• strands
  • The linear plasmids which contain a protein that has been covalently attached to the 5' end of the DNA strands are known as invertrons and can range in size from 9 kb to over 600 kb consisting of inverted terminal repeats. (wikipedia.org)
  • This slide shows the replication in progress: DNA (in white) has partially 'unzipped', and DNA nucleotides (pink) are moving into position on both DNA strands, producing two DNA molecules, each of which is half old and half new. (indiana.edu)
  • McGill University researchers have chemically imprinted polymer particles with DNA strands - a technique that could lead to new materials for applications ranging from biomedicine to the promising. (mcgill.ca)
  • Imagine taking strands of DNA - the material in our cells that determines how we look and function - and using it to build tiny structures that can deliver drugs to targets within the body or take. (mcgill.ca)
  • Researchers at McGill University have developed a new, low-cost method to build DNA nanotubes block by block - a breakthrough that could help pave the way for scaffolds made from DNA strands to be. (mcgill.ca)
  • Most DNA molecules consist of two biopolymer strands coiled around each other to form a double helix. (wikipedia.org)
  • The two DNA strands are called polynucleotides since they are composed of simpler monomer units called nucleotides. (wikipedia.org)
  • The nitrogenous bases of the two separate polynucleotide strands are bound together, according to base pairing rules (A with T and C with G), with hydrogen bonds to make double-stranded DNA. (wikipedia.org)
  • The DNA backbone is resistant to cleavage, and both strands of the double-stranded structure store the same biological information. (wikipedia.org)
  • The two strands of DNA run in opposite directions to each other and are thus antiparallel. (wikipedia.org)
  • RNA strands are created using DNA strands as a template in a process called transcription. (wikipedia.org)
  • In a "relaxed" double-helical segment of B-DNA, the two strands twist around the helical axis once every 10.4-10.5 base pairs of sequence. (wikipedia.org)
  • DNA is well-suited to nanoscale construction because the binding between two nucleic acid strands depends on simple base pairing rules which are well understood, and form the specific nanoscale structure of the nucleic acid double helix. (wikipedia.org)
  • In DNA nanotechnology, the base sequences of strands are rationally designed by researchers so that the base pairing interactions cause the strands to assemble in the desired conformation. (wikipedia.org)
  • DNA ligase is a specific type of enzyme, a ligase, (EC 6.5.1.1) that facilitates the joining of DNA strands together by catalyzing the formation of a phosphodiester bond. (wikipedia.org)
  • It plays a role in repairing single-strand breaks in duplex DNA in living organisms, but some forms (such as DNA ligase IV) may specifically repair double-strand breaks (i.e. a break in both complementary strands of DNA). (wikipedia.org)
  • sequence
  • DNA sequencing may be used to determine the sequence of individual genes , larger genetic regions (i.e. clusters of genes or operons ), full chromosomes or entire genomes , of any organism. (wikipedia.org)
  • What Verinata does have is technology that can do something as ethically fraught as it is inevitable: sequence the DNA of a human fetus before birth. (technologyreview.com)
  • In 1984, two groups, led by Walter Gehring in Switzerland and Matthew Scott in the United States, discovered that many of these genes had a common DNA sequence, just 184 bases long, which they named the ' homeobox . (columbia.edu)
  • Fischetti's essay on DNA forensics and Benowitz's on the uses of genetic information in diagnosis of future medical conditions are variations on a common theme: that each person's DNA is a unique sequence and that the information in that DNA includes the genetic component of that person's fate. (columbia.edu)
  • Each DNA sequence that we could call a 'gene' consists of a few functional exons with lots of intermittent introns that are not functional (i.e., do not code for any part of the ultimate protein). (indiana.edu)
  • The tree's DNA sequence is being published worldwide April 1, opening a new era in fruit-tree research that could have far-reaching implications for the future of peaches, as well as many other valuable plants. (redorbit.com)
  • Daughter cells that inherit these wrong bases carry mutations from which the original DNA sequence is unrecoverable (except in the rare case of a back mutation, for example, through gene conversion). (wikipedia.org)
  • Plasmid DNA constructs often consist of a promoter sequence, followed a by a desired gene, and ended in a transcription termination or polyadenylation signal sequence. (wikipedia.org)
  • A DNA construct may contain a DNA insert, which contains the gene sequence encoding a protein of interest, that has been subcloned into a vector, which contains bacterial resistance genes for growth in bacteria, and promoters for expression in the organism. (wikipedia.org)
