• proteins
  • This sets up the general replication scheme: first of enzymes to help the virus replicate (early stage), then double-stranded DNA replication (semi-conservative mode) begins (late stage), followed by translation of structural proteins, such as the penton and hexon precursors. (slideshare.net)
  • DNA sequencing is also the most efficient way to sequence RNA or proteins (via their open reading frames ). (wikipedia.org)
  • Deoxyribonucleic acid ( DNA ) was first discovered and isolated by Friedrich Miescher in 1869, but it remained understudied for many decades because proteins, rather than DNA, were thought to hold the genetic blueprint to life. (wikipedia.org)
  • Then this process succeeds the macromolecular translocation from Agrobacterium to cytoplasm of host cell, transmission of T-DNA along with associated proteins (called T-complex) to the host cell nucleus followed by disassembly of the T-complex, stable integration of T-DNA into host plant genome, and expression of the transferred genes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Then, single stranded binding proteins attach to the single stranded DNA. (wikipedia.org)
  • Proteins hold DNA wound up. (uen.org)
  • As in the DNA Replication kit, this Protein Synthesis kit has been greatly simplified to convey the essentials of the process: How DNA makes Proteins. (indiana.edu)
  • iv) The self-assembly of nucleic acid nanostructures (nanowires, strips, nanotubes) allows the programmed positioning of proteins on the DNA templates and the activation of enzyme cascades. (springer.com)
  • Within the eukaryotic chromosomes, chromatin proteins such as histones compact and organize DNA. (wikipedia.org)
  • These compact structures guide the interactions between DNA and other proteins, helping control which parts of the DNA are transcribed. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the cells of extant organisms, the vast majority of the proteins present in the mitochondria (numbering approximately 1500 different types in mammals) are coded for by nuclear DNA, but the genes for some, if not most, of them are thought to have originally been of bacterial origin, having since been transferred to the eukaryotic nucleus during evolution. (wikipedia.org)
  • Based on the properties of intercalating molecules i.e., fluorescing upon binding to DNA and unwinding of DNA base-pairs, recently a single-molecule technique has been introduced to directly visualize individual plectonemes along supercoiled DNA which would further allow to study the interactions of DNA processing proteins with supercoiled DNA. (wikipedia.org)
  • They contain DNA that codes for specific proteins (antigens) from a pathogen. (wikipedia.org)
  • The DNA is injected into cells, whose "inner machinery" uses the DNA to synthesize the proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • Unlike proteins and RNA, DNA usually lacks tertiary structure and therefore damage or disturbance does not occur at that level. (wikipedia.org)
  • DNA is, however, supercoiled and wound around "packaging" proteins called histones (in eukaryotes), and both superstructures are vulnerable to the effects of DNA damage. (wikipedia.org)
  • A DNA construct may express wildtype protein, prevent the expression of certain genes by expressing competitors or inhibitors, or express mutant proteins, such as deletion mutations or missense mutations. (wikipedia.org)
  • A DNA construct is often used in molecular biology to analyze macromolecules such as proteins or RNA in more detail. (wikipedia.org)
  • one successful approach, for example, tested T4 DNA ligase fused to several alternative DNA binding proteins and found that the constructs with either p50 or NF-kB as fusion partners were over 160% more active in blunt-end ligations for cloning purposes than wild type T4 DNA ligase. (wikipedia.org)
  • replication
  • 7. As a general rule all DNA viruses replicate in the nucleus, except the Pox viruses which replicate in the cytoplasm We will use Adenoviruses as a model system for understanding replication of DNA viruses in general Most DNA viruses are naked (see model of soccer ball), with 12 blue penton bases on the vertices and 20 yellow hexons on the rest of the face. (slideshare.net)
  • Extrachromosomal DNA is often used in research of replication because it is easy to identify and isolate. (wikipedia.org)
  • Explain how the structure and replication of DNA are essential to heredity and protein synthesis. (uen.org)
  • This slide shows the replication in progress: DNA (in white) has partially 'unzipped', and DNA nucleotides (pink) are moving into position on both DNA strands, producing two DNA molecules, each of which is half old and half new. (indiana.edu)
