• proteins
  • DNA sequencing is also the most efficient way to sequence RNA or proteins (via their open reading frames ). (wikipedia.org)
  • Deoxyribonucleic acid ( DNA ) was first discovered and isolated by Friedrich Miescher in 1869, but it remained understudied for many decades because proteins, rather than DNA, were thought to hold the genetic blueprint to life. (wikipedia.org)
  • Then this process succeeds the macromolecular translocation from Agrobacterium to cytoplasm of host cell, transmission of T-DNA along with associated proteins (called T-complex) to the host cell nucleus followed by disassembly of the T-complex, stable integration of T-DNA into host plant genome, and expression of the transferred genes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Then, single stranded binding proteins attach to the single stranded DNA. (wikipedia.org)
  • Proteins hold DNA wound up. (uen.org)
  • Within the eukaryotic chromosomes, chromatin proteins such as histones compact and organize DNA. (wikipedia.org)
  • These compact structures guide the interactions between DNA and other proteins, helping control which parts of the DNA are transcribed. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the cells of extant organisms, the vast majority of the proteins present in the mitochondria (numbering approximately 1500 different types in mammals) are coded for by nuclear DNA, but the genes for some, if not most, of them are thought to have originally been of bacterial origin, having since been transferred to the eukaryotic nucleus during evolution. (wikipedia.org)
  • They contain DNA that codes for specific proteins (antigens) from a pathogen. (wikipedia.org)
  • The DNA is injected into cells, whose "inner machinery" uses the DNA to synthesize the proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • Unlike proteins and RNA, DNA usually lacks tertiary structure and therefore damage or disturbance does not occur at that level. (wikipedia.org)
  • DNA is, however, supercoiled and wound around "packaging" proteins called histones (in eukaryotes), and both superstructures are vulnerable to the effects of DNA damage. (wikipedia.org)
  • A DNA construct may express wildtype protein, prevent the expression of certain genes by expressing competitors or inhibitors, or express mutant proteins, such as deletion mutations or missense mutations. (wikipedia.org)
  • A DNA construct is often used in molecular biology to analyze macromolecules such as proteins or RNA in more detail. (wikipedia.org)
  • one successful approach, for example, tested T4 DNA ligase fused to several alternative DNA binding proteins and found that the constructs with either p50 or NF-kB as fusion partners were over 160% more active in blunt-end ligations for cloning purposes than wild type T4 DNA ligase. (wikipedia.org)
  • molecules
  • These types of linear plasmids represent the largest class of extrachromosomal DNA as they are not only present in certain bacterial cells, but all linear extrachromosomal DNA molecules found in eukaryotic cells also take on this invertron structure with a protein attached to the 5' end. (wikipedia.org)
  • You might at least say that 'It's actually a bit more complicated, but you should recognize the essential result of the process: How two DNA molecules are made from one. (indiana.edu)
  • Although each individual nucleotide repeating unit is very small, DNA polymers can be very large molecules containing millions to hundreds of millions of nucleotides. (wikipedia.org)
  • In that study, Sytox Orange (an intercalating dye), has been used to induce supercoiling on surface tethered DNA molecules. (wikipedia.org)
  • DNA repair is a collection of processes by which a cell identifies and corrects damage to the DNA molecules that encode its genome. (wikipedia.org)
  • Purified DNA ligase is used in gene cloning to join DNA molecules together to form recombinant DNA. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 2002, researchers from the Weizmann Institute of Science in Rehovot, Israel, unveiled a programmable molecular computing machine composed of enzymes and DNA molecules instead of silicon microchips. (wikipedia.org)
  • sequences
  • Knowledge of DNA sequences has become indispensable for basic biological research, and in numerous applied fields such as medical diagnosis , biotechnology , forensic biology , virology and biological systematics . (wikipedia.org)
