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  • molecule
  • It is well known that ionizing radiation causes modification and destruction of nitrogenous bases in DNA molecule. (novapublishers.com)
  • The conformation of the DNA molecule can significantly affect the movement of the DNA, for example, supercoiled DNA usually moves faster than relaxed DNA because it is tightly coiled and hence more compact. (wikipedia.org)
  • spectroscopy
  • These studies show that CD spectroscopy is a powerful technique to monitor DNA conformational changes resulting from drug binding and also shows its potential to be a drug-screening platform in the future. (mdpi.com)
  • CD spectroscopy is very sensitive to the secondary structure of polypeptides and proteins and thus has been employed in many different fields, such as investigation of the proteins' secondary structure and spectral studies of DNA [ 2 - 5 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • In contrast to ECD, the combination of VCD and IR absorption spectroscopy not only enabled the observation of DNA condensation, but also the determination of DNA secondary structure upon condensation in the same experiment. (jbsdonline.com)
  • HEPATITIS
  • Residual hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA can be detected following the resolution of acute HBV infection. (semanticscholar.org)
  • HBV was identified as a new DNA virus in the 1960s, followed a couple of decades later by the discovery of the flavivirus Hepatitis C. HBV was first identified in the lab as the "Australia agent" by Blumberg and colleagues in the blood of an Aboriginal transfusion patient. (wikipedia.org)
  • Topology
  • Unlike type IIA topoisomerases, type IIB topoisomerases cannot simplify DNA topology (see below), but they share several structural features with type IIA topoisomerases. (wikipedia.org)
  • In addition, type IIA topoisomerases are able to simplify DNA topology (Rybenkov Science 1997), while type IIB topoisomerases do not (Corbett Journal of Molecular Biology, 2006). (wikipedia.org)
  • DNA Structure and Topology at Molecular Biochemistry II: The Bello Lectures. (wikipedia.org)
  • sequence
  • It can be transferred from one DNA sequence (usually on a vector) to another by 'cutting' the fragment out using restriction enzymes and 'pasting' it back into the new context. (wikipedia.org)
  • DNA nanoball sequencing is a high throughput sequencing technology that is used to determine the entire genomic sequence of an organism. (wikipedia.org)
  • The company Complete Genomics uses DNA nanoball sequencing to sequence samples submitted by researchers. (wikipedia.org)
  • Once a circular DNA template, containing sample DNA that is ligated to four unique adapter sequences has been generated, the full sequence is amplified into a long string of DNA. (wikipedia.org)
  • To obtain DNA sequence, the DNA nanoballs are attached to a microarray flow cell (Figure 5). (wikipedia.org)
  • strand
  • The DNA strand concentration was 1.5 µ M ml 1 and oligonucleotides were dissolved in 100 mMl 1 sodium chloride, 5 mMl 1 magnesium chloride, and 10 mMl 1 sodium cacodylate, at pH 7.0. (scielo.org.za)
  • The DNA copies concatenate head to tail in a long strand, and are compacted into a DNA nanoball. (wikipedia.org)
  • The right and left Ad1 are modified to create complementary single strand ends that bind to each other and form circular DNA. (wikipedia.org)
  • The newly synthesized strand is released from the circular template, resulting in a long single-stranded DNA comprising several head-to-tail copies of the circular template. (wikipedia.org)
  • The four adapter sequences contain palindromic sequences which hybridize and cause the single strand to fold onto itself, resulting in a tight ball of DNA approximately 300 nanometers (nm) across. (wikipedia.org)
  • typically
  • The DNA of the suitable size range is purified by gel extraction, resulting in DNA with lengths within a narrow range (typically 400 - 500 base pairs). (wikipedia.org)
  • DNAs
  • The study, published online recently in the journal G3: Genes, Genomes and Genetics , found that different cell varieties harbor different sets of circular DNAs. (hotstarshop.com)
  • protein
  • PAGE gels are widely used in techniques such as DNA foot printing, EMSA and other DNA-protein interaction techniques. (wikipedia.org)
  • intracellular
  • Due to its high nuclease resistance and improved stability in biological fluids, circular DNA (cDNA) has been used to fabricate an intracellular mRNA sensing platform. (rsc.org)
  • sequences
  • Fluorescent probes bind to complementary DNA and the probes are then ligated to anchor sequences bound to known sequences on the DNA template. (wikipedia.org)
  • Adapter DNA sequences must be attached to the unknown DNA fragment so that DNA segments with known sequences flank the unknown DNA. (wikipedia.org)
  • Right and left adapter sequences (Ad2) are ligated onto the ends of the linear DNA and the product is amplified using PCR. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Ad2 sequences are then modified to allow them to bind each other and form circular DNA. (wikipedia.org)
  • Right and left adapter sequences (Ad3) are ligated to the right and left flank of the linear DNA and the product is amplified by PCR. (wikipedia.org)
  • Right and left adapters (Ad4) are ligated to the DNA, the product is PCR amplified, and the Ad4 sequences are modified so that they bind to each other. (wikipedia.org)
  • novel
  • This novel type of DNA was termed NR-element (NlaIII repeat element). (cgiar.org)
  • fragment
  • In genetic engineering, a gene cassette is a manipulable fragment of DNA carrying, and capable of expressing, one or more genes of interest between one or more sets of restriction sites. (wikipedia.org)
