• Genome
  • We propose that chromocenter and satellite DNA serve a fundamental role in encapsulating the full complement of the genome within a single nucleus, the universal characteristic of eukaryotic cells. (elifesciences.org)
  • The double FISH analysis of two repetitive DNAs (a satellite DNA and ribosomal DNA) in 12 natural populations of the grasshopper Eyprepocnemis plorans collected at the south (Granada and Málaga provinces) and south-east (Albacete and Murcia provinces) of the Iberian Peninsula has shown their widespread presence throughout the whole genome as well as extensive variation among populations. (springer.com)
  • 1998) Repetitive DNA sequences in the common vole: cloning, characterization andch romosome localization of two novel complex repeats MS3 and MS4 from the genome of the East European vole Microtus rossiaemeridionalis. (springer.com)
  • Southern hybridization and nucleotide sequence analysis of individual randomly cloned repeats shows that these satellite DNA families are highly abundant in the genome, are composed of unique repeats, and are species-specific. (umd.edu)
  • Early in her career Frommer investigated the molecular biology of "satellite DNAs" in the human genome. (wikipedia.org)
  • A fraction of the mouse genome that is derived from islands of nonmethylated, CpG-rich DNA. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although Group VII viruses such as hepatitis B contain a DNA genome, they are not considered DNA viruses according to the Baltimore classification, but rather reverse transcribing viruses because they replicate through an RNA intermediate. (wikipedia.org)
  • A group known as the pleolipoviruses, although having a similar genome organisation, differ in having either single or double stranded DNA genomes. (wikipedia.org)
  • The symbiotic relationship between a satellite and a helper virus to catalyze the replication of a satellite viral genome is also dependent on the host to provide components like replicases to carry out replication. (wikipedia.org)
  • The emergence of Satellite RNA is said to have come from either the genome of the host or its co-infecting agents, and any vectors leading to transmission. (wikipedia.org)
  • Some research suggest that MSIs are short tandem DNA repeat sequences of one to six base pairs throughout the genome, while other research suggests that the range may be two to five. (wikipedia.org)
  • Microsatellites make up approximately three percent of the human genome, or more than one million fragments of DNA. (wikipedia.org)
  • The genome is a single circular single strand DNA molecule. (wikipedia.org)
  • Singh founded various institutes and laboratories in India, including the Centre for DNA Fingerprinting and Diagnostics in 1995, Laboratory for the Conservation of Endangered Species (LaCONES) in 1998, and Genome Foundation in 2004, aiming to diagnose and treat genetic disorders affecting the Indian population, in particular the under-privileged people residing in rural India. (wikipedia.org)
  • He has studied repeated sequences in the DNA of mice and produced molecular maps of mouse chromosomes, which were used to sequence the mouse genome. (wikipedia.org)
  • genomic
  • The name "satellite DNA" refers to the phenomenon that repetitions of a short DNA sequence tend to produce a different frequency of the bases adenine, cytosine, guanine and thymine, and thus have a different density from bulk DNA - such that they form a second or 'satellite' band when genomic DNA is separated on a density gradient. (wikipedia.org)
  • Gaginskaya, E. 2004-10-13 00:00:00 A novel repeated sequence of chaffinch (Fringilla coelebs) designated as GS was isolated from genomic DNA after in vitro amplification of satellite DNA sequences using GSP-PCR technique. (deepdyve.com)
  • She is best known for developing a protocol to map DNA methylation by bisulphite genomic sequencing. (wikipedia.org)
  • This research led to the observation of methylation patterns at CpG dinucleotides in sequenced genomic repeated DNA. (wikipedia.org)
  • She and her PhD student Margaret Gardiner-Garden were able to identify these genomic components by DNA sequence characteristics alone, without prior knowledge of methylation status, and gave them the name "CpG islands. (wikipedia.org)
  • A genomic sequencing protocol that yields a positive display of 5-methylcytosine residues in individual DNA strands. (wikipedia.org)