  • This is greatly simplified, showing the essential elements of DNA replication. (indiana.edu)
  • These are details that could confuse the casual student, so they are omitted here for the sake of giving the essential idea of DNA replication: 2 DNAs are made from 1 DNA. (indiana.edu)
  • ii) The encoding of structural information into DNA enables the activation of autonomous replication processes that enable the ultrasensitive detection of DNA. (springer.com)
  • During cell division these chromosomes are duplicated in the process of DNA replication, providing each cell its own complete set of chromosomes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Additionally, certain enzymes such as topoisomerases are able to change DNA topology to facilitate functions such as DNA replication or transcription. (wikipedia.org)
  • Positively supercoiled (overwound) DNA is transiently generated during DNA replication and transcription, and, if not promptly relaxed, inhibits (regulates) these processes. (wikipedia.org)
  • bulky adduct formation" (i.e., benzo[a]pyrene diol epoxide-dG adduct, aristolactam I-dA adduct) mismatch of bases, due to errors in DNA replication, in which the wrong DNA base is stitched into place in a newly forming DNA strand, or a DNA base is skipped over or mistakenly inserted. (wikipedia.org)
  • DNA ligase is used in both DNA repair and DNA replication (see Mammalian ligases). (wikipedia.org)
  • strands
  • The linear plasmids which contain a protein that has been covalently attached to the 5' end of the DNA strands are known as invertrons and can range in size from 9 kb to over 600 kb consisting of inverted terminal repeats. (wikipedia.org)
  • McGill University researchers have chemically imprinted polymer particles with DNA strands - a technique that could lead to new materials for applications ranging from biomedicine to the promising. (mcgill.ca)
  • Imagine taking strands of DNA - the material in our cells that determines how we look and function - and using it to build tiny structures that can deliver drugs to targets within the body or take. (mcgill.ca)
  • Researchers at McGill University have developed a new, low-cost method to build DNA nanotubes block by block - a breakthrough that could help pave the way for scaffolds made from DNA strands to be. (mcgill.ca)
  • Most DNA molecules consist of two biopolymer strands coiled around each other to form a double helix. (wikipedia.org)
  • The two DNA strands are called polynucleotides since they are composed of simpler monomer units called nucleotides. (wikipedia.org)
  • The nitrogenous bases of the two separate polynucleotide strands are bound together, according to base pairing rules (A with T and C with G), with hydrogen bonds to make double-stranded DNA. (wikipedia.org)
  • The DNA backbone is resistant to cleavage, and both strands of the double-stranded structure store the same biological information. (wikipedia.org)
  • The two strands of DNA run in opposite directions to each other and are thus antiparallel. (wikipedia.org)
  • RNA strands are created using DNA strands as a template in a process called transcription. (wikipedia.org)
  • In a "relaxed" double-helical segment of B-DNA, the two strands twist around the helical axis once every 10.4-10.5 base pairs of sequence. (wikipedia.org)
  • DNA is well-suited to nanoscale construction because the binding between two nucleic acid strands depends on simple base pairing rules which are well understood, and form the specific nanoscale structure of the nucleic acid double helix. (wikipedia.org)
  • In DNA nanotechnology, the base sequences of strands are rationally designed by researchers so that the base pairing interactions cause the strands to assemble in the desired conformation. (wikipedia.org)
  • DNA ligase is a specific type of enzyme, a ligase, (EC 6.5.1.1) that facilitates the joining of DNA strands together by catalyzing the formation of a phosphodiester bond. (wikipedia.org)
  • It plays a role in repairing single-strand breaks in duplex DNA in living organisms, but some forms (such as DNA ligase IV) may specifically repair double-strand breaks (i.e. a break in both complementary strands of DNA). (wikipedia.org)
  • 2000
  • In 2000, the seven member Commission approved the modern artwork Digital DNA for the 0.2-acre (810 m2) plaza on the corner of University Avenue and Emerson Street. (wikipedia.org)
  • Digital DNA was commissioned in 2000. (wikipedia.org)
  • For their work on the magazines, DNA Publications was a 2000 World Fantasy Award nominee, in the "special award: professional" category. (wikipedia.org)
  • sequences