  • The result is a linear DNA fragment (Figure 3). (wikipedia.org)
  • enzymes
  • In this process, these enzymes change the linking number of circular DNA by ±2. (wikipedia.org)
  • Type IIA topoisomerases include the enzymes DNA gyrase, eukaryotic topoisomerase II (topo II), and bacterial topoisomerase IV (topo IV). (wikipedia.org)
  • In DNA this property does not change and can only be modified by specialized enzymes called topoisomerases. (wikipedia.org)
  • spectra
  • At the same time both of them result in the same changes in DNA CD spectra: the decrease in intensity. (novapublishers.com)
  • It has been known for a long time that at certain conditions so called psi -type DNA condensation occurs, which can be easily determined by Electronic CD (ECD) due to appearance of large characteristic ECD spectra (1). (jbsdonline.com)
  • A drastic intensity increase of VCD spectra as well as several other characteristic changes similar to that observed in ECD occurred during DNA condensation induced by Cr(3+) ions, indicating VCD's ability to detect psi-type DNA condensation. (jbsdonline.com)
  • cleavage
  • Prokaryotes have the ATPase domain and the Toprim fold on one polypeptide, while the DNA cleavage core and the CTD lies on a second polypeptide. (wikipedia.org)
  • ultracentrifuge
  • When the sample is spun in an ultracentrifuge at high speeds, around 120,000 rpm, the higher density circular DNA concentrates in a band near the bottom of the tube. (hotstarshop.com)
  • UT Dallas researchers added DNA to a dense salt solution containing cesium chloride in a small test tube, then spun the sample in an ultracentrifuge at very high speeds. (scienceandtechnologyresearchnews.com)
  • Restriction
  • A restriction enzyme is added which cleaves the DNA 13 bp to the right of the right adapter. (wikipedia.org)
  • The restriction enzyme is used again to cleave the circular DNA 13 bp to the left of Ad1. (wikipedia.org)
  • The type III restriction enzyme EcoP15 is added, which cleaves the DNA 26 bp to the left of Ad3 and 26 bp to the right of Ad2. (wikipedia.org)
  • secondary structure
  • At the higher electrolyte concentration (3 M) the yield of bases destruction is smaller in MgCl2 solutions than in NaCl ones, whereas the secondary structure of irradiated DNA is destabilized stronger in MgCl2 solutions. (novapublishers.com)
  • The main drawback of the ECD technique in this case is its inability to determine secondary structure of the DNA inside the condensed particles. (jbsdonline.com)
  • structures
  • This technique has been widely employed in the studies of nucleic acids structures and the use of it to monitor conformational polymorphism of DNA has grown tremendously in the past few decades. (mdpi.com)
  • DNA may undergo conformational changes to B-form, A-form, Z-form, quadruplexes, triplexes and other structures as a result of the binding process to different compounds. (mdpi.com)
  • Biochemistry, electron microscopy, and recent structures of topoisomerase II bound to DNA reveal that type IIA topoisomerases bind at the apices of DNA, supporting this model. (wikipedia.org)
  • thermodynamic
  • Type IIA topoisomerases have the special ability to relax DNA to a state below that of thermodynamic equilibrium, a feature unlike type IA, IB, and IIB topoisomerases. (wikipedia.org)
  • similarly
  • Carcinogenesis 13:637-642), we used supercoiled circular DNA from bacteriophage fX 174 as the target substrate in a highly sensitive assay to evaluate ROS-dependent damage from insoluble forms of nickel in comparison to similarly treated ROFA. (freethesaurus.com)
  • Similarly, RNA and single stranded DNA can be run and visualised by PAGE gels containing denaturing agents such as Urea. (wikipedia.org)
  • Senescence
  • Replicative senescence is the result of telomere shortening that ultimately triggers a DNA damage response. (wikipedia.org)
  • Consistent with this, telomerase-immortalised cells continued to age (according to the epigenetic clock) without having been treated with any senescence inducers or DNA-damaging agents, re-affirming the independence of the process of epigenetic ageing from telomeres, cellular senescence, and the DNA damage response pathway. (wikipedia.org)
  • pairs
  • Pairs of DNA stem-loops (46 bases) were designed to self-assemble by foot-loop interactions to form networks of strings (A+B) or spirals (C+D) ( Fig. 1 ). (scielo.org.za)
  • topoisomerases
  • This reaction allows type II topoisomerases to increase or decrease the linking number of a DNA loop by 2 units, and it promotes chromosome disentanglement. (wikipedia.org)
  • Several models to explain this phenomenon have been proposed, including two models that rely on the ability of type IIA topoisomerases to recognize bent DNA duplexes (Vologodskiy, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 1999). (wikipedia.org)
  • Type IIA topoisomerases consist of several key motifs: an N-terminal GHKL ATPase domain (for gyrase, Hsp, kinase and MutL), a Toprim domain (sometimes called a Rossmann fold), which exists in both type II topoisomerases, type IA topoisomerases, and bacterial primase (DnaG), a central DNA-binding core (which structurally forms a heart-shaped structure), and a variable C-terminal domain. (wikipedia.org)
  • linear
  • A 50-year-old lab technique is helping researchers better understand circular DNA, a lesser-known and poorly understood cousin of the linear version commonly associated with life's genetic blueprint. (hotstarshop.com)
  • biological
  • I've been using this DNA isolation technique since I was a graduate student, and I still think it's the best method for recovering a clean sample of circular DNA," said Levene, a bioengineering professor who also is affiliated with the departments of biological sciencesand physics at UT Dallas. (hotstarshop.com)