• genes
  • Now, research conducted in fruit flies at the University of North Carolina School of Medicine has pinpointed a specific DNA sequence that both triggers the formation of this "histone locus body" and turns on all the histone genes in the entire block. (nanowerk.com)
  • Physically speaking, DNA is a long string of paired chemical units (nucleotides) that come in four different types, and it carries information organized into units called genes. (lumenlearning.com)
  • This packaging is called the chromatin structure and is one way specialized cells such as those in our muscles allow groups of genes to be shut off, or be available for expression. (bioquicknews.com)
  • These genes make up different DNA sequences called genotypes. (wikipedia.org)
  • The local structure of chromatin during interphase depends on the genes present on the DNA. (wikipedia.org)
  • A more likely source of cellular plasticity is through the Regulation of gene expression, such that while two cells may have near identical DNA, the differential expression of certain genes results in variation. (wikipedia.org)
  • In this model, the braconid and ichneumonid wasps packaged genes for these functions into the viruses-essentially creating a gene-transfer system that results in the caterpillar producing the immune-suppressing factors. (wikipedia.org)
  • molecule
  • 17 , 18 ] The motor is geared by six copies of an RNA molecule called pRNA (packaging RNA)[ 19 ] and the ATPase gp16. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • 20 ] The high efficiency of in vitro DNA packaging up to 90%[ 17 , 18 , 21 , 22 ] and the feasibility to turn the motor on and turn off with γ -S-ATP[ 23 ] has enabled the single-molecule measurement of motor velocities and forces using an optical trap. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Structural analyses of the packaging motor have demonstrated that the pRNA molecule has fivefold symmetry when attached to the prohead. (wikipedia.org)
  • A negatively supercoiled DNA molecule will produce either a one-start left-handed helix, the toroid, or a two-start right-handed helix with terminal loops, the plectoneme. (wikipedia.org)
  • somatic cells
  • In somatic cells, patterns of DNA methylation are in general transmitted to daughter cells with high fidelity. (wikipedia.org)
  • DNA fragmentation and increased in situ DNA susceptibility to denaturation, the features similar to these seen during apoptosis of somatic cells, characterize abnormal spermatozoa in cases of male infertility. (wikipedia.org)
  • epigenetics
  • But they are just beginning to learn about how changes to these non-DNA structures can affect development and health--a field known as epigenetics--and how they are regulated. (medindia.net)
  • These modifications were termed epigenetic, from epi "on top of" the genetic material "DNA" (Epigenetics 1). (wikipedia.org)
  • H2A has been correlated with DNA modification and epigenetics. (wikipedia.org)
  • prokaryotes
  • In bacteria and other prokaryotes, most of the DNA is found in a central region of the cell called the nucleoid , which functions similarly to a nucleus but is not surrounded by a membrane. (lumenlearning.com)
  • terminase
  • To demonstrate that UL89-C encodes the nuclease activity of the terminase, we performed a nuclease assay using plasmidic DNA. (esrf.eu)
  • After a concatemer's cosN is cut, terminase remains bound to the resulting cosB -containing DNA end, which is the left end of the chromosome to be packaged. (genetics.org)
  • The terminase-λDNA complex binds to the portal vertex of a prohead, and translocation of the DNA into the shell ensues. (genetics.org)
  • Translocation moves the DNA-packaging complex along the DNA until the next cos is encountered and the terminase docked at the portal vertex recognizes and cuts the downstream cos . (genetics.org)
  • Following cleavage, terminase undocks from the newly filled head and remains bound to the left end of the next chromosome along the concatemer, sponsoring its packaging. (genetics.org)
  • The ability to at least partially co-localise with the terminase complex appeared necessary for the ability of the mutants to support virus growth and DNA packaging, suggesting that this interaction may be essential for the function of UL32. (gla.ac.uk)
  • organization
  • In a next step, the members of the research group "Chromosome Organization and Dynamics" want to find out whether the clip either opens for a short period of time in which it embraces already formed DNA loops, or whether the clip first binds to the DNA and then forms DNA loops itself by encasing the DNA. (innovations-report.com)
