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  • proteins
  • As a result, cells without viral DNA failed to express proteins that are necessary to fight off an infection. (pewtrusts.org)
  • The virus consists of genetic material (DNA) inside an icosahedral protein coat (nucleocapsid), enveloped by other proteins. (sciencephoto.com)
  • Viral proteins promote reversal of the epigenetic silencing in epithelial cells while the viral latency-associated transcript promotes additional heterochromatin in neuronal cells. (nih.gov)
  • Here, we provide the interaction network for all PYHIN proteins and define a function in sensing of viral DNA for the previously uncharacterized IFIX protein. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • NACC1, a novel member of the POZ/BTB (Pox virus and Zinc finger/Bric-a-bracTramtrack Broad complex), but which varies from other proteins of this class in that it lacks the characteristic DNA-binding motif. (wikipedia.org)
  • The rate of phage T4 DNA elongation in phage-infected E. coli was also measured by autoradiography as 749 nucleotides per second during the period of exponential DNA increase at 37 °C. Phosphorylation means the posttranslational addition of a phosphate group to specific amino acids of proteins, and such modification can lead to a drastic change in the stability or the function of a protein in the cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • Entry into Cell: The virion attaches to the cell surface as the viral proteins come into contact with host cell glycosaminoglycan receptors and is taken into the cell through endocytosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • GMPs are DNA-binding proteins that ensures that, as the host cell progresses through mitosis, the viral episomes are partitioned to daughter cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • These proteins are essential in maintaining viral structure and for enzyme creation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Protease inhibitors bind to the active site of the viral protease, which prevents the cleavage of the Gag and Gagpol proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • If this mutation occurs, transcription will not be halted, and viral proteins can be created. (wikipedia.org)
  • sequences
  • To achieve better hybridization and reproducibility, they used 50- to 100-bp sequences of human papilloma virus DNA as probes. (photonics.com)
  • 2. A recombinant DNA molecule according to claim 1 , wherein the said DNA comprises a chimaeric DNA construct comprising an expressible DNA in operable linkage with expression signals active in plant cells, wherein said expression signals are selected from the group consisting of promoter and termination sequences. (google.com)
  • 10. The recombinant DNA molecule according to claim 2 , wherein said DNA further comprises coding sequences of the 5′ region, 3′ region, or 5′ and 3′ region. (google.com)
  • However, research also shows that animal cells can benefit from integrated viral sequences (e.g., to support host cell development or to silence foreign invaders). (diva-portal.org)
  • Here we propose that, comparable with the clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats that provide bacteria with adaptive immunity against invasive bacteriophages, animal cells may co-opt integrated viral sequences to support immune memory. (diva-portal.org)
  • We hypothesize that host cells express viral peptides from open reading frames in integrated sequences to boost adaptive B cell and T cell responses long after replicating viruses are cleared. (diva-portal.org)
  • In support of this hypothesis, we examine previous literature describing (1) viruses that infect acutely (e.g., vaccinia viruses and orthomyxoviruses) followed by unexplained, long-term persistence of viral nucleotide sequences, viral peptides, and virus-specific adaptive immunity, (2) the high frequency of endogenous viral genetic elements found in animal genomes, and (3) mechanisms with which animal host machinery supports foreign sequence integration. (diva-portal.org)
  • An intriguing wrinkle to this study is the previously reported presence of sequences highly homologous to MMTV Env protein in the DNA of as many as 40% of human breast tumors, although a human homologue of MMTV has yet to be found. (bio-medicine.org)
  • RNA or DNA viral sequences can also be located in this fashion. (wikipedia.org)
  • It was also confirmed that the sequences of cytoplasmic DNA was different from nuclear DNA in the same organism, showing that cytoplasmic DNAs are not simply fragments of nuclear DNA. (wikipedia.org)
  • DNA sequences encoding the HA's of RCN and VV (vaccinia virus) strain WR (western reserve) as well as HA's of VV, RCN, VPX (vole poxvirus), and SKP (skunk poxvirus) are rather divergent. (wikipedia.org)
  • molecule
  • Single-molecule spectroscopy does not require amplification, and thus is an attractive alternative for the detection and quantification of viral DNA. (photonics.com)
  • Researchers with the Ames Laboratory of the US Department of Energy and with Iowa State University, also in Ames, previously reported an improved single-molecule strategy using a flow system based on fluorescently labeled target DNA molecules passing through a thin fused-silica capillary. (photonics.com)