  • sequences
  • Knowledge of DNA sequences has become indispensable for basic biological research, and in numerous applied fields such as medical diagnosis , biotechnology , forensic biology , virology and biological systematics . (wikipedia.org)
  • The first DNA sequences were obtained in the early 1970s by academic researchers using laborious methods based on two-dimensional chromatography . (wikipedia.org)
  • It was also confirmed that the sequences of cytoplasmic DNA was different from nuclear DNA in the same organism, showing that cytoplasmic DNAs are not simply fragments of nuclear DNA. (wikipedia.org)
  • Newman describes Columbia's contribution of vast numbers of sequences of human genetic messages to a national public library of DNA sequences, an altruistic decision that has placed Columbia squarely between two very large millstones, the Merck and SmithKlineBeecham pharmaceutical companies. (columbia.edu)
  • A large part of DNA (more than 98% for humans) is non-coding, meaning that these sections do not serve as patterns for protein sequences. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 2009, Montagnier and his collaborators published a paper titled "Electromagnetic signals are produced by aqueous nanostructures derived from bacterial DNA sequences" in which they showed that bacterial DNA can produce electromagnetic signal (EMS) that is transferred through the cell culture medium. (wikipedia.org)
  • 2016
  • The study was presented at the International Symposium on Biomolecular Archaeology in Oxford, UK back in 2016, and sequenced DNA from 209 cats that lived between 15,000 and 3,700 years ago - so from just before the advent of agriculture right up to the 18th century. (freerepublic.com)
  • On August 20, 2016 at the Devo fan gathering, DEVOtional 2016, Delaney Jae of Futurismo, announced they would be re-issuing Recombo DNA with new art to accompany it. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 2016 a DNA vaccine for the Zika virus began testing at the National Institutes of Health. (wikipedia.org)
  • In August 2016, researchers used the CRISPR gene-editing system to insert a GIF of a galloping horse and rider into the DNA of living bacteria. (wikipedia.org)
  • genes
  • Targeted introduction of exogenous DNA is used to identify genes because the introduced DNA can act cause a mutation or altered expression of the gene into which it inserts. (wikipedia.org)
  • The bacterial T-DNA is about 24,000 base pairs long and contains genes that code for enzymes synthesizing opines and phytohormones. (wikipedia.org)
  • In genetic engineering, the tumor-promoting and opine-synthesis genes are removed from the T-DNA and replaced with a gene of interest and/or a selection marker, which is required to establish which plants have been successfully transformed. (wikipedia.org)
  • Agrobacterium tumefaciens is capable of transferring foreign DNA to both monocotyledons and dicotyledonous plants efficiently while taking care of critically important factors like the genotype of plants, types and ages of tissues inoculated, kind of vectors, strains of Agrobacterium, selection marker genes and selective agents, and various conditions of tissue culture. (wikipedia.org)
  • Agrobacterium vir genes expression occurs via the VirA-VirG sensor that results in generation of a mobile single-stranded T-DNA copy (T-strand). (wikipedia.org)
  • Parts of your DNA called genes are responsible for performing biological functions and, in some cases, determining personal traits, like hair color or height. (ancestry.com)
  • In humans, the 16,569 base pairs of mitochondrial DNA encode for only 37 genes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Many genes that were initially shown to influence life span have turned out to be involved in DNA damage repair and protection. (wikipedia.org)
  • 2000
  • In 2000, the seven member Commission approved the modern artwork Digital DNA for the 0.2-acre (810 m2) plaza on the corner of University Avenue and Emerson Street. (wikipedia.org)
  • Digital DNA was commissioned in 2000. (wikipedia.org)
  • For their work on the magazines, DNA Publications was a 2000 World Fantasy Award nominee, in the "special award: professional" category. (wikipedia.org)
  • bases
  • It includes any method or technology that is used to determine the order of the four bases- adenine , guanine , cytosine , and thymine -in a strand of DNA. (wikipedia.org)
  • In mammalian DNA, variant bases with methyl groups or phosphosulfate may be found. (wikipedia.org)
  • Once layed out, students should 'unzip' the (white) DNA strip, exposing the bases of each DNA strand. (indiana.edu)
  • Montagnier's experiment can be summarised as follows: A known water sample with 2 ng/ml of 104 bases DNA from an HIV infected patient is diluted by 10 into water and agitated for 15 seconds. (wikipedia.org)
