• genes
  • Physically speaking, DNA is a long string of paired chemical units (nucleotides) that come in four different types, and it carries information organized into units called genes. (lumenlearning.com)
  • This packaging is called the chromatin structure and is one way specialized cells such as those in our muscles allow groups of genes to be shut off, or be available for expression. (bioquicknews.com)
  • The local structure of chromatin during interphase depends on the genes present on the DNA. (wikipedia.org)
  • These genes make up different DNA sequences called genotypes. (wikipedia.org)
  • A more likely source of cellular plasticity is through the Regulation of gene expression, such that while two cells may have near identical DNA, the differential expression of certain genes results in variation. (wikipedia.org)
  • In this model, the braconid and ichneumonid wasps packaged genes for these functions into the viruses-essentially creating a gene-transfer system that results in the caterpillar producing the immune-suppressing factors. (wikipedia.org)
  • molecule
  • 17 , 18 ] The motor is geared by six copies of an RNA molecule called pRNA (packaging RNA)[ 19 ] and the ATPase gp16. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • 20 ] The high efficiency of in vitro DNA packaging up to 90%[ 17 , 18 , 21 , 22 ] and the feasibility to turn the motor on and turn off with γ -S-ATP[ 23 ] has enabled the single-molecule measurement of motor velocities and forces using an optical trap. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Structural analyses of the packaging motor have demonstrated that the pRNA molecule has fivefold symmetry when attached to the prohead. (wikipedia.org)
  • A negatively supercoiled DNA molecule will produce either a one-start left-handed helix, the toroid, or a two-start right-handed helix with terminal loops, the plectoneme. (wikipedia.org)
  • Genomes
  • Epigenomic maintenance is a continuous process and plays an important role in stability of eukaryotic genomes by taking part in crucial biological mechanisms like DNA repair. (wikipedia.org)
  • molecules
  • In that study, Sytox Orange (an intercalating dye), has been used to induce supercoiling on surface tethered DNA molecules. (wikipedia.org)
  • prokaryotes
  • In bacteria and other prokaryotes, most of the DNA is found in a central region of the cell called the nucleoid , which functions similarly to a nucleus but is not surrounded by a membrane. (lumenlearning.com)
  • sequence
  • Five percent of FSHD-affected individuals have array lengths, longer than 10 copies (the threshold for chromatin relaxation) of the DNA sequence in question making them appear to lack the genetic mutation that normally causes FSHD. (bioquicknews.com)
  • The P22 packaged DNA carries a direct duplication of about 4% at both ends since the inside of the virion has more space than is filled by 100% of the sequence. (wikipedia.org)
  • This process is called "headful packaging" since replicated DNA is "stuffed" into the virion until it is full, rather than filling each virion with a single copy of the sequence. (wikipedia.org)
  • Direct DNA damage can induce changes to the sequence variants. (wikipedia.org)
  • Classical views have attributed phenotypic variation to differences in primary DNA structure, be it through aberrant mutation or an inherited sequence allele. (wikipedia.org)
  • translocation
  • The terminase-λDNA complex binds to the portal vertex of a prohead, and translocation of the DNA into the shell ensues. (genetics.org)
  • Translocation moves the DNA-packaging complex along the DNA until the next cos is encountered and the terminase docked at the portal vertex recognizes and cuts the downstream cos . (genetics.org)
  • Because cosQ mutants fail to cut the downstream cos and fail to stop translocation at cos , the shell is filled to capacity, and because the protruding DNA prevents tail attachment, the cosQ defect is lethal. (genetics.org)
  • chromosomal
  • L. Wilhelm, F. Bürmann, A. Minnen, H.-C. Shin, C.P. Toseland, B.-H. Oh, S. Gruber: SMC condensin entraps chromosomal DNA by an ATP hydrolysis dependent loading mechanism in Bacillus subtilis. (innovations-report.com)
  • mitochondrial
  • Mitochondria, organelles that harvest energy for the cell, contain their own mitochondrial DNA , and chloroplasts, organelles that carry out photosynthesis in plant cells, also have chloroplast DNA . (lumenlearning.com)