  • Researchers have described the use of surface hybridization with single-molecule spectroscopy for the detection of viral DNA such as human papilloma virus (HPV). (photonics.com)
  • They hybridized target DNA to probes covalently bound on a glass surface -- much as is done in DNA arrays but engineered specifically for single-molecule counting, said co-author Ji-Young Lee. (photonics.com)
  • The researchers determined the human papilloma virus contents for the cell line extracts based on the average molecule counts for each image, and found that all were in good agreement with known viral loads. (photonics.com)
  • 3. A recombinant DNA molecule according to claim 2 , wherein the said expressible DNA comprises a structural gene. (google.com)
  • 4. A recombinant DNA molecule according to claim 3 , wherein the said structural gene upon expression leads to resistance against plant pathogens selected from the group consisting of insects, fungi, bacteria and viruses. (google.com)
  • 5. A recombinant DNA molecule according to claim 4 , wherein the said structural gene codes for a polypeptide that is toxic to insects and/or their larvae. (google.com)
  • 7. A recombinant DNA molecule according to claim 6 , wherein the said crystalline protein is encoded by a synthetic B.t. gene. (google.com)
  • 8. A recombinant DNA molecule according to claim 3 , wherein the said structural gene codes for a lytic peptide. (google.com)
  • Artwork of an enveloped virus behind a test tube containing a molecule of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA). (sciencephoto.com)
  • The linear plasmids of prokarykotes are found either containing a hairpin loop or a covalently bonded protein attached to the telomeric ends of the DNA molecule. (wikipedia.org)
  • infectivity
  • RCN infected Strain 143 human osteosarcoma cells produce cytoplasmic A-type inclusions (ATIs) where a number of mature virions are lodged to maintain viral infectivity even if the cell lyses. (wikipedia.org)
  • chromatin
  • VP16 from the virion tegument forms a complex with HCF-1 and Oct1 that binds to viral IE promoters and HCF-1 recruits histone modification enzymes and chromatin remodeling complexes that decrease histone association with viral IE genes and increase euchromatin marks on the remaining associated histones. (nih.gov)
  • The multimerized IFI16 on the viral DNA also recruits histone modification complexes that add H3K9me3 modifications to the viral chromatin, resulting in epigenetic silencing of the viral genes. (nih.gov)
  • It has been suggested to mediate protein-DNA and protein-protein interactions during chromatin organization and transcription. (wikipedia.org)
  • genes
  • DNA contains sections called genes, which encode an organism's genetic information. (sciencephoto.com)
  • This study puts the spotlight on a potential new mechanism for virus-induced breast cell transformation, which has largely been attributed to the integration of viral DNA into locations that trigger the expression of host cancer-causing genes. (bio-medicine.org)
  • Although the first ORF in these gammaherpesviruses have oncogenic potential, other viral genes may also play a role in viral transformation. (wikipedia.org)
  • herpes
  • BZLF1 (also known as Zta, EB1) is an immediate-early viral gene of the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) of the Herpes Virus Family, which induces cancers and infects primarily the B-cells of 95% of the human population. (wikipedia.org)
  • eukaryotic
  • These types of linear plasmids represent the largest class of extrachromosomal DNA as they are not only present in certain bacterial cells, but all linear extrachromosomal DNA molecules found in eukaryotic cells also take on this invertron structure with a protein attached to the 5' end. (wikipedia.org)
  • The mitochondria present in eukaryotic cells contain multiple copies of mitochondrial DNA referred to as mtDNA which is housed within the mitochondrial matrix. (wikipedia.org)
  • transcription
  • By designing a cell-based inducible system and integrating microscopy, immunoaffinity capture, quantitative mass spectrometry, and bioinformatics, we identify over 300 PYHIN interactions reflective of diverse functions, including DNA damage response, transcription regulation, intracellular signaling, and antiviral response. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • CRISPR
  • With a featured publication in the Aug. 7 issue of Science, Montana State University researchers have made a significant contribution to the understanding of a new field of DNA research, with the acronym CRISPR, that holds enormous promise for fighting infectious diseases and genetic disorders. (infectioncontroltoday.com)
  • plasmid
  • Further comprised by the invention are recombinant DNA, plasmid and vector molecules suitably adapted to the specific conditions of the process according to the invention and the transgenic plant products obtainable in accordance with the said process. (google.com)
  • Plasmid DNA vaccines are genetically engineered to contain a gene which encodes for an antigen or a protein produced by a pathogenic virus, bacterium or other parasite. (wikipedia.org)
