• polymerases
  • DNA-dependent DNA polymerases found in bacteria, animal and plant cells. (curehunter.com)
  • To examine the immunological relatedness of this enzyme with other retroviral DNA polymerases, remaining Sm-MTV DNA polymerase activity was measured after treatment of this enzyme with various antisera prepared against each of the reverse transcriptases of Mason-Pfizer monkey virus (MPMV), murine mammary tumor virus (MuMTV), simian sarcoma virus-simian sarcoma associated virus (SSV/SSAV), and Rauscher murine leukemia virus (RLV). (curehunter.com)
  • Most DNA polymerases also have an EDITING function. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Modified thermostable DNA polymerases having enhanced efficiency for incorporating unconventional nucleotides, such as ribonucleotides, into DNA products, are advantageous in many in vitro synthesis applications. (google.com)
  • The present invention relates to thermostable DNA polymerases which have enhanced efficiency for incorporating ribonucleoside triphosphates. (google.com)
  • Primase is of key importance in DNA replication because no known replicative DNA polymerases can initiate the synthesis of a DNA strand without an initial RNA or DNA primer (for temporary DNA elongation). (wikipedia.org)
  • Pol(A) Polymerases showed various genetic interactions with DNA Topoisomerases Top1p and hence they were called topoisomerase-related function Trf4p and Trf5p due to this interaction with DNA it has an important part in genomic stability. (wikipedia.org)
  • In eukaryotes, transcription is performed by three types of RNA polymerases, each of which needs a special DNA sequence called the promoter and a set of DNA-binding proteins-transcription factors-to initiate the process. (wikipedia.org)
  • double-stranded
  • Here we assess the developmental regulation of the V(D)J recombinase directly, by monitoring the double-stranded DNA breaks produced in the process of V(D)J recombination. (nih.gov)
  • DNA from equal numbers of cells was purified, treated with T4 DNA polymerase to blunt any overhanging CBE, and subjected to ligation with a double stranded linker capable of ligating in only one orientation. (nih.gov)
  • DNA ligases are a structurally diverse class of enzymes which share a common catalytic core and seal breaks in the phosphodiester backbone of double-stranded DNA via an adenylated intermediate. (iucr.org)
  • This minimal-type ligase, like its close homologues, is able to ligate singly nicked double-stranded DNA with high efficiency and to join cohesive-ended and blunt-ended substrates to a more limited extent. (iucr.org)
  • The sealing of breaks in the phosphodiester backbone of double-stranded DNA is essential for the replication and survival of all organisms. (iucr.org)
  • This pathway plays a critical role in mediating immune defense against double-stranded DNA viruses. (wikipedia.org)
  • cGAS is found in the cytosol and is responsible for detecting cytosolic double stranded DNA, normally found in the cell nucleus, in order to stimulate production of IFN-β. (wikipedia.org)
  • STING has also been shown to colocalize with autophagy proteins, microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3 (LC3) and autophagy-related protein 9A, after double-stranded DNA stimulation, suggesting its presence in the autophagosome. (wikipedia.org)
  • Similar to restriction enzymes, which cleave highly specific sequences of double-stranded DNA, a variety of endoribonucleases that recognize and cleave specific sequences of single-stranded RNA have been recently classified. (wikipedia.org)
  • Genes
  • Genes encoding the modified enzymes and methods for their production and use offer cost and efficiency advantages for DNA sequencing. (google.com)
  • strand
  • During the replication process, these enzymes catalyze the addition of deoxyribonucleotide residues to the end of a DNA strand in the presence of DNA as template-primer. (curehunter.com)
  • If the Okazaki fragments are not properly ligated together, the unligated DNA (containing a 'nick') could easily degrade to a double strand break, a phenomenon known to cause genetic mutations. (wikipedia.org)
  • Calicheamicins target DNA and cause strand scission. (wikipedia.org)
  • This diradical, 1,4-didehydrobenzene, then abstracts hydrogen atoms from the deoxyribose (sugar) backbone of DNA, which ultimately leads to strand scission. (wikipedia.org)
  • FAM46B a 7,283 base pair gene located on the antisense strand of DNA on the short arm of chromosome 1 at the specific locus 1p36.11. (wikipedia.org)