  • HACs were first constructed de novo in 1997 by adding alpha-satellite DNA to telomeric and genomic DNA in human HT1080 cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • This particular study focused on changes in expression levels by leaving portions of the existing genomic DNA. (wikipedia.org)
  • DNAs
  • Satellite DNAs are heterogeneous and no general function has been attributed to this DNA class. (scielo.br)
  • Moreover, satellite DNAs are involved in the maintenance of functional centromeres in mammals (Willard, 1990) and might also be related to the late replication of centromeres (Csink and Henikoff, 1998). (scielo.br)
  • No obvious satellite DNAs were resolved using the CsCl or Ag-Cs 2 SO 4 density gradient conditions described herein. (springer.com)
  • DNAs from several highly (≥ hundredfold increased resistance) antifolate-resistant sublines of DC-3F, characterized by a large homogeneously staining region (HSR) in the chromosome complement, were examined with both techniques and compared to the parental, antifolate-sensitive cell line DNA. (springer.com)
  • viral
  • In 1986, the first hammerhead ribozymes were found in some RNA plant pathogens like viroids and viral satellites. (wikipedia.org)
  • Satellite viral particles should not be confused with satellite DNA. (wikipedia.org)
  • A satellite virus important to human health that demonstrates the need for co-infection to replicate and infect within a host is Hepatitis D. Hepatitis D (HDV) was discovered in 1977 by an Mario Rizzetto and is unique from Hepatitis A, B, and C because it requires viral particles from Hepatitis B to replicate and infect liver cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Hepatitis Delta Virus is found all over the globe but most Prevalent in Africa, the Middle East and Southern Italy Satellite viruses- satellites are classified as sub viral agents in that they require the help for co-infection therefore they do not have their own taxonomic classification. (wikipedia.org)
  • HACs allow for delivery of more DNA (including promoters and copy-number variation) than is possible with viral vectors. (wikipedia.org)
  • repetitive
  • DNA purified from a Chinese hamster cell line of lung fibroblast origin (DC83F) was analyzed by density gradient centrifugation and by gel electrophoresis after restriction endonuclease digestion in order to fractionate discrete repetitive fractions within the total DNA. (springer.com)
  • vitro
  • Genotoxic effects of ethyl methanesulfonate and X-rays at different stages of rat spermatogenesis, studied by inhibition of DNA synthesis and induction of DNA repair in vitro. (springer.com)
  • proteins
  • The proteins involved in MMR correct polymerase errors by forming a complex that binds to the mismatched section of DNA, excises the error, and inserts the correct sequence in its place. (wikipedia.org)
  • Specifically, DNA polymerase slips, creating a temporary insertion-deletion loop, which is usually recognized by MMR proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • Many of these proteins are conserved between eukaryotic species, including a specialized histone H3 variant (called CENP-A or CenH3) which helps the kinetochore associate with DNA. (wikipedia.org)
  • The deepest layer in the kinetochore is the inner plate, which is organized on a chromatin structure containing nucleosomes presenting a specialized histone (named CENP-A, which substitutes histone H3 in this region), auxiliary proteins (= helper proteins) and DNA. (wikipedia.org)
  • molecules
  • In addition, all isolates were found to be associated with DNAβ molecules. (deepdyve.com)
  • these molecules had an ORF βC1, an adenine-rich region, and a satellite conserved region. (deepdyve.com)
  • In 1998 Frommer realised that it should be possible to amplify the products of a DNA deamination reaction and distinguish methylated and unmethylated molecules by dideoxy-sequencing. (wikipedia.org)
  • The PCR products of bisulphite reactions could be sequenced directly to measure the extent of methylation at any CpG site in a population of DNA molecules. (wikipedia.org)
  • Molecular
  • Before his term as Vice Chancellor of Banaras Hindu University, he also served as director of the Centre for Cellular and Molecular Biology (CCMB) from May 1998 to July 2009 and Officer on Special Duty (OSD) of Centre for DNA Fingerprinting and Diagnostics (CDFD), Hyderabad, India in 1995-1999. (wikipedia.org)
  • Moreover