  • cells
  • Using sophisticated genetic sequencing and gene-editing techniques, Elde and his colleagues deleted certain viral remnants from human DNA and found that, without them, cells infected with a pathogen could not fully respond to interferon, a protein signal that jump-starts our immune responses. (pewtrusts.org)
  • Radioactive precursors of DNA and RNA, [3H]-thymidine and [3H]-uridine respectively, may be introduced to living cells to determine the timing of several phases of the cell cycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • Single-stranded DNA is usually expanded to double-stranded in infected cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • enzyme
  • Differences between terminal region patterns of DNA restriction enzyme digests of different RCN isolates suggest that varied passaging has promoted the advancement of polymorphisms since the virus was first isolated in 1961. (wikipedia.org)
  • The enzyme facilitates the "debranching" of double stranded DNA. (wikipedia.org)
  • The enzyme contains a highly conserved region called the catalytic core, which is essential for binding to the virally encoded DNA. (wikipedia.org)
  • virus
  • The panels here represent samples with 0 (A), 10 -4 (B), 10 -3 (C), 10 -2 (D), 10 (E) and 1 percent human papilloma virus DNA. (photonics.com)
  • The virus may be contained within inclusion bodies and mature by budding through the membrane of the host cell, giving rise to a large amount of viral shedding in a short period of time. (wikipedia.org)
  • DNA studies suggest that this virus and the human virus are very closely related. (wikipedia.org)
  • Diagnosis can also be confirmed with presence of virus inclusion bodies in tissues or a positive immunohistochemical staining for viral antigen. (wikipedia.org)
  • RCN is a double-stranded DNA virus. (wikipedia.org)
  • displacement
  • It is being increasingly used in molecular biology for multiple displacement DNA amplification procedures, and has a number of features that make it particularly suitable for this application. (wikipedia.org)
  • strands
  • DNA consists of two strands (red and blue) twisted into a double helix. (sciencephoto.com)
  • The linear plasmids which contain a protein that has been covalently attached to the 5' end of the DNA strands are known as invertrons and can range in size from 9 kb to over 600 kb consisting of inverted terminal repeats. (wikipedia.org)
  • found
  • In prokaryotes, nonviral extrachromosomal DNA is primarily found in plasmids whereas in eukaryotes extrachromosomal DNA is primarily found in organelles. (wikipedia.org)
  • clinical
  • We propose to test our primary hypothesis that treatment with Peg-IFN-α-2b will result in a decrease in integrated HIV DNA in peripheral blood and tissue in chronically HIV-infected immune-reconstituted individuals (see section 3.1) in a prospective, interventional, 1-arm, open label clinical trial. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • synthesis
  • In the case of a viral factor, the infected cell may shut off its protein synthesis and may undergo programmed cell death (apoptosis). (wikipedia.org)
  • efficiently
  • The structure of this biological machine is conceptually similar to an engineer's blueprint, and it explains how each of the parts in this complex assemble into a functional complex that efficiently identifies viral DNA when it enters the cell," Wiedenheft says. (infectioncontroltoday.com)
  • decrease
  • ART interruption), will result in activation of intrinsic and/or immune-mediated anti-HIV mechanisms resulting in a decrease in the levels of viral reservoir in chronically HIV-infected, immune-reconstituted individuals. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • novel
  • The present invention relates to a novel method of inserting viral DNA, which optionally may contain cargo-DNA, into plants or viable parts thereof, but preferably into plants of the monocotyledon class, and most preferably into plants of the family Gramineae, using suitable transfer microorganisms. (google.com)
  • To determine the mechanism of this packaging motor, we used a novel high-resolution optical tweezers to observe the discrete increments of DNA packaged by a single bacteriophage. (aps.org)
  • hybridization
  • Whereas conventional surface hybridization detection uses only a single probe, the method described by Lee and his colleagues, Jiangwei Li and Edward S. Yeung, incorporates a second probe, and the target DNA is sandwiched between this probe and the surface. (photonics.com)
  • In addition, the DNA was sheared easily in the washing steps, and there was reduced fluorescence from the quantum dots after overnight hybridization. (photonics.com)
  • They knew that, under the conditions that they used, DNA would coil randomly on the slide surface after hybridization, leading to less shearing and more robust performance of the tag throughout the hybridization step. (photonics.com)
  • cellular
  • Homomeric ring-ATPases of the ASCE family are responsible for a variety of important cellular functions, ranging from DNA translocation to protein degradation. (aps.org)
  • The cellular sensors that initiate the chromatinization of foreign DNA have not been fully defined. (nih.gov)