  • Knowledge of DNA sequences has become indispensable for basic biological research, and in numerous applied fields such as medical diagnosis , biotechnology , forensic biology , virology and biological systematics . (wikipedia.org)
  • The rapid speed of sequencing attained with modern DNA sequencing technology has been instrumental in the sequencing of complete DNA sequences, or genomes of numerous types and species of life, including the human genome and other complete DNA sequences of many animal, plant, and microbial species. (wikipedia.org)
  • The first DNA sequences were obtained in the early 1970s by academic researchers using laborious methods based on two-dimensional chromatography . (wikipedia.org)
  • It was also confirmed that the sequences of cytoplasmic DNA was different from nuclear DNA in the same organism, showing that cytoplasmic DNAs are not simply fragments of nuclear DNA. (wikipedia.org)
  • Newman describes Columbia's contribution of vast numbers of sequences of human genetic messages to a national public library of DNA sequences, an altruistic decision that has placed Columbia squarely between two very large millstones, the Merck and SmithKlineBeecham pharmaceutical companies. (columbia.edu)
  • A large part of DNA (more than 98% for humans) is non-coding, meaning that these sections do not serve as patterns for protein sequences. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 2009, Montagnier and his collaborators published a paper titled "Electromagnetic signals are produced by aqueous nanostructures derived from bacterial DNA sequences" in which they showed that bacterial DNA can produce electromagnetic signal (EMS) that is transferred through the cell culture medium. (wikipedia.org)
  • sequence
  • DNA sequencing may be used to determine the sequence of individual genes , larger genetic regions (i.e. clusters of genes or operons ), full chromosomes or entire genomes , of any organism. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 1984, two groups, led by Walter Gehring in Switzerland and Matthew Scott in the United States, discovered that many of these genes had a common DNA sequence, just 184 bases long, which they named the ' homeobox . (columbia.edu)
  • Fischetti's essay on DNA forensics and Benowitz's on the uses of genetic information in diagnosis of future medical conditions are variations on a common theme: that each person's DNA is a unique sequence and that the information in that DNA includes the genetic component of that person's fate. (columbia.edu)
  • Each DNA sequence that we could call a 'gene' consists of a few functional exons with lots of intermittent introns that are not functional (i.e., do not code for any part of the ultimate protein). (indiana.edu)
  • The tree's DNA sequence is being published worldwide April 1, opening a new era in fruit-tree research that could have far-reaching implications for the future of peaches, as well as many other valuable plants. (redorbit.com)
  • Daughter cells that inherit these wrong bases carry mutations from which the original DNA sequence is unrecoverable (except in the rare case of a back mutation, for example, through gene conversion). (wikipedia.org)
  • Plasmid DNA constructs often consist of a promoter sequence, followed a by a desired gene, and ended in a transcription termination or polyadenylation signal sequence. (wikipedia.org)
  • A DNA construct may contain a DNA insert, which contains the gene sequence encoding a protein of interest, that has been subcloned into a vector, which contains bacterial resistance genes for growth in bacteria, and promoters for expression in the organism. (wikipedia.org)
  • organisms
  • Since DNA is an informative macromolecule in terms of transmission from one generation to another, DNA sequencing is used in evolutionary biology to study how different organisms are related and how they evolved. (wikipedia.org)
  • DNA) is a thread-like chain of nucleotides carrying the genetic instructions used in the growth, development, functioning and reproduction of all known living organisms and many viruses. (wikipedia.org)
  • Eukaryotic organisms (animals, plants, fungi and protists) store most of their DNA inside the cell nucleus and some of their DNA in organelles, such as mitochondria or chloroplasts. (wikipedia.org)
  • mtDNA is highly conserved, and its relatively slow mutation rates (compared to other DNA regions such as microsatellites) make it useful for studying the evolutionary relationships-phylogeny-of organisms. (wikipedia.org)
  • As a general rule, the DNA of most organisms is negatively supercoiled. (wikipedia.org)
  • DNA of most organisms is negatively supercoiled. (wikipedia.org)
  • bases
  • It includes any method or technology that is used to determine the order of the four bases- adenine , guanine , cytosine , and thymine -in a strand of DNA. (wikipedia.org)