  • There are several types of damage to DNA due to endogenous cellular processes: oxidation of bases [e.g. 8-oxo-7,8-dihydroguanine (8-oxoG)] and generation of DNA strand interruptions from reactive oxygen species, alkylation of bases (usually methylation), such as formation of 7-methylguanosine, 1-methyladenine, 6-O-Methylguanine hydrolysis of bases, such as deamination, depurination, and depyrimidination. (wikipedia.org)
  • nucleus
  • Then after entry the particle moves into an endosomal vesicle to the nucleus where the DNA is uncoated into the nucleus through the nuclear pore. (slideshare.net)
  • Extrachromosomal DNA is any DNA that is found outside the nucleus of a cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cytoplasmic DNA is less methylated than DNA found within the nucleus. (wikipedia.org)
  • In addition to DNA found outside the nucleus in cells, infection of viral genomes also provides an example of extrachromosomal DNA. (wikipedia.org)
  • The infection process of T-DNA into the host cell and integration into its nucleus involve multiple steps. (wikipedia.org)
  • This is important because DNA stays inside the nucleus and we have to get it out to look at it. (uen.org)
  • For example, once a strand of DNA has been transcribed (copied into the mRNA strand), many segments are cut out and discarded, then the few remaining parts are reassembled into the final mRNA, all in the nucleus. (indiana.edu)
  • most of the DNA can be found in the cell nucleus and, in plants and algae, also in plastids such as chloroplasts. (wikipedia.org)
  • Because the length of DNA can be thousands of times that of a cell, packaging this genetic material into the cell or nucleus (in eukaryotes) is a difficult feat. Supercoiling of DNA reduces the space and allows for DNA to be packaged. (wikipedia.org)
  • bacteria
  • Bacteria need to be in a certain physiological state to successfully take up exogenous DNA, which is described as one of competence. (wikipedia.org)
  • Bacteria can also be made competent through a variety of chemical treatments including exposure to calcium ions, or a mixture of polyethylene glycol and dimethylsulfoxide , which make the cell membrane more permeable, leading to the uptake of the exogenous DNA. (wikipedia.org)
  • The transfer DNA (abbreviated T-DNA) is the transferred DNA of the tumor-inducing (Ti) plasmid of some species of bacteria such as Agrobacterium tumefaciens and Agrobacterium rhizogenes. (wikipedia.org)
  • They used the DNA of bacteria Micoplasma pirum and Escherichia coli cultured in a T lymphocyte (a type of white blood cell) culture medium. (wikipedia.org)
  • protein
  • In textbooks this moment usually is described as the breaking of a dogma- that DNA makes RNA and RNA makes protein-but to those of us lucky enough to be there, the sound was not the lugubrious thud of a fallen idol but the shivery squeak of an unexpected door, slowly but inexorably opening before us. (columbia.edu)
  • Alternatively, the DNA may be encapsulated in protein to facilitate cell entry. (wikipedia.org)
  • If this capsid protein is included in the DNA, the resulting vaccine can combine the potency of a live vaccine without reversion risks. (wikipedia.org)
  • DNAs
  • With DNA as the self-copying storehouse of life's information, and with the tools for capturing the cell's processing of that information in the form of complementary DNAs made from cellular messages, we are embarked on the greatest adventure of science today: to understand ourselves, from the DNA out. (columbia.edu)
  • person's
  • The courts struggle with the technical minutiae of DNA identification when a felon is on trial, as they should when a person's life is in their hands. (columbia.edu)
  • But neither legislatures nor courts have yet come to terms with an equally serious issue (albeit one for the civil, not criminal jurisdictions): How can society preserve each person's right to his or her own DNA, each person's privilege to not know-or not to have anyone else know-what is in it? (columbia.edu)
  • Why is each person's DNA unique? (ancestry.com)
  • complementary
  • These are plasmids that usually consist of a strong viral promoter to drive the in vivo transcription and translation of the gene (or complementary DNA) of interest. (wikipedia.org)
  • Single-strand breaks are repaired by DNA ligase using the complementary strand of the double helix as a template, with DNA ligase creating the final phosphodiester bond to fully repair the DNA. (wikipedia.org)
  • nuclear
  • Extrachromosomal DNA was found to be structurally different from nuclear DNA. (wikipedia.org)
  • DNA packaging is greatly increased during nuclear division events such as mitosis or meiosis, where DNA must be compacted and segregated to daughter cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • biological
  • The advent of rapid DNA sequencing methods has greatly accelerated biological and medical research and discovery. (wikipedia.org)
  • DNA stores biological information. (wikipedia.org)