  • The first DNA sequences were obtained in the early 1970s by academic researchers using laborious methods based on two-dimensional chromatography . (wikipedia.org)
  • It was also confirmed that the sequences of cytoplasmic DNA was different from nuclear DNA in the same organism, showing that cytoplasmic DNAs are not simply fragments of nuclear DNA. (wikipedia.org)
  • Newman describes Columbia's contribution of vast numbers of sequences of human genetic messages to a national public library of DNA sequences, an altruistic decision that has placed Columbia squarely between two very large millstones, the Merck and SmithKlineBeecham pharmaceutical companies. (columbia.edu)
  • A large part of DNA (more than 98% for humans) is non-coding, meaning that these sections do not serve as patterns for protein sequences. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 2009, Montagnier and his collaborators published a paper titled "Electromagnetic signals are produced by aqueous nanostructures derived from bacterial DNA sequences" in which they showed that bacterial DNA can produce electromagnetic signal (EMS) that is transferred through the cell culture medium. (wikipedia.org)
  • 2016
  • The study was presented at the International Symposium on Biomolecular Archaeology in Oxford, UK back in 2016, and sequenced DNA from 209 cats that lived between 15,000 and 3,700 years ago - so from just before the advent of agriculture right up to the 18th century. (freerepublic.com)
  • On August 20, 2016 at the Devo fan gathering, DEVOtional 2016, Delaney Jae of Futurismo, announced they would be re-issuing Recombo DNA with new art to accompany it. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 2016 a DNA vaccine for the Zika virus began testing at the National Institutes of Health. (wikipedia.org)
  • In August 2016, researchers used the CRISPR gene-editing system to insert a GIF of a galloping horse and rider into the DNA of living bacteria. (wikipedia.org)
  • 2000
  • The media coverage of these, and other cases, helped to bring DNA testing for genealogical applications to the commercial market in the year 2000. (google.com)
  • In 2000, the seven member Commission approved the modern artwork Digital DNA for the 0.2-acre (810 m2) plaza on the corner of University Avenue and Emerson Street. (wikipedia.org)
  • Digital DNA was commissioned in 2000. (wikipedia.org)
  • For their work on the magazines, DNA Publications was a 2000 World Fantasy Award nominee, in the "special award: professional" category. (wikipedia.org)
  • gene
  • Targeted introduction of exogenous DNA is used to identify genes because the introduced DNA can act cause a mutation or altered expression of the gene into which it inserts. (wikipedia.org)
  • Plasmid DNA vaccines are genetically engineered to contain a gene which encodes for an antigen or a protein produced by a pathogenic virus, bacterium or other parasite. (wikipedia.org)
  • In genetic engineering, the tumor-promoting and opine-synthesis genes are removed from the T-DNA and replaced with a gene of interest and/or a selection marker, which is required to establish which plants have been successfully transformed. (wikipedia.org)
  • This nick creates a region of single stranded DNA from the left border of the T-DNA gene over to the right border which was cut. (wikipedia.org)
  • Each DNA sequence that we could call a 'gene' consists of a few functional exons with lots of intermittent introns that are not functional (i.e., do not code for any part of the ultimate protein). (indiana.edu)
  • Supercoiling is important in a number of biological processes, such as compacting DNA, and by regulating access to the genetic code, DNA supercoiling strongly affects DNA metabolism and possibly gene expression. (wikipedia.org)
  • DNA supercoiling is important for DNA packaging within all cells, and seems to also play a role in gene expression. (wikipedia.org)
  • They altered the DNA of cowpox virus by inserting a gene from other viruses (namely Herpes simplex virus, hepatitis B and influenza). (wikipedia.org)
  • These are plasmids that usually consist of a strong viral promoter to drive the in vivo transcription and translation of the gene (or complementary DNA) of interest. (wikipedia.org)
