• Nitrogen
  • Each environment would have differences in the availability of inputs to the space agriculture process: inorganic material needed for plant growth, soil media, insolation, relative availability of carbon dioxide, nitrogen and oxygen, and so forth. (wikipedia.org)
  • Martian soil contains a majority of the minerals needed for plant growth except for reactive nitrogen, which is a product of mineralization of organic matter. (wikipedia.org)
  • Reactive nitrogen is a required constituent of soil used for plant growth, and it is possible that nitrogen fixing species, such as bacteria, could aide in the lack of reactive nitrogen series. (wikipedia.org)
  • California
  • The first study of what would come to be called aDNA was conducted in 1984, when Russ Higuchi and colleagues at the University of California, Berkeley reported that traces of DNA from a museum specimen of the Quagga not only remained in the specimen over 150 years after the death of the individual, but could be extracted and sequenced. (wikipedia.org)
  • Tissues
  • Examples include the analysis of DNA recovered from archaeological and historical skeletal material, mummified tissues, archival collections of non-frozen medical specimens, preserved plant remains, ice and permafrost cores, Holocene plankton in marine and lake sediments, and so on. (wikipedia.org)
  • polysaccharides
  • Since plants are very heterogenous and contain many different metabolites, such as polyphenols, polysaccharides, or acidic components, NucleoSpin Plant II offers two different lysis procedures for optimal processing of various samples. (clontech.com)
  • Tobacco
  • Some of the plants and products they developed included Vine sweet mini peppers, the Fish tomato and Y1 Tobacco. (wikipedia.org)
  • Y1 was developed by tobacco plant researcher James Chapin, for Brown & Williamson (then a subsidiary of British American Tobacco) in the late 1970s, with the approval of the president at the time, Jimmie Carter. (wikipedia.org)
  • Chapin, a director of the USDA Research Laboratory at Oxford, North Carolina, had described the need for a higher nicotine tobacco plant in the trade publication World Tobacco in 1977, and had bred a number of high-nicotine strains based on a hybrid of Nicotiana tabacum and Nicotiana rustica, but they were weak and would blow over in a strong wind. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, FDA investigators discovered a Brazilian patent describing a tobacco plant with an unusually high nicotine content, which led them to B&W and Y1. (wikipedia.org)
  • This type of tobacco was planted in fertile lowlands, used a robust variety of leaf, and was either fire cured or air cured. (wikipedia.org)
  • Ohio, Pennsylvania and Maryland all innovated with milder varieties of the tobacco plant. (wikipedia.org)
  • The first field trials occurred in France and the USA in 1986, when tobacco plants were engineered for herbicide resistance. (wikipedia.org)
  • The People's Republic of China was the first country to allow commercialized transgenic plants, introducing a virus-resistant tobacco in 1992, which was withdrawn in 1997. (wikipedia.org)
  • soil
  • Growers had noticed that sandy, highland soil produced thinner, weaker plants. (wikipedia.org)
  • Captain Abisha Slade, of Caswell County, North Carolina had considerable infertile, sandy soil, and planted the new "gold-leaf" varieties on it. (wikipedia.org)
  • embryo
  • In the majority of flowering plants, the zygote's first division is transversely oriented in regards to the long axis, and this establishes the polarity of the embryo. (wikipedia.org)
  • 2001
  • Release 1.0 of the more inclusive Plant DNA C-values Database was launched in 2001, with subsequent releases 2.0 in January 2003 and 3.0 in December 2004. (wikipedia.org)
  • cells
  • The seed of a vascular plant is a small package produced in a fruit or cone after the union of male and female reproductive cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • This work led her to develop the idea of the target cell as a model for how a small number of plant hormones can exert many different effects, a concept she expounded in her 2005 book, Hormones, Signals and Target Cells in Plant Development (co-authored with Michael McManus). (wikipedia.org)
  • counterfeit
  • Highlighting another unique way to use cutting edge DNA technology , the U.S. Department of Defense has a new weapon in its efforts to combat counterfeit parts: plant DNA. (slashdot.org)
  • There are counterfeit parts targeted at specific industries or military parts that the DNA concept may not slow down. (slashdot.org)
  • subsequent
  • i am attempting an experiment to cut time and expense in processing large numbers of small-diameter plant stems for subsequent PCR detection of MLOs. (bio.net)
  • The purified DNA is ready for use in subsequent reactions such as PCR, Southern blotting, and restriction analysis. (clontech.com)
  • researchers
  • These libraries are to then be supplied to researchers and the DNA preserved for thousands of years. (bio.net)