  • Sperm cells contribute approximately half of the nuclear genetic information to the diploid offspring (excluding, in most cases, mitochondrial DNA). (wikipedia.org)
  • histone
  • Although researchers knew that a certain type of tumor--chondroblastoma--carried a mutation in the H3 histone and no other mutation, this is the first study to show that the mutation indeed causes tumors, even without any other DNA mutation present," says Lu. (medindia.net)
  • Main articles: Nucleosome, Chromatosome and Histone The basic repeat element of chromatin is the nucleosome, interconnected by sections of linker DNA, a far shorter arrangement than pure DNA in solution. (wikipedia.org)
  • Additionally, histone H1 contributes to DNA packaging outside of the nucleosome. (wikipedia.org)
  • DNA methylation and histone modification are among the best characterized epigenetic processes. (wikipedia.org)
  • genetic
  • In order to ensure that the genetic material is equally and accurately distributed between the two daughter cells during cell division, the DNA fibers must remain in an orderly and closely-packed condition. (innovations-report.com)
  • DNA is also passed on at the at the level of organisms, with the DNA in sperm and egg cells combining to form a new organism that has genetic material from both its parents. (lumenlearning.com)
  • nucleus
  • In each human cell, about two meters of DNA must fit into a cell nucleus that has a diameter of only a few thousandths of a millimeter. (innovations-report.com)
  • The amounts of DNA found in mitochondria and chloroplasts are much smaller than the amount found in the nucleus. (lumenlearning.com)
  • to start questioning whether viruses are alive, revive the debate about the origin of DNA viruses and their possible role in the emergence of the eukaryotic nucleus. (wikipedia.org)
  • DNA modification by H2A occurs in the cell nucleus. (wikipedia.org)
  • terminase
  • The ability to at least partially co-localise with the terminase complex appeared necessary for the ability of the mutants to support virus growth and DNA packaging, suggesting that this interaction may be essential for the function of UL32. (gla.ac.uk)
  • enzymes
  • Many topoisomerase enzymes sense supercoiling and either generate or dissipate it as they change DNA topology. (wikipedia.org)
  • While DNA methylation is stable and heritable, it can be reversed by an antagonistic group of enzymes known as DNA de-methylases. (wikipedia.org)
  • subunit
  • The depolarization model proposes that cosQ acts in presenting a gpA subunit to the bottom strand of cosN by forming a bend in the region of DNA between cosQ and cosN , forming a loop for cosQ and cosN to be aligned in the same orientation. (genetics.org)
  • strand
  • DNA supercoiling refers to the over- or under-winding of a DNA strand, and is an expression of the strain on that strand. (wikipedia.org)
  • Experiments performed with ionizing radiation linked γ- phosphorylation of H2AX to DNA double-strand break. (wikipedia.org)
  • meiosis
  • DNA damages present in spermatozoa in the period after meiosis but before fertilization may be repaired in the fertilized egg, but if not repaired, can have serious deleterious effects on fertility and the developing embryo. (wikipedia.org)
  • apparatus
  • Thus, an upper limit has been established for the size of heterology that can be accommodated by the packaging apparatus The size of the connector portal could be the basis for this limit. (genetics.org)
  • helical
  • The simple figure eight is the simplest supercoil, and is the shape a circular DNA assumes to accommodate one too many or one too few helical twists. (wikipedia.org)
  • The twist is the number of helical turns in the DNA and the writhe is the number of times the double helix crosses over on itself (these are the supercoils). (wikipedia.org)
  • organisms
  • As a general rule, the DNA of most organisms is negatively supercoiled. (wikipedia.org)
  • DNA of most organisms is negatively supercoiled. (wikipedia.org)
  • A paradox exists, however, in that cells exhibit diverse responses to varying stimuli and that cells sharing identical sets of DNA such as in multicellular organisms can have a variety of distinct functions and phenotypes. (wikipedia.org)