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  • acute phase
  • In the context of rheumatic diseases, typical biological biomarkers could encompass genetic markers, products of gene expression, autoantibodies, cytokine/growth factors, acute phase reactants, tissue abnormalities visualized by immunohistochemistry in synovial biopsy, a product of tissue degradation, or a cell subset that can be phenotyped and enumerated. (hindawi.com)
  • redundancy
  • Because cytokines are characterised by considerable redundancy and pleiotropism, such distinctions, allowing for exceptions, are obsolete. (wikipedia.org)
  • Structural homogeneity has been able to partially distinguish between cytokines that do not demonstrate a considerable degree of redundancy so that they can be classified into four types: The four-α-helix bundle family: member cytokines have three-dimensional structures with four bundles of α-helices. (wikipedia.org)
  • The enigma of cytokine redundancy", Immunology and Cell Biology, 72:97-101. (wikipedia.org)
  • therapies
  • A body of clinical evidence is emerging that two different approaches to immune-stimulating cytokine therapies could increase efficacy of PD-1 inhibitors in both hot and cold tumors. (biocentury.com)
  • Cytokine release syndrome is an adverse effect of some monoclonal antibody drugs, as well as adoptive T-cell therapies. (wikipedia.org)
  • SOCS
  • This gene encodes a member of the STAT-induced STAT inhibitor (SSI), also known as suppressor of cytokine signalling (SOCS), family. (wikipedia.org)
  • Suppressor
  • Suppressor of cytokine signaling 1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SOCS1 gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • Suppressor of cytokine signaling 1 has been shown to interact with: CD117, Colony stimulating factor 1 receptor Growth hormone receptor, IRS2, Janus kinase 2, and TEC. (wikipedia.org)
  • dendritic cells
  • High and low spikes (supernatants from stimulated human PBMCs and dendritic cells) were included to determine cytokine recovery. (dartmouth.edu)
  • CRS occurs when large numbers of white blood cells, including B cells, T cells, and natural killer cells, macrophages, dendritic cells, and monocytes are activated and release inflammatory cytokines, which in turn activate yet more white blood cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • hormones
  • However, these family descriptions are no longer accurate because some growth factors and hormones exhibit cellular effects very similar to cytokine family members. (qiagen.com)
  • The widespread distribution of cellular sources for cytokines may be a feature that differentiates them from hormones. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, more research is required in this area of defining cytokines and hormones. (wikipedia.org)
  • storms
  • Cytokine storms have potential to do significant damage to body tissues and organs. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cytokine storms can occur in a number of infectious and non-infectious diseases including graft-versus-host disease (GVHD), acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), sepsis, Ebola, avian influenza, smallpox, and systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS). (wikipedia.org)
  • It is believed that cytokine storms were responsible for the disproportionate number of healthy young adult deaths during the 1918 influenza pandemic, which killed 50 to 100 million people. (wikipedia.org)
  • Human deaths from the bird flu H5N1 usually involve cytokine storms as well. (wikipedia.org)
  • Severe cases have been called "cytokine storms", a term borrowed from discussions of the pathophysiology of immune disorders and infectious disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • release syndrome
  • The term arose in the field of pathophysiology in discussions of immune disorders in 1993, was extended to discussions of infectious disease and sepsis, and has been used to describe severe manifestations of cytokine release syndrome, an adverse effect of some drugs. (wikipedia.org)
  • Subsequently
  • The ligand of OX40, called OX40 ligand (OX40L, TNFSF4, gp34), which is expressed by antigen presenting cells, binds to OX40 on T cells, preventing them from dying and subsequently increasing cytokine production. (wikipedia.org)
  • cell
  • The effect of a cytokine release depends on the activated cell type expressing the specific cytokine receptor. (qiagen.com)
  • T cell cytokines - Interferon (IFN)-gamma was the initial target of cytokine research in RA. (uptodate.com)
  • a given cytokine may be produced by more than one type of cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • A 2003 report in the Journal of Experimental Medicine published by researchers at Imperial College London demonstrates the possibility of preventing a cytokine storm by inhibiting or disabling T cell response. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cytokine-induced killer cells or CIK cells are a group of immune effector cells featuring a mixed T- and natural killer (NK) cell-like phenotype. (wikipedia.org)
  • Typically, immune cells detect major histocompatibility complex (MHC) presented on infected cell surfaces, triggering cytokine release, causing lysis or apoptosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • citation needed] IL-7 is a cytokine important for B and T cell development. (wikipedia.org)
  • This cytokine and the hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) form a heterodimer that functions as a pre-pro-B cell growth-stimulating factor. (wikipedia.org)
  • This cytokine is found to be a cofactor for V(D)J rearrangement of the T cell receptor beta (TCRß) during early T cell development. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cytokines Cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • ELISA
  • The multiplex cytokine assay format differs from conventional ELISA in one significant way- the multiplex capture antibody is attached to a bead whereas the ELISA capture antibody is attached to the microplate well. (dartmouth.edu)
  • clinically
  • Although there are many interactions of IL-1α with other cytokines, the most consistent and most clinically relevant is its synergism with TNF. (wikipedia.org)
  • family
  • IL-1α is a unique member in the cytokine family in the sense that the structure of its initially synthesized precursor does not contain a signal peptide fragment (same is known for IL-1β and IL-18). (wikipedia.org)