with helper phage, which enables packaging of the phage DNA and assembly of the mature virions with the relevant protein fragment as part of their outer coat on either the minor (pIII) or major (pVIII) coat protein. (wikipedia.org)
  • fragmentation
  • Do you need a faster, more reliable solution for DNA fragmentation and library construction? (neb.com)
  • Our new NEBNext® Ultra™ II FS DNA Library Prep Kit with novel fragmentation reagent meets the dual challenge of generating high quality next gen sequencing libraries from ever-decreasing input amounts AND simple scalability. (neb.com)
  • In cell biology, ways in which fragmentation is useful for a cell: DNA cloning and apoptosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, problems within a cell can sometimes cause fragmentation that results in irregularities such as red blood cell fragmentation and sperm cell DNA fragmentation. (wikipedia.org)
  • naturally
  • Hypothesis that aging is caused by accumulated DNA danage The DNA damage theory of aging proposes that aging is a consequence of unrepaired accumulation of naturally occurring DNA damages. (wikipedia.org)
  • Defects
  • compiled a lengthy list of mouse mutational models with pathologic features of premature aging, all caused by different DNA repair defects. (wikipedia.org)
  • accumulation
  • Overall, they concluded that while the complexity of responses to DNA damage remains only partly understood, the idea that DNA damage accumulation with age is the primary cause of aging remains an intuitive and powerful one. (wikipedia.org)
  • The accumulation of unrepaired DNA damage is more prevalent in certain types of cells, particularly in non-replicating or slowly replicating cells, such as cells in the brain, skeletal and cardiac muscle. (wikipedia.org)
  • Descriptions of reduced function, characteristic of aging and associated with accumulation of DNA damage, are given later in this article. (wikipedia.org)
  • processes
  • Some DNA damage may remain in any cell despite the action of repair processes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Archer Daniels Midland Company applies DNA2.0's proprietary protein engineering technology, ProteinGPS, to ADM's industrial enzyme engineering processes. (wikipedia.org)
  • mitosis
  • During interphase, the cell grows, accumulating nutrients needed for mitosis, preparing it for cell division and duplicating its DNA. (wikipedia.org)
  • vivo
  • Phage λ gamma is necessary to inhibit E. coli nuclease activity and protect the transformed linear DNA in vivo. (wikipedia.org)
  • cell
  • Lipofectamine Stem reagent offers expanded capabilities for stem cell transfection, making it possible to deliver DNA plasmids in sizes up to 11 kb. (thermofisher.com)
  • DNA cloning can be performed spontaneously by the cell for reproductive purposes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cells can also be induced to senesce via DNA damage in response to elevated reactive oxygen species (ROS), activation of oncogenes and cell-cell fusion, independent of telomere length. (wikipedia.org)
  • citation needed] In estimates made for mice, DNA lesions occur on average 25 to 115 times per minute in each cell, or about 36,000 to 160,000 per cell per day. (wikipedia.org)
  • citation needed] DNA samples are hybridized to a primer immobilized on a flow cell for sequencing, so it is usually necessary to generate a nucleic acid with an end compatible for hybridization to those surfaces. (wikipedia.org)
  • nuclear
  • The cell's nuclear DNA contents are duplicated during S phase. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although both mitochondrial and nuclear DNA damage can contribute to aging, nuclear DNA is the main subject of this analysis. (wikipedia.org)
  • length
  • If there is sufficient DNA to measure both mass and average length, it is possible to determine the proper amount of dATP to be added to generate poly(dA) tails 90 to 200 nucleotides long. (wikipedia.org)
  • To generate tails of this length, it is first necessary to estimate how many 3' ends there are in the sample and then use the right ratio of DNA, dATP, and terminal transferase to obtain the optimal size range of tails. (wikipedia.org)
  • segments
  • The technique is also used to determine tumour antigens (for use in diagnosis and therapeutic targeting) and in searching for protein-DNA interactions using specially-constructed DNA libraries with randomised segments. (wikipedia.org)