  • In mammalian DNA, variant bases with methyl groups or phosphosulfate may be found. (wikipedia.org)
  • Once layed out, students should 'unzip' the (white) DNA strip, exposing the bases of each DNA strand. (indiana.edu)
  • Montagnier's experiment can be summarised as follows: A known water sample with 2 ng/ml of 104 bases DNA from an HIV infected patient is diluted by 10 into water and agitated for 15 seconds. (wikipedia.org)
  • There are several types of damage to DNA due to endogenous cellular processes: oxidation of bases [e.g. 8-oxo-7,8-dihydroguanine (8-oxoG)] and generation of DNA strand interruptions from reactive oxygen species, alkylation of bases (usually methylation), such as formation of 7-methylguanosine, 1-methyladenine, 6-O-Methylguanine hydrolysis of bases, such as deamination, depurination, and depyrimidination. (wikipedia.org)
  • gene
  • Plasmid DNA vaccines are genetically engineered to contain a gene which encodes for an antigen or a protein produced by a pathogenic virus, bacterium or other parasite. (wikipedia.org)
  • In genetic engineering, the tumor-promoting and opine-synthesis genes are removed from the T-DNA and replaced with a gene of interest and/or a selection marker, which is required to establish which plants have been successfully transformed. (wikipedia.org)
  • This nick creates a region of single stranded DNA from the left border of the T-DNA gene over to the right border which was cut. (wikipedia.org)
  • Supercoiling is important in a number of biological processes, such as compacting DNA, and by regulating access to the genetic code, DNA supercoiling strongly affects DNA metabolism and possibly gene expression. (wikipedia.org)
  • DNA supercoiling is important for DNA packaging within all cells, and seems to also play a role in gene expression. (wikipedia.org)
  • They altered the DNA of cowpox virus by inserting a gene from other viruses (namely Herpes simplex virus, hepatitis B and influenza). (wikipedia.org)
  • These are plasmids that usually consist of a strong viral promoter to drive the in vivo transcription and translation of the gene (or complementary DNA) of interest. (wikipedia.org)
  • Purified DNA ligase is used in gene cloning to join DNA molecules together to form recombinant DNA. (wikipedia.org)
  • The E. coli DNA ligase is encoded by the lig gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is formed by alternative splicing of a proteolytic fragment of DNA ligase III and does not have its own gene, therefore it is often considered to be virtually identical to DNA ligase III. (wikipedia.org)
  • In August 2016, researchers used the CRISPR gene-editing system to insert a GIF of a galloping horse and rider into the DNA of living bacteria. (wikipedia.org)
  • genome
  • The genome of an organism (encoded by the genomic DNA) is the (biological) information of heredity which is passed from one generation of organism to the next. (wikipedia.org)
  • Most DNA in an individual genome is found in chromosomes but DNA found outside the nucleus also serves important biological functions. (wikipedia.org)
  • The T-DNA is transferred from bacterium into the host plant's nuclear DNA genome. (wikipedia.org)
  • By transferring the T-DNA into the plant genome, the bacterium essentially reprograms the plant cells to grow into a tumor and produce a unique food source for the bacteria. (wikipedia.org)
  • Agrobacterium is then used as a vector to transfer the engineered T-DNA into the plant cells where it integrates into the plant genome. (wikipedia.org)
  • The integration of T-DNA into a host genome involves the formation of a nick at the right border of the Ti plasmid. (wikipedia.org)
  • For the integration of T-DNA into the target host genome, Agrobacterium carries out multiple interactions with host-plant factors. (wikipedia.org)
  • Human mitochondrial DNA was the first significant part of the human genome to be sequenced. (wikipedia.org)
  • Every year from 2003 onward, annual DNA Day celebrations have been organized by the National Human Genome Research Institute (NHGRI), starting as early as April 23 in 2010, April 15 in 2011 and April 20 in 2012. (wikipedia.org)
  • A concurrent resolution designating April 2003 as "Human Genome Month" and April 25 as "DNA Day"" (PDF). (wikipedia.org)
  • DNA repair is a collection of processes by which a cell identifies and corrects damage to the DNA molecules that encode its genome. (wikipedia.org)
  • nucleus
  • Then after entry the particle moves into an endosomal vesicle to the nucleus where the DNA is uncoated into the nucleus through the nuclear pore. (slideshare.net)