  • Daughter cells that inherit these wrong bases carry mutations from which the original DNA sequence is unrecoverable (except in the rare case of a back mutation, for example, through gene conversion). (wikipedia.org)
  • Plasmid DNA constructs often consist of a promoter sequence, followed a by a desired gene, and ended in a transcription termination or polyadenylation signal sequence. (wikipedia.org)
  • A DNA construct may contain a DNA insert, which contains the gene sequence encoding a protein of interest, that has been subcloned into a vector, which contains bacterial resistance genes for growth in bacteria, and promoters for expression in the organism. (wikipedia.org)
  • The E. coli DNA ligase is encoded by the lig gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is formed by alternative splicing of a proteolytic fragment of DNA ligase III and does not have its own gene, therefore it is often considered to be virtually identical to DNA ligase III. (wikipedia.org)
  • genes
  • DNA sequencing may be used to determine the sequence of individual genes , larger genetic regions (i.e. clusters of genes or operons ), full chromosomes or entire genomes , of any organism. (wikipedia.org)
  • The bacterial T-DNA is about 24,000 base pairs long and contains genes that code for enzymes synthesizing opines and phytohormones. (wikipedia.org)
  • Agrobacterium tumefaciens is capable of transferring foreign DNA to both monocotyledons and dicotyledonous plants efficiently while taking care of critically important factors like the genotype of plants, types and ages of tissues inoculated, kind of vectors, strains of Agrobacterium, selection marker genes and selective agents, and various conditions of tissue culture. (wikipedia.org)
  • Agrobacterium vir genes expression occurs via the VirA-VirG sensor that results in generation of a mobile single-stranded T-DNA copy (T-strand). (wikipedia.org)
  • In 1984, two groups, led by Walter Gehring in Switzerland and Matthew Scott in the United States, discovered that many of these genes had a common DNA sequence, just 184 bases long, which they named the ' homeobox . (columbia.edu)
  • Genes are the functional units of DNA. (google.com)
  • Many genes that were initially shown to influence life span have turned out to be involved in DNA damage repair and protection. (wikipedia.org)
  • sequence
  • What Verinata does have is technology that can do something as ethically fraught as it is inevitable: sequence the DNA of a human fetus before birth. (technologyreview.com)
  • Fischetti's essay on DNA forensics and Benowitz's on the uses of genetic information in diagnosis of future medical conditions are variations on a common theme: that each person's DNA is a unique sequence and that the information in that DNA includes the genetic component of that person's fate. (columbia.edu)
  • nucleus
  • Then after entry the particle moves into an endosomal vesicle to the nucleus where the DNA is uncoated into the nucleus through the nuclear pore. (slideshare.net)
  • Extrachromosomal DNA is any DNA that is found outside the nucleus of a cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cytoplasmic DNA is less methylated than DNA found within the nucleus. (wikipedia.org)
  • In addition to DNA found outside the nucleus in cells, infection of viral genomes also provides an example of extrachromosomal DNA. (wikipedia.org)
  • The infection process of T-DNA into the host cell and integration into its nucleus involve multiple steps. (wikipedia.org)
  • This is important because DNA stays inside the nucleus and we have to get it out to look at it. (uen.org)
  • For example, once a strand of DNA has been transcribed (copied into the mRNA strand), many segments are cut out and discarded, then the few remaining parts are reassembled into the final mRNA, all in the nucleus. (indiana.edu)
  • most of the DNA can be found in the cell nucleus and, in plants and algae, also in plastids such as chloroplasts. (wikipedia.org)
  • Because the length of DNA can be thousands of times that of a cell, packaging this genetic material into the cell or nucleus (in eukaryotes) is a difficult feat. Supercoiling of DNA reduces the space and allows for DNA to be packaged. (wikipedia.org)
  • genetic
  • This is a form of genetic testing , though some genetic tests may not involve DNA sequencing. (wikipedia.org)