  • Supercoiling is important in a number of biological processes, such as compacting DNA, and by regulating access to the genetic code, DNA supercoiling strongly affects DNA metabolism and possibly gene expression. (wikipedia.org)
  • bacterial
  • Circular bacterial plasmids are also the basis for the production of DNA vaccines. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 2015, Montagnier's team published another finding similar to the original one, but using bacterial and viral DNA. (wikipedia.org)
  • Absence of bacterial DNA was ascertained by polymerase chain reaction. (wikipedia.org)
  • When the solution was simply incubated for two or three weeks, the bacterial DNA was detected. (wikipedia.org)
  • origami
  • Among notable advances in this field are DNA origami and DNA-based hybrid materials. (wikipedia.org)
  • Several assembly methods are used to make these structures, including tile-based structures that assemble from smaller structures, folding structures using the DNA origami method, and dynamically reconfigurable structures using strand displacement methods. (wikipedia.org)
  • nucleic acid
  • A DNA construct is an artificially constructed segment of nucleic acid that is to be transplanted into a target tissue or cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • DNA nanotechnology is the design and manufacture of artificial nucleic acid structures for technological uses. (wikipedia.org)
  • The field's name specifically references DNA, but the same principles have been used with other types of nucleic acids as well, leading to the occasional use of the alternative name nucleic acid nanotechnology. (wikipedia.org)
  • While DNA is the dominant material used, structures incorporating other nucleic acids such as RNA and peptide nucleic acid (PNA) have also been constructed. (wikipedia.org)
  • Structural DNA nanotechnology, sometimes abbreviated as SDN, focuses on synthesizing and characterizing nucleic acid complexes and materials that assemble into a static, equilibrium end state. (wikipedia.org)
  • The complexes constructed in structural DNA nanotechnology use topologically branched nucleic acid structures containing junctions. (wikipedia.org)
  • induce
  • DNA vaccines have potential advantages over conventional vaccines, including the ability to induce a wider range of immune response types. (wikipedia.org)
  • fragments
  • Reorganization of activity site such as nicks in DNA segments or Okazaki fragments etc. 2. (wikipedia.org)
  • DNA ligase I: ligates the nascent DNA of the lagging strand after the Ribonuclease H has removed the RNA primer from the Okazaki fragments. (wikipedia.org)
  • For this purpose, different DNA-fragments were created, each one of them representing a city that had to be visited. (wikipedia.org)
  • These DNA-fragments were produced and mixed in a test tube. (wikipedia.org)
  • Through a chemical reaction (that lasts a few days), the DNA-fragments representing the longer routes were eliminated. (wikipedia.org)
  • molecular biology
  • DNA computing is a branch of computing which uses DNA, biochemistry, and molecular biology hardware, instead of the traditional silicon-based computer technologies. (wikipedia.org)
  • Forensics
  • In fact, DNA sequencing has become a key technology in many areas of biology and other sciences such as medicine, forensics , or anthropology . (wikipedia.org)
  • macromolecule
  • The smallest unit that can be alive is a cell, and DNA is a macromolecule which makes up that cell. (uen.org)
  • base pairs
  • For instance, the DNA in the largest human chromosome, chromosome number 1, consists of approximately 220 million base pairs and would be 85 mm long if straightened. (wikipedia.org)
  • synthesis
  • The synthesis of the plant hormones auxin and cytokinin by enzymes encoded in the T-DNA enables the plant cell to grow uncontrollably, thus forming the crown gall tumors typically induced by Agrobacterium tumefaciens infection. (wikipedia.org)
  • DNA synthesis displaces the single stranded region and then a second nick at the left border region releases the single stranded T-DNA fragment. (wikipedia.org)
  • Exogenous
  • The introduction of exogenous DNA into a cell is called transformation ( transfection in animal cells). (wikipedia.org)
  • Monoadduct damage cause by change in single nitrogenous base of DNA Diadduct damage Damage caused by exogenous agents comes in many forms. (wikipedia.org)
  • identical
  • The PCR in Italy produces DNA, 98% identical to the initial DNA in Paris. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is formed by alternative splicing of a proteolytic fragment of DNA ligase III and does not have its own gene, therefore it is often considered to be virtually identical to DNA ligase III. (wikipedia.org)
  • enzymes
  • Many topoisomerase enzymes sense supercoiling and either generate or dissipate it as they change DNA topology. (wikipedia.org)
  • viruses
  • They altered the DNA of cowpox virus by inserting a gene from other viruses (namely Herpes simplex virus, hepatitis B and influenza). (wikipedia.org)