  • Extrachromosomal DNA is any DNA that is found outside the nucleus of a cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cytoplasmic DNA is less methylated than DNA found within the nucleus. (wikipedia.org)
  • In addition to DNA found outside the nucleus in cells, infection of viral genomes also provides an example of extrachromosomal DNA. (wikipedia.org)
  • The infection process of T-DNA into the host cell and integration into its nucleus involve multiple steps. (wikipedia.org)
  • This is important because DNA stays inside the nucleus and we have to get it out to look at it. (uen.org)
  • For example, once a strand of DNA has been transcribed (copied into the mRNA strand), many segments are cut out and discarded, then the few remaining parts are reassembled into the final mRNA, all in the nucleus. (indiana.edu)
  • most of the DNA can be found in the cell nucleus and, in plants and algae, also in plastids such as chloroplasts. (wikipedia.org)
  • Because the length of DNA can be thousands of times that of a cell, packaging this genetic material into the cell or nucleus (in eukaryotes) is a difficult feat. Supercoiling of DNA reduces the space and allows for DNA to be packaged. (wikipedia.org)
  • strand
  • Testing DNA is a technique which can detect specific genomes in a DNA strand to produce a unique and individualized pattern. (wikipedia.org)
  • Agrobacterium vir genes expression occurs via the VirA-VirG sensor that results in generation of a mobile single-stranded T-DNA copy (T-strand). (wikipedia.org)
  • Furthermore, while one strand readily replicates from the 3' to 5' (of the original DNA strand), the other (inverted strand) replicates in the opposite direction (still 3' to 5' of its original strand, but in short segments). (indiana.edu)
  • DNA supercoiling refers to the over- or under-winding of a DNA strand, and is an expression of the strain on that strand. (wikipedia.org)
  • When normal repair processes fail, and when cellular apoptosis does not occur, irreparable DNA damage may occur, including double-strand breaks and DNA crosslinkages (interstrand crosslinks or ICLs). (wikipedia.org)
  • Several assembly methods are used to make these structures, including tile-based structures that assemble from smaller structures, folding structures using the DNA origami method, and dynamically reconfigurable structures using strand displacement methods. (wikipedia.org)
  • Single-strand breaks are repaired by DNA ligase using the complementary strand of the double helix as a template, with DNA ligase creating the final phosphodiester bond to fully repair the DNA. (wikipedia.org)
  • DNA ligase I: ligates the nascent DNA of the lagging strand after the Ribonuclease H has removed the RNA primer from the Okazaki fragments. (wikipedia.org)
  • It catalyzes the final step in the non-homologous end joining DNA double-strand break repair pathway. (wikipedia.org)
  • 2016
  • On August 20, 2016 at the Devo fan gathering, DEVOtional 2016, Delaney Jae of Futurismo, announced they would be re-issuing Recombo DNA with new art to accompany it. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 2016 a DNA vaccine for the Zika virus began testing at the National Institutes of Health. (wikipedia.org)
  • synthesis
  • The synthesis of the plant hormones auxin and cytokinin by enzymes encoded in the T-DNA enables the plant cell to grow uncontrollably, thus forming the crown gall tumors typically induced by Agrobacterium tumefaciens infection. (wikipedia.org)
  • DNA synthesis displaces the single stranded region and then a second nick at the left border region releases the single stranded T-DNA fragment. (wikipedia.org)
  • Autonomous multistep organic synthesis in a single isothermal solution mediated by a DNA walker. (springer.com)
  • genes
  • The bacterial T-DNA is about 24,000 base pairs long and contains genes that code for enzymes synthesizing opines and phytohormones. (wikipedia.org)
  • Agrobacterium tumefaciens is capable of transferring foreign DNA to both monocotyledons and dicotyledonous plants efficiently while taking care of critically important factors like the genotype of plants, types and ages of tissues inoculated, kind of vectors, strains of Agrobacterium, selection marker genes and selective agents, and various conditions of tissue culture. (wikipedia.org)
  • Many genes that were initially shown to influence life span have turned out to be involved in DNA damage repair and protection. (wikipedia.org)
  • DNAs
  • With DNA as the self-copying storehouse of life's information, and with the tools for capturing the cell's processing of that information in the form of complementary DNAs made from cellular messages, we are embarked on the greatest adventure of science today: to understand ourselves, from the DNA out. (columbia.edu)