  • Students will understand that genetic information coded in DNA is passed from parents to offspring by sexual and asexual reproduction. (uen.org)
  • Changes in DNA may alter genetic expression. (uen.org)
  • The International Society of Genetic Genealogy (ISOGG) was founded in 2005 by DNA project administrators who shared a common vision: the promotion and education of genetic genealogy. (google.com)
  • In 1983, Enzo Paoletti and Dennis Panicali at the New York Department of Health devised a strategy to produce recombinant DNA vaccines by using genetic engineering to transform ordinary smallpox vaccine into vaccines that may be able to prevent other diseases. (wikipedia.org)
  • bases
  • It includes any method or technology that is used to determine the order of the four bases- adenine , guanine , cytosine , and thymine -in a strand of DNA. (wikipedia.org)
  • In mammalian DNA, variant bases with methyl groups or phosphosulfate may be found. (wikipedia.org)
  • Once layed out, students should 'unzip' the (white) DNA strip, exposing the bases of each DNA strand. (indiana.edu)
  • Montagnier's experiment can be summarised as follows: A known water sample with 2 ng/ml of 104 bases DNA from an HIV infected patient is diluted by 10 into water and agitated for 15 seconds. (wikipedia.org)
  • There are several types of damage to DNA due to endogenous cellular processes: oxidation of bases [e.g. 8-oxo-7,8-dihydroguanine (8-oxoG)] and generation of DNA strand interruptions from reactive oxygen species, alkylation of bases (usually methylation), such as formation of 7-methylguanosine, 1-methyladenine, 6-O-Methylguanine hydrolysis of bases, such as deamination, depurination, and depyrimidination. (wikipedia.org)
  • bacteria
  • Bacteria need to be in a certain physiological state to successfully take up exogenous DNA, which is described as one of competence. (wikipedia.org)
  • Bacteria can also be made competent through a variety of chemical treatments including exposure to calcium ions, or a mixture of polyethylene glycol and dimethylsulfoxide , which make the cell membrane more permeable, leading to the uptake of the exogenous DNA. (wikipedia.org)
  • The transfer DNA (abbreviated T-DNA) is the transferred DNA of the tumor-inducing (Ti) plasmid of some species of bacteria such as Agrobacterium tumefaciens and Agrobacterium rhizogenes. (wikipedia.org)
  • They used the DNA of bacteria Micoplasma pirum and Escherichia coli cultured in a T lymphocyte (a type of white blood cell) culture medium. (wikipedia.org)
  • strand
  • Testing DNA is a technique which can detect specific genomes in a DNA strand to produce a unique and individualized pattern. (wikipedia.org)
  • Furthermore, while one strand readily replicates from the 3' to 5' (of the original DNA strand), the other (inverted strand) replicates in the opposite direction (still 3' to 5' of its original strand, but in short segments). (indiana.edu)
  • DNA supercoiling refers to the over- or under-winding of a DNA strand, and is an expression of the strain on that strand. (wikipedia.org)
  • When normal repair processes fail, and when cellular apoptosis does not occur, irreparable DNA damage may occur, including double-strand breaks and DNA crosslinkages (interstrand crosslinks or ICLs). (wikipedia.org)
  • Several assembly methods are used to make these structures, including tile-based structures that assemble from smaller structures, folding structures using the DNA origami method, and dynamically reconfigurable structures using strand displacement methods. (wikipedia.org)
  • Single-strand breaks are repaired by DNA ligase using the complementary strand of the double helix as a template, with DNA ligase creating the final phosphodiester bond to fully repair the DNA. (wikipedia.org)
  • DNA ligase I: ligates the nascent DNA of the lagging strand after the Ribonuclease H has removed the RNA primer from the Okazaki fragments. (wikipedia.org)
  • It catalyzes the final step in the non-homologous end joining DNA double-strand break repair pathway. (wikipedia.org)
  • complementary
  • With DNA as the self-copying storehouse of life's information, and with the tools for capturing the cell's processing of that information in the form of complementary DNAs made from cellular messages, we are embarked on the greatest adventure of science today: to understand ourselves, from the DNA out. (columbia.edu)
  • base pairs