  • structures
  • Researchers in the field have created static structures such as two- and three-dimensional crystal lattices, nanotubes, polyhedra, and arbitrary shapes, and functional devices such as molecular machines and DNA computers. (wikipedia.org)
  • genomes
  • Testing DNA is a technique which can detect specific genomes in a DNA strand to produce a unique and individualized pattern. (wikipedia.org)
  • Sequencing
  • An example of the results of automated chain-termination DNA sequencing. (wikipedia.org)
  • Following the development of fluorescence -based sequencing methods with a DNA sequencer , DNA sequencing has become easier and orders of magnitude faster. (wikipedia.org)
  • This is a form of genetic testing , though some genetic tests may not involve DNA sequencing. (wikipedia.org)
  • DNA sequencing may be used along with DNA profiling methods for forensic identification and paternity testing . (wikipedia.org)
  • Sequencing the DNA of a fetus from a pregnant woman's blood. (technologyreview.com)
  • Earlier this year Illumina, the maker of the world's most widely used DNA sequencing machines, agreed to pay nearly half a billion dollars for Verinata, a startup in Redwood City, California, that has hardly any revenues. (technologyreview.com)
  • Illumina CEO Jay Flatley is looking to pregnancy as a new market for DNA sequencing. (technologyreview.com)
  • The noninvasive screen is so much safer and easier that it's become one of the most quickly adopted tests ever and an important new medical application for Illumina's DNA sequencing instruments, which have so far been used mainly in research labs. (technologyreview.com)
  • But this is likely to be just the start for prenatal DNA sequencing. (technologyreview.com)
  • For one thing, sorting out a fetus's exact DNA code via its mother's blood requires a huge amount of repeated sequencing, making it too expensive for routine use. (technologyreview.com)
  • The tree providing the DNA for the sequencing effort was chosen after careful analysis of DNA from specific trees in the Musser orchard," said Abbott. (redorbit.com)
  • copies
  • The blood samples were only from patients previously treated with ART and having no detectable viral DNA copies in their blood. (wikipedia.org)
  • circular
  • If a DNA segment under twist strain were closed into a circle by joining its two ends and then allowed to move freely, the circular DNA would contort into a new shape, such as a simple figure-eight. (wikipedia.org)
  • The simple figure eight is the simplest supercoil, and is the shape a circular DNA assumes to accommodate one too many or one too few helical twists. (wikipedia.org)
  • Lobal contortions of a circular DNA, such as the rotation of the figure-eight lobes above, are referred to as writhe. (wikipedia.org)
  • replicate
  • This signal can supposedly be recorded, transmitted electronically, and re-emitted on another distant pure water sample, where DNA can replicate through polymerase chain reaction despite the absence of the original DNA in the new water sample. (wikipedia.org)
  • double-strand breaks
  • When normal repair processes fail, and when cellular apoptosis does not occur, irreparable DNA damage may occur, including double-strand breaks and DNA crosslinkages (interstrand crosslinks or ICLs). (wikipedia.org)
  • 2017
  • The reissue of Recombo DNA was released on August 11, 2017 on 4xLP vinyl with additional previously-unreleased material on 3" Mini CD. (wikipedia.org)
  • cellular
  • DNA offers cellular phone services, FTTx, ADSL, terrestrial television (DVB-T/DVB-T2), cable television (DVB-C) and regular (landline) telephone service. (wikipedia.org)
  • complexes
  • On the other hand, dynamic DNA nanotechnology focuses on complexes with useful non-equilibrium behavior such as the ability to reconfigure based on a chemical or physical stimulus. (wikipedia.org)
  • DNA ligase IV: complexes with XRCC4. (wikipedia.org)
  • structure
  • The basic structure of DNA is the same in all living things. (uen.org)
  • Instead of giving students copious notes and diagrams on the structure of DNA, why not let them discover the structure? (accessexcellence.org)
  • Students enjoy this lab and you save many frustrating moments trying to teach your students DNA structure. (accessexcellence.org)
  • When they learn and sing this little song, they know the structure of DNA. (accessexcellence.org)
  • To break the code, today you will do a paper lab to determine the structure of DNA and show how the genetic code is carried. (accessexcellence.org)
  • The structure of DNA is dynamic along its length, being capable of coiling into tight loops, and other shapes. (wikipedia.org)
  • It commemorates the day in 1953 when James Watson, Francis Crick, Maurice Wilkins, Rosalind Franklin and colleagues published papers in the journal Nature on the structure of DNA. (wikipedia.org)
  • As a consequence, the DNA repair process is constantly active as it responds to damage in the DNA structure. (wikipedia.org)