  • bacteria
  • The transfer DNA (abbreviated T-DNA) is the transferred DNA of the tumor-inducing (Ti) plasmid of some species of bacteria such as Agrobacterium tumefaciens and Agrobacterium rhizogenes. (wikipedia.org)
  • They used the DNA of bacteria Micoplasma pirum and Escherichia coli cultured in a T lymphocyte (a type of white blood cell) culture medium. (wikipedia.org)
  • nuclear
  • Extrachromosomal DNA was found to be structurally different from nuclear DNA. (wikipedia.org)
  • DNA packaging is greatly increased during nuclear division events such as mitosis or meiosis, where DNA must be compacted and segregated to daughter cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • complexes
  • Chemiluminescent and chemiluminescence resonance energy transfer (CRET) detection of DNA, metal ions and aptamer-substrate complexes using hemin/G-quadruplex and CdSe/ZnS quantum dots. (springer.com)
  • Structural DNA nanotechnology, sometimes abbreviated as SDN, focuses on synthesizing and characterizing nucleic acid complexes and materials that assemble into a static, equilibrium end state. (wikipedia.org)
  • On the other hand, dynamic DNA nanotechnology focuses on complexes with useful non-equilibrium behavior such as the ability to reconfigure based on a chemical or physical stimulus. (wikipedia.org)
  • The complexes constructed in structural DNA nanotechnology use topologically branched nucleic acid structures containing junctions. (wikipedia.org)
  • DNA ligase IV: complexes with XRCC4. (wikipedia.org)
  • bacterial
  • Circular bacterial plasmids are also the basis for the production of DNA vaccines. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 2015, Montagnier's team published another finding similar to the original one, but using bacterial and viral DNA. (wikipedia.org)
  • Absence of bacterial DNA was ascertained by polymerase chain reaction. (wikipedia.org)
  • When the solution was simply incubated for two or three weeks, the bacterial DNA was detected. (wikipedia.org)
  • nanotechnology
  • The resulting nucleic acid nanostructures provide the basis for the rapidly developing area of DNA nanotechnology. (springer.com)
  • Our research in DNA nanotechnology is supported by the Israel Science Foundation and the EC projects NANOGNOSTICS and ECCell. (springer.com)
  • DNA nanotechnology is the design and manufacture of artificial nucleic acid structures for technological uses. (wikipedia.org)
  • The conceptual foundation for DNA nanotechnology was first laid out by Nadrian Seeman in the early 1980s, and the field began to attract widespread interest in the mid-2000s. (wikipedia.org)
  • The field's name specifically references DNA, but the same principles have been used with other types of nucleic acids as well, leading to the occasional use of the alternative name nucleic acid nanotechnology. (wikipedia.org)
  • DNA nanotechnology is sometimes divided into two overlapping subfields: structural DNA nanotechnology and dynamic DNA nanotechnology. (wikipedia.org)
  • nucleic acid
  • A DNA construct is an artificially constructed segment of nucleic acid that is to be transplanted into a target tissue or cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • While DNA is the dominant material used, structures incorporating other nucleic acids such as RNA and peptide nucleic acid (PNA) have also been constructed. (wikipedia.org)
  • induce
  • In that study, Sytox Orange (an intercalating dye), has been used to induce supercoiling on surface tethered DNA molecules. (wikipedia.org)
  • DNA vaccines have potential advantages over conventional vaccines, including the ability to induce a wider range of immune response types. (wikipedia.org)
  • fragments
  • Reorganization of activity site such as nicks in DNA segments or Okazaki fragments etc. 2. (wikipedia.org)
  • For this purpose, different DNA-fragments were created, each one of them representing a city that had to be visited. (wikipedia.org)
  • These DNA-fragments were produced and mixed in a test tube. (wikipedia.org)
  • Through a chemical reaction (that lasts a few days), the DNA-fragments representing the longer routes were eliminated. (wikipedia.org)
  • molecular biology
  • In addition, DNA ligase has extensive use in molecular biology laboratories for recombinant DNA experiments (see Applications in molecular biology research). (wikipedia.org)
  • DNA computing is a branch of computing which uses DNA, biochemistry, and molecular biology hardware, instead of the traditional silicon-based computer technologies. (wikipedia.org)
  • Forensics
  • In fact, DNA sequencing has become a key technology in many areas of biology and other sciences such as medicine, forensics , or anthropology . (wikipedia.org)