  • For instance, the DNA in the largest human chromosome, chromosome number 1, consists of approximately 220 million base pairs and would be 85 mm long if straightened. (wikipedia.org)
  • protein
  • In textbooks this moment usually is described as the breaking of a dogma- that DNA makes RNA and RNA makes protein-but to those of us lucky enough to be there, the sound was not the lugubrious thud of a fallen idol but the shivery squeak of an unexpected door, slowly but inexorably opening before us. (columbia.edu)
  • Alternatively, the DNA may be encapsulated in protein to facilitate cell entry. (wikipedia.org)
  • If this capsid protein is included in the DNA, the resulting vaccine can combine the potency of a live vaccine without reversion risks. (wikipedia.org)
  • nucleic acids
  • The field's name specifically references DNA, but the same principles have been used with other types of nucleic acids as well, leading to the occasional use of the alternative name nucleic acid nanotechnology. (wikipedia.org)
  • While DNA is the dominant material used, structures incorporating other nucleic acids such as RNA and peptide nucleic acid (PNA) have also been constructed. (wikipedia.org)
  • It can ligate either cohesive or blunt ends of DNA, oligonucleotides, as well as RNA and RNA-DNA hybrids, but not single-stranded nucleic acids. (wikipedia.org)
  • chromosome
  • A man's patrilineal ancestry, or male-line ancestry, can be traced using the DNA on his Y chromosome (Y-DNA), because the Y-chromosome is transmitted father to son nearly unchanged. (google.com)
  • nuclear
  • Extrachromosomal DNA was found to be structurally different from nuclear DNA. (wikipedia.org)
  • DNA packaging is greatly increased during nuclear division events such as mitosis or meiosis, where DNA must be compacted and segregated to daughter cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • person's
  • The courts struggle with the technical minutiae of DNA identification when a felon is on trial, as they should when a person's life is in their hands. (columbia.edu)
  • But neither legislatures nor courts have yet come to terms with an equally serious issue (albeit one for the civil, not criminal jurisdictions): How can society preserve each person's right to his or her own DNA, each person's privilege to not know-or not to have anyone else know-what is in it? (columbia.edu)
  • cells
  • The introduction of exogenous DNA into a cell is called transformation ( transfection in animal cells). (wikipedia.org)
  • The DNA comes from cells in the placenta that have died and ruptured. (technologyreview.com)
  • Students will learn to extract DNA from different cells and see what it looks like. (uen.org)
  • DNA is found in every cell in your body except red blood cells. (google.com)
  • DNA supercoiling is important for DNA packaging within all cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • In human cells, both normal metabolic activities and environmental factors such as radiation can cause DNA damage, resulting in as many as 1 million individual molecular lesions per cell per day. (wikipedia.org)
  • bacterial
  • Circular bacterial plasmids are also the basis for the production of DNA vaccines. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 2015, Montagnier's team published another finding similar to the original one, but using bacterial and viral DNA. (wikipedia.org)
  • Absence of bacterial DNA was ascertained by polymerase chain reaction. (wikipedia.org)
  • When the solution was simply incubated for two or three weeks, the bacterial DNA was detected. (wikipedia.org)
  • induce
  • DNA vaccines have potential advantages over conventional vaccines, including the ability to induce a wider range of immune response types. (wikipedia.org)
  • fragments
  • Reorganization of activity site such as nicks in DNA segments or Okazaki fragments etc. 2. (wikipedia.org)
  • For this purpose, different DNA-fragments were created, each one of them representing a city that had to be visited. (wikipedia.org)
  • These DNA-fragments were produced and mixed in a test tube. (wikipedia.org)
  • Through a chemical reaction (that lasts a few days), the DNA-fragments representing the longer routes were eliminated. (wikipedia.org)
  • molecular biology
  • DNA computing is a branch of computing which uses DNA, biochemistry, and molecular biology hardware, instead of the traditional silicon-based computer technologies. (wikipedia.org)