  • Sciences
  • Applied DNA Sciences Inc. Retrieved 25 August 2015. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 1985, Osborne retired from the Civil Service, and became a visiting professor at the Department of Plant Sciences of Oxford University, as well as an honorary research fellow of the Open University and of Somerville College, Oxford. (wikipedia.org)
  • widely
  • Seed production in natural plant populations varies widely from year to year in response to weather variables, insects and diseases, and internal cycles within the plants themselves. (wikipedia.org)
  • Technology
  • While working for DNA Plant Technology, the scientists Richard A. Jorgensen and Carolyn Napoli made discoveries about post transcriptional gene silencing that went on to form the basis of a number of U.S. patents on gene regulation and crop manipulation. (wikipedia.org)
  • DNA Plant Technology Seminis Mexidata article Danforth Center website/ Jörnmark, Moa. (wikipedia.org)
  • grown
  • Plants grown inflight experience a microgravity environment, and plants grown on the surface of Mars experience approximately 1/3 the gravity that earth plants do. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, so long as plants are provided with directional light, those grown in low gravity environments still experienced normal growth. (wikipedia.org)
  • This being said many plants grown in a space flight environment have been significantly smaller than those grown on earth's surface and grew at a slower rate. (wikipedia.org)
  • In addition to varying effects of gravity, unless protected, plants grown on the surface of Mars will be exposed to much higher levels of radiation than on Earth. (wikipedia.org)
  • different
  • Different groups of plants have other modifications, the so-called stone fruits (such as the peach) have a hardened fruit layer (the endocarp) fused to and surrounding the actual seed. (wikipedia.org)
  • structures
  • Other parts of the vine include the tendrils which are leaf-opposed, branched in Vitis vinifera, and are used to support the climbing plant by twining onto surrounding structures such as branches or the trellising of a vine-training system. (wikipedia.org)
  • findings
  • Soon a series of incredible findings had been published, claiming authentic DNA could be extracted from specimens that were millions of years old, into the realms of what Lindahl (1993b) has labelled Antediluvian DNA. (wikipedia.org)
  • growth
  • However, a 2006 study suggests maintaining elevated CO2 concentrations can mitigate the effects of hypobaric conditions as low as 10 kPa to achieve normal plant growth. (wikipedia.org)
  • Her PhD on the topic of plant growth regulators was from the University of London at Wye College, Kent, where her supervisor was R. Louis Wain. (wikipedia.org)
  • The hormonal control of growth, differentiation and development in plants was Osborne's lifelong interest. (wikipedia.org)
  • field
  • Her research in the field of plant physiology spanned five decades and resulted in over two hundred papers, twenty of which were published in Nature. (wikipedia.org)
  • The laborious processes that were required at that time to sequence such DNA (through bacterial cloning) were an effective brake on the development of the field of ancient DNA (aDNA). (wikipedia.org)
  • several
  • Several sediment-preserved plant remains dating to the Miocene were successfully investigated (Golenberg et al. (wikipedia.org)
  • oxygen
  • The existence of a space farm would aid the creation of a sustainable environment, as plants can be used to recycle wastewater, generate oxygen, continuously purify the air and recycle faeces on the space station or spaceship. (wikipedia.org)
  • article
  • This article at Wired discusses how plant DNA can be used to make an almost unique code (1 in 1 trillion) for parts identification. (slashdot.org)
  • samples
  • As long as you handle the plant tissue properly, there should be no difference between your fresh and dried samples. (protocol-online.org)
  • Starting samples sizes range up to 250 mg (wet weight) for the Plant Midi Kit, and up to 1 g (wet weight) for the Plant Maxi Kit. (clontech.com)
  • Another problem with ancient DNA samples is contamination by modern human DNA and by microbial DNA (most of which is also ancient). (wikipedia.org)
  • natural
  • She is best known for her work on the gas ethylene, in particular for demonstrating that ethylene is a natural plant hormone, and that it is the major regulator of ageing and the shedding of leaves and fruits. (wikipedia.org)
  • She is particularly known for her work establishing that the gas ethylene is a natural plant hormone, rather than a by-product or pollutant, and for demonstrating that ethylene, rather than abscisic acid, is the major regulator of senescence (ageing) and abscission (shedding of parts such as leaves). (wikipedia.org)
  • model
  • She also originated the concept of the target cell as a model for understanding plant hormone action. (wikipedia.org)