  • Prokaryotic cells have a different organization of their DNA (the prokaryotic chromosome equivalent is called genophore and is localized within the nucleoid region). (wikipedia.org)
  • genetic material
  • In order to ensure that the genetic material is equally and accurately distributed between the two daughter cells during cell division, the DNA fibers must remain in an orderly and closely-packed condition. (innovations-report.com)
  • DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) is the genetic material of living organisms. (lumenlearning.com)
  • DNA is also passed on at the at the level of organisms, with the DNA in sperm and egg cells combining to form a new organism that has genetic material from both its parents. (lumenlearning.com)
  • translocation
  • Because cosQ mutants fail to cut the downstream cos and fail to stop translocation at cos , the shell is filled to capacity, and because the protruding DNA prevents tail attachment, the cosQ defect is lethal. (genetics.org)
  • strand
  • The depolarization model proposes that cosQ acts in presenting a gpA subunit to the bottom strand of cosN by forming a bend in the region of DNA between cosQ and cosN , forming a loop for cosQ and cosN to be aligned in the same orientation. (genetics.org)
  • DNA supercoiling refers to the over- or under-winding of a DNA strand, and is an expression of the strain on that strand. (wikipedia.org)
  • Experiments performed with ionizing radiation linked γ- phosphorylation of H2AX to DNA double-strand break. (wikipedia.org)
  • deoxyribonucleic
  • Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) was shown to be the molecular repository of genetic information by experiments in the 1940s to 1950s. (wikipedia.org)
  • enzymes
  • Many topoisomerase enzymes sense supercoiling and either generate or dissipate it as they change DNA topology. (wikipedia.org)
  • While DNA methylation is stable and heritable, it can be reversed by an antagonistic group of enzymes known as DNA de-methylases. (wikipedia.org)
  • viruses
  • to start questioning whether viruses are alive, revive the debate about the origin of DNA viruses and their possible role in the emergence of the eukaryotic nucleus. (wikipedia.org)
  • meiosis
  • Higher-level DNA packaging of the 30 nm fibre into the metaphase chromosome (during mitosis and meiosis). (wikipedia.org)
  • DNA damages present in spermatozoa in the period after meiosis but before fertilization may be repaired in the fertilized egg, but if not repaired, can have serious deleterious effects on fertility and the developing embryo. (wikipedia.org)
  • nucleus
  • In each human cell, about two meters of DNA must fit into a cell nucleus that has a diameter of only a few thousandths of a millimeter. (innovations-report.com)
  • The amounts of DNA found in mitochondria and chloroplasts are much smaller than the amount found in the nucleus. (lumenlearning.com)
  • DNA modification by H2A occurs in the cell nucleus. (wikipedia.org)
  • modification
  • DNA methylation and histone modification are among the best characterized epigenetic processes. (wikipedia.org)
  • The first epigenetic modification to be characterized in depth was DNA methylation. (wikipedia.org)
  • apparatus
  • Thus, an upper limit has been established for the size of heterology that can be accommodated by the packaging apparatus The size of the connector portal could be the basis for this limit. (genetics.org)
  • helical
  • The simple figure eight is the simplest supercoil, and is the shape a circular DNA assumes to accommodate one too many or one too few helical twists. (wikipedia.org)
  • The twist is the number of helical turns in the DNA and the writhe is the number of times the double helix crosses over on itself (these are the supercoils). (wikipedia.org)
  • organisms
  • As a general rule, the DNA of most organisms is negatively supercoiled. (wikipedia.org)
  • DNA of most organisms is negatively supercoiled. (wikipedia.org)
  • A paradox exists, however, in that cells exhibit diverse responses to varying stimuli and that cells sharing identical sets of DNA such as in multicellular organisms can have a variety of distinct functions and phenotypes. (wikipedia.org)
  • hydrolysis
  • L. Wilhelm, F. Bürmann, A. Minnen, H.-C. Shin, C.P. Toseland, B.-H. Oh, S. Gruber: SMC condensin entraps chromosomal DNA by an ATP hydrolysis dependent loading mechanism in Bacillus subtilis. (innovations-report.com)
  • The modified motor integrated with the eGFP-gp16 maintains the ability to convert the chemical energy from adenosine triphosphate (ATP) hydrolysis to mechanical motion and package DNA. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)