• polymerases
  • DNA-dependent DNA polymerases found in bacteria, animal and plant cells. (curehunter.com)
  • To examine the immunological relatedness of this enzyme with other retroviral DNA polymerases, remaining Sm-MTV DNA polymerase activity was measured after treatment of this enzyme with various antisera prepared against each of the reverse transcriptases of Mason-Pfizer monkey virus (MPMV), murine mammary tumor virus (MuMTV), simian sarcoma virus-simian sarcoma associated virus (SSV/SSAV), and Rauscher murine leukemia virus (RLV). (curehunter.com)
  • Most DNA polymerases also have an EDITING function. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Pol(A) Polymerases showed various genetic interactions with DNA Topoisomerases Top1p and hence they were called topoisomerase-related function Trf4p and Trf5p due to this interaction with DNA it has an important part in genomic stability. (wikipedia.org)
  • In eukaryotes, transcription is performed by three types of RNA polymerases, each of which needs a special DNA sequence called the promoter and a set of DNA-binding proteins-transcription factors-to initiate the process. (wikipedia.org)
  • Primers
  • The equality of genomic DNA used in each sample was confirmed by amplification of the same genomic DNA samples with primers for the ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme, shown under each lane of the blot, taken at 25, 28, and 31 cycles. (nih.gov)
  • Linker-ligated DNA was then used for amplification by PCR using a linker-specific primer and a pair of nested locus-specific primers (Fig. 3 A). Control amplification of a non-rearranging locus showed that all samples contained similar amounts of amplifiable DNA. (nih.gov)
  • While bacterial primases (DnaG-type) are composed of a single protein unit (a monomer) and synthesize RNA primers, AEP primases are usually composed of two different primase units (a heterodimer) and synthesize two-part primers with both RNA and DNA components. (wikipedia.org)
  • strand
  • During the replication process, these enzymes catalyze the addition of deoxyribonucleotide residues to the end of a DNA strand in the presence of DNA as template-primer. (curehunter.com)
  • If the Okazaki fragments are not properly ligated together, the unligated DNA (containing a 'nick') could easily degrade to a double strand break, a phenomenon known to cause genetic mutations. (wikipedia.org)
  • Calicheamicins target DNA and cause strand scission. (wikipedia.org)
  • This diradical, 1,4-didehydrobenzene, then abstracts hydrogen atoms from the deoxyribose (sugar) backbone of DNA, which ultimately leads to strand scission. (wikipedia.org)
  • FAM46B a 7,283 base pair gene located on the antisense strand of DNA on the short arm of chromosome 1 at the specific locus 1p36.11. (wikipedia.org)
  • With respect to a gene, the two strands may be labeled the "template strand," which serves as a blueprint for the production of an RNA transcript, and the "coding strand," which includes the DNA version of the transcript sequence. (wikipedia.org)
  • The production of the RNA copy of the DNA is called transcription, and is performed in the nucleus by RNA polymerase, which adds one RNA nucleotide at a time to a growing RNA strand as per the complementarity law of the bases. (wikipedia.org)
  • This RNA is complementary to the template 3' → 5' DNA strand, which is itself complementary to the coding 5' → 3' DNA strand. (wikipedia.org)
  • Therefore, the resulting 5' → 3' RNA strand is identical to the coding DNA strand with the exception that thymines (T) are replaced with uracils (U) in the RNA. (wikipedia.org)
  • A coding DNA strand reading "ATG" is indirectly transcribed through the non-coding strand as "AUG" in RNA. (wikipedia.org)
  • Proteins
  • The bottom panel shows DNA from cells transfected with each transcription factor together with the RAG proteins. (nih.gov)
  • binds
  • cGAS directly binds dsDNA via positively charged amino acid residues interacting with the negatively charged DNA phosphate backbone. (wikipedia.org)
  • In bacteria, primase binds to the DNA helicase forming a complex called the primosome. (wikipedia.org)
  • cGAS
  • Mice lacking cGAS were more vulnerable to lethal infection by DNA viruses. (wikipedia.org)
  • Upon DNA recognition cGAS dimerizes and stimulates the formation of cyclic-GMP-AMP (cGAMP). (wikipedia.org)
  • motif
  • AT-rich stem-loop DNA motif in the Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium berghei genome and extracellular DNA from Mycobacterium tuberculosis have been shown to activate type I interferon through STING. (wikipedia.org)
  • viruses
  • This is in contrast to previously characterized minimal DNA ligases from viruses, which use flexible loop regions for DNA interaction. (iucr.org)
  • STING mediates the type I interferon production in response to intracellular DNA and a variety of intracellular pathogens, including viruses, intracellular bacteria and intracellular parasites. (wikipedia.org)
  • residues
  • Mutations in the positively charged residues completely abrogate DNA binding and subsequent interferon production through STING. (wikipedia.org)
  • duplex
  • It does not require any cofactors for its activity EC 3.1.26.4: RNase H is a ribonuclease that cleaves the RNA in a DNA/RNA duplex to produce ssDNA. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cells
  • Purified DNA from sorted subpopulations of B cells from wild-type Balb/c mice was subjected to LMPCR to detect CBE associated with Jκ1, Jκ2, and Jκ5 and most Vκ segments. (nih.gov)
  • gene
  • The genetic code stored in DNA is "interpreted" by gene expression, and the properties of the expression give rise to the organism's phenotype. (wikipedia.org)
  • initiate
  • After recognizing viral DNA, DNA sensors initiate the downstream signaling pathways by activating STING-mediated interferon response. (wikipedia.org)
  • genomic
  • Normalized values are expressed as the number of recombination events detected per 100 ng of transfected BOSC genomic DNA. (nih.gov)
  • Genomic DNA consists of two antiparallel and reverse complementary strands, each having 5' and 3' ends. (wikipedia.org)
  • nucleic
  • Because all pathogens utilize nucleic acid to propagate, DNA and RNA can be recognized by PRRs to trigger immune activation. (wikipedia.org)
  • phosphate
  • An anionic oxygen on the 5' phosphate of the DNA nick serves as the nucleophile, attacking the alpha phosphate of the covalently bound AMP causing the AMP to be covalently bound intermediate (DNA-AMP intermediate). (wikipedia.org)
  • minor groove
  • Calicheamicins bind with DNA in the minor groove, wherein they then undergo a reaction analogous to the Bergman cyclization to generate a diradical species. (wikipedia.org)
  • The specificity of binding of calicheamicin to the minor groove of DNA was demonstrated by Crothers et al. (wikipedia.org)
  • amplification
  • The bottom strip shows an ethidium bromide-stained agarose gel of a control amplification of a non-rearranging locus (CD14), showing equivalent amounts of amplifiable DNA in all samples. (nih.gov)
  • viral
  • Localization of DNA to the cytosol is associated with tumorigenesis or viral infection. (wikipedia.org)