  • Moreover, DNA conformational features can be linked to both similarities and distinctions in platinum drug adduct formation between the naked and nucleosomal DNA states. (rcsb.org)
  • loci
  • Some researchers believe that the oxidative stress on specific loci results in DNA polymerase pausing at those sites, creating an environment for DNA slippage to occur. (wikipedia.org)
  • genetic
  • It is well known that DNA is the blueprint for the building blocks of life, but actually most of the genetic information in a cell codes for nothing, and has unknown roles. (elifesciences.org)
  • These satellite RFLP or SFLP, markers provide a fast method to screen the genetic makeup of African cattle. (cgiar.org)
  • A DNA virus is a virus that has DNA as its genetic material and replicates using a DNA-dependent DNA polymerase. (wikipedia.org)
  • Microsatellite instability (MSI) is the condition of genetic hypermutability (predisposition to mutation) that results from impaired DNA mismatch repair (MMR). (wikipedia.org)
  • viruses
  • DNA viruses belong to either Group I or Group II of the Baltimore classification system for viruses. (wikipedia.org)
  • Notable diseases like smallpox, herpes, and the chickenpox are caused by such DNA viruses. (wikipedia.org)
  • A fourth order-Megavirales-for the nucleocytoplasmic large DNA viruses has been proposed. (wikipedia.org)
  • A recently proposed clade is the Megavirales which includes the nucleocytoplasmic large DNA viruses. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, the usage of this term remains controversial due to the lack of fundamental differences between virophages and classical satellite viruses. (wikipedia.org)
  • Virophages or satellite viruses? (wikipedia.org)
  • These viruses were earlier known as DNA 1 components. (wikipedia.org)
  • divergent
  • Several RU sequences were cloned and sequenced to reveal conserved regions of conventional DNA sequences interspersed with five "divergent domains" within each copy of RU. (wikipedia.org)
  • A fifth divergent domain in the RU sequence was characterized by variations of a symmetrical DNA sequence of alternating purines and pyrimidines shown to adopt a left-handed Z-DNA helical structure in equilibrium with a stem-loop structure under superhelical stress. (wikipedia.org)
  • novel
  • These findings illuminate DNA structure-dependent reactivity and provide a novel framework for understanding metal-double helix interactions, which should facilitate the development of improved chromatin-targeting medicinal agents. (rcsb.org)
  • interphase
  • Defective chromocenter formation leads to micronuclei formation due to budding from the interphase nucleus, DNA damage and cell death. (elifesciences.org)
  • microsatellite
  • On southern blots hybridized to a satellite III probe, relative intensities of Hinf1 fragments correlated with the taurine-zebu composition in hybrid animals as deduced from AFLP genotyping of the same animals and previous data on microsatellite allele frequencies. (cgiar.org)
  • species
  • Junk DNA' therefore appears to participate in fundamental cellular processes across species, a result that opens up several new lines of research. (elifesciences.org)
  • Three satellite DNA families were identified in three species of burying beetles, Nicrophorus orbicollis, N. marginatus, and N. americanus. (umd.edu)
  • Eupatorium
  • Sequence analysis showed that they had highest sequence identity with DNAβ of Eupatorium yellow vein virus (AJ438938) (44.0, 43.9 and 45.6% identity). (deepdyve.com)
  • density gradient
  • The density gradient profiles and electrophoretic patterns of restriction endonuclease digests were identical among all the cell lines examined and were indistinguishable from those of the parental DC-3F DNA. (springer.com)
  • variation
  • We describe satellite DNA variation that detects hybridization of Bos indicus (Zebu or indicine cattle) and Bos taurus (taurine cattle) in African cattle populations. (cgiar.org)
  • RNAs
  • Named for the resemblance of early secondary structure diagrams to a hammerhead shark, hammerhead ribozymes RNAs were originally discovered in two classes of plant virus-like RNAs: satellite RNAs and viroids. (wikipedia.org)
  • humans
  • Some types of satellite DNA in humans are: A repeated pattern can be between 1 base pair long (a mononucleotide repeat) to several thousand base pairs long[citation needed], and the total size of a satellite DNA block can be several megabases without interruption. (wikipedia.org)