  • macromolecule
  • The smallest unit that can be alive is a cell, and DNA is a macromolecule which makes up that cell. (uen.org)
  • enzyme
  • IT SEEMS ONLY yesterday, but it was more than 20 years ago, that summer at Cold Spring Harbor in the early 1970s, when David Baltimore showed up in great agitation and gave a last-minute, unscheduled little talk at a meeting, explaining that both his lab and Howard Temin 's had found unmistakable evidence for an enzyme that converted RNA to DNA. (columbia.edu)
  • A DNA enzyme that cleaves RNA. (springer.com)
  • Derived from a thermophilic bacterium, the enzyme is stable and active at much higher temperatures than conventional DNA ligases. (wikipedia.org)
  • base pairs
  • For instance, the DNA in the largest human chromosome, chromosome number 1, consists of approximately 220 million base pairs and would be 85 mm long if straightened. (wikipedia.org)
  • nanotubes
  • Researchers in the field have created static structures such as two- and three-dimensional crystal lattices, nanotubes, polyhedra, and arbitrary shapes, and functional devices such as molecular machines and DNA computers. (wikipedia.org)
  • recombinant
  • In 1983, Enzo Paoletti and Dennis Panicali at the New York Department of Health devised a strategy to produce recombinant DNA vaccines by using genetic engineering to transform ordinary smallpox vaccine into vaccines that may be able to prevent other diseases. (wikipedia.org)
  • Nanostructures
  • Advances in this field will be exemplified by discussing the following topics: (i) Hemin/G-quadruplex DNA nanostructures exhibit unique electrocatalytic, chemiluminescence and photophysical properties. (springer.com)
  • iii) By the appropriate design of DNA nanostructures, functional DNA machines, acting as "tweezers", "walkers" and "stepper" systems, can be tailored. (springer.com)
  • copies
  • The blood samples were only from patients previously treated with ART and having no detectable viral DNA copies in their blood. (wikipedia.org)
  • enables
  • Their integration with electrode surfaces or semiconductor quantum dots enables the development of new electrochemical or optical bioanalytical platforms for sensing DNA. (springer.com)
  • cell
  • The capability of this specialized tumor-inducing (Ti) plasmid is attributed to two essential regions required for DNA transfer to the host cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • DNA contains the information for carrying out the activities of the cell. (accessexcellence.org)
  • DNA was founded as the cell phone operator of the Finnet group of telephone cooperatives after there was a split-up in the association. (wikipedia.org)
  • Alternatively, the DNA may be encapsulated in protein to facilitate cell entry. (wikipedia.org)
  • In human cells, both normal metabolic activities and environmental factors such as radiation can cause DNA damage, resulting in as many as 1 million individual molecular lesions per cell per day. (wikipedia.org)
  • The rate of DNA repair is dependent on many factors, including the cell type, the age of the cell, and the extracellular environment. (wikipedia.org)
  • DNA damage, due to environmental factors and normal metabolic processes inside the cell, occurs at a rate of 10,000 to 1,000,000 molecular lesions per cell per day. (wikipedia.org)
  • On April 28, 2004, Ehud Shapiro, Yaakov Benenson, Binyamin Gil, Uri Ben-Dor, and Rivka Adar at the Weizmann Institute announced in the journal Nature that they had constructed a DNA computer coupled with an input and output module which would theoretically be capable of diagnosing cancerous activity within a cell, and releasing an anti-cancer drug upon diagnosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • circular
  • If a DNA segment under twist strain were closed into a circle by joining its two ends and then allowed to move freely, the circular DNA would contort into a new shape, such as a simple figure-eight. (wikipedia.org)
  • The simple figure eight is the simplest supercoil, and is the shape a circular DNA assumes to accommodate one too many or one too few helical twists. (wikipedia.org)
  • Lobal contortions of a circular DNA, such as the rotation of the figure-eight lobes above, are referred to as writhe. (wikipedia.org)
  • replicate
  • This signal can supposedly be recorded, transmitted electronically, and re-emitted on another distant pure water sample, where DNA can replicate through polymerase chain reaction despite the absence of the original DNA in the new water sample. (wikipedia.org)
  • 2017
  • The reissue of Recombo DNA was released on August 11, 2017 on 4xLP vinyl with additional previously-unreleased material on 3" Mini CD. (wikipedia.org)