  • Forensics
  • In fact, DNA sequencing has become a key technology in many areas of biology and other sciences such as medicine, forensics , or anthropology . (wikipedia.org)
  • macromolecule
  • The smallest unit that can be alive is a cell, and DNA is a macromolecule which makes up that cell. (uen.org)
  • synthesis
  • The synthesis of the plant hormones auxin and cytokinin by enzymes encoded in the T-DNA enables the plant cell to grow uncontrollably, thus forming the crown gall tumors typically induced by Agrobacterium tumefaciens infection. (wikipedia.org)
  • DNA synthesis displaces the single stranded region and then a second nick at the left border region releases the single stranded T-DNA fragment. (wikipedia.org)
  • Exogenous
  • Monoadduct damage cause by change in single nitrogenous base of DNA Diadduct damage Damage caused by exogenous agents comes in many forms. (wikipedia.org)
  • enzymes
  • Many topoisomerase enzymes sense supercoiling and either generate or dissipate it as they change DNA topology. (wikipedia.org)
  • structures
  • DNA nanotechnology is the design and manufacture of artificial nucleic acid structures for technological uses. (wikipedia.org)
  • Researchers in the field have created static structures such as two- and three-dimensional crystal lattices, nanotubes, polyhedra, and arbitrary shapes, and functional devices such as molecular machines and DNA computers. (wikipedia.org)
  • The complexes constructed in structural DNA nanotechnology use topologically branched nucleic acid structures containing junctions. (wikipedia.org)
  • Sequencing
  • An example of the results of automated chain-termination DNA sequencing. (wikipedia.org)
  • Following the development of fluorescence -based sequencing methods with a DNA sequencer , DNA sequencing has become easier and orders of magnitude faster. (wikipedia.org)
  • DNA sequencing may be used along with DNA profiling methods for forensic identification and paternity testing . (wikipedia.org)
  • Sequencing the DNA of a fetus from a pregnant woman's blood. (technologyreview.com)
  • Earlier this year Illumina, the maker of the world's most widely used DNA sequencing machines, agreed to pay nearly half a billion dollars for Verinata, a startup in Redwood City, California, that has hardly any revenues. (technologyreview.com)
  • Illumina CEO Jay Flatley is looking to pregnancy as a new market for DNA sequencing. (technologyreview.com)
  • The noninvasive screen is so much safer and easier that it's become one of the most quickly adopted tests ever and an important new medical application for Illumina's DNA sequencing instruments, which have so far been used mainly in research labs. (technologyreview.com)
  • But this is likely to be just the start for prenatal DNA sequencing. (technologyreview.com)
  • For one thing, sorting out a fetus's exact DNA code via its mother's blood requires a huge amount of repeated sequencing, making it too expensive for routine use. (technologyreview.com)
  • 2018
  • In 2018 the BFO conducted a Brough DNA Project and its results can now be viewed online . (google.com)
  • circular
  • If a DNA segment under twist strain were closed into a circle by joining its two ends and then allowed to move freely, the circular DNA would contort into a new shape, such as a simple figure-eight. (wikipedia.org)
  • The simple figure eight is the simplest supercoil, and is the shape a circular DNA assumes to accommodate one too many or one too few helical twists. (wikipedia.org)
  • Lobal contortions of a circular DNA, such as the rotation of the figure-eight lobes above, are referred to as writhe. (wikipedia.org)
  • replicate
  • This signal can supposedly be recorded, transmitted electronically, and re-emitted on another distant pure water sample, where DNA can replicate through polymerase chain reaction despite the absence of the original DNA in the new water sample. (wikipedia.org)
  • 2017
  • The reissue of Recombo DNA was released on August 11, 2017 on 4xLP vinyl with additional previously-unreleased material on 3" Mini CD. (wikipedia.org)
  • cellular
  • DNA offers cellular phone services, FTTx, ADSL, terrestrial television (DVB-T/DVB-T2), cable television (DVB-C) and regular (landline) telephone service. (wikipedia.org)