  • With respect to a gene, the two strands may be labeled the "template strand," which serves as a blueprint for the production of an RNA transcript, and the "coding strand," which includes the DNA version of the transcript sequence. (wikipedia.org)
  • The production of the RNA copy of the DNA is called transcription, and is performed in the nucleus by RNA polymerase, which adds one RNA nucleotide at a time to a growing RNA strand as per the complementarity law of the bases. (wikipedia.org)
  • This RNA is complementary to the template 3' → 5' DNA strand, which is itself complementary to the coding 5' → 3' DNA strand. (wikipedia.org)
  • Therefore, the resulting 5' → 3' RNA strand is identical to the coding DNA strand with the exception that thymines (T) are replaced with uracils (U) in the RNA. (wikipedia.org)
  • A coding DNA strand reading "ATG" is indirectly transcribed through the non-coding strand as "AUG" in RNA. (wikipedia.org)
  • viruses
  • This is in contrast to previously characterized minimal DNA ligases from viruses, which use flexible loop regions for DNA interaction. (iucr.org)
  • It plays a key role in sensing and limiting infection by intracellular bacteria and DNA viruses. (creativebiomart.net)
  • Mice lacking cGAS were more vulnerable to lethal infection by DNA viruses. (wikipedia.org)
  • STING mediates the type I interferon production in response to intracellular DNA and a variety of intracellular pathogens, including viruses, intracellular bacteria and intracellular parasites. (wikipedia.org)
  • motif
  • AT-rich stem-loop DNA motif in the Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium berghei genome and extracellular DNA from Mycobacterium tuberculosis have been shown to activate type I interferon through STING. (wikipedia.org)
  • protein
  • Then the DNA polymerase forms a protein complex with two primase subunits to form the alpha DNA Polymerase primase complex. (wikipedia.org)
  • While bacterial primases (DnaG-type) are composed of a single protein unit (a monomer) and synthesize RNA primers, AEP primases are usually composed of two different primase units (a heterodimer) and synthesize two-part primers with both RNA and DNA components. (wikipedia.org)
  • In this study, the scientists revealed calicheamicin to cleave the protein CalC site-specifically, destroying both the calicheamicin and the CalC protein, thereby preventing DNA damage. (wikipedia.org)
  • residues
  • Mutations in the positively charged residues completely abrogate DNA binding and subsequent interferon production through STING. (wikipedia.org)
  • duplex
  • It does not require any cofactors for its activity EC 3.1.26.4: RNase H is a ribonuclease that cleaves the RNA in a DNA/RNA duplex to produce ssDNA. (wikipedia.org)
  • single-stranded
  • DNA sequencing generally involves the generation of four populations of single-stranded DNA fragments having one defined terminus and one variable terminus. (google.com)
  • nucleic
  • Such enzymes are particularly useful for use in nucleic acid sequencing protocols and provide novel means for DNA sequence analysis. (google.com)
  • Because all pathogens utilize nucleic acid to propagate, DNA and RNA can be recognized by PRRs to trigger immune activation. (wikipedia.org)
  • gene
  • The genetic code stored in DNA is "interpreted" by gene expression, and the properties of the expression give rise to the organism's phenotype. (wikipedia.org)
  • initiate
  • After recognizing viral DNA, DNA sensors initiate the downstream signaling pathways by activating STING-mediated interferon response. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cells
  • Purified DNA from sorted subpopulations of B cells from wild-type Balb/c mice was subjected to LMPCR to detect CBE associated with Jκ1, Jκ2, and Jκ5 and most Vκ segments. (nih.gov)
  • primers
  • Linker-ligated DNA was then used for amplification by PCR using a linker-specific primer and a pair of nested locus-specific primers (Fig. 3 A). Control amplification of a non-rearranging locus showed that all samples contained similar amounts of amplifiable DNA. (nih.gov)
  • phosphate
  • An anionic oxygen on the 5' phosphate of the DNA nick serves as the nucleophile, attacking the alpha phosphate of the covalently bound AMP causing the AMP to be covalently bound intermediate (DNA-AMP intermediate). (wikipedia.org)
  • minor groove
  • Calicheamicins bind with DNA in the minor groove, wherein they then undergo a reaction analogous to the Bergman cyclization to generate a diradical species. (wikipedia.org)
  • The specificity of binding of calicheamicin to the minor groove of DNA was demonstrated by Crothers et al. (wikipedia.org)
  • strands
  • Genomic DNA consists of two antiparallel and reverse complementary strands, each having 5' and 3' ends. (wikipedia.org)