• blockage of the bile
  • High conjugated bilirubin may be due to liver diseases such as cirrhosis or hepatitis, infections, medications, or blockage of the bile duct. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the developed world, the cause is more often blockage of the bile duct or medications while in the developing world, it is more often infections such as viral hepatitis, leptospirosis, schistosomiasis, or malaria. (wikipedia.org)
  • Other complications include ascending cholangitis if there is a bacterial infection which can cause purulent inflammation in the biliary tree and liver, and acute pancreatitis as blockage of the bile ducts can prevent active enzymes being secreted into the bowel, instead damaging the pancreas. (wikipedia.org)
  • Stones
  • If the stones block the duct and cause bilirubin to leak into the bloodstream and surrounding tissue, there may also be jaundice and itching. (wikipedia.org)
  • Surgical
  • Kakita A. Management and surgical result of the intraoperative bile duct injury. (springer.com)
  • Choledochal cysts are treated by surgical excision of the cyst with the formation of a roux-en-Y anastomosis hepaticojujenostomy/ choledochojujenostomy to the biliary duct. (wikipedia.org)
  • HCO3
  • Our aim in this study was to investigate the potential of a recombinant Sendai virus (SeV) vector to introduce normal CFTR into human CF pancreatic duct (CFPAC-1) cells, and to assess the effect of CFTR gene transfer on the key transporters involved in HCO3- transport. (cfgenetherapy.org.uk)
  • CFTR expression had no effect on cell growth, monolayer integrity, and mRNA levels for key transporters in the duct cell (pNBC, AE2, NHE2, NHE3, DRA, and PAT-1), but did upregulate the activity of apical Cl-/HCO3- and Na+/H+ exchangers (NHEs). (cfgenetherapy.org.uk)
  • In CFTR-corrected cells, apical Cl-/HCO3- exchange activity was further enhanced by cAMP, a key feature exhibited by normal pancreatic duct cells. (cfgenetherapy.org.uk)
  • Our data show that SeV vector is a potential CFTR gene transfer agent for human pancreatic duct cells and that expression of CFTR in CF cells is associated with a restoration of Cl- and HCO3- transport at the apical membrane. (cfgenetherapy.org.uk)
  • fluid
  • The tumor cells were also positive for cytokeratin-7 and epithelial membrane antigen and were negative for human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2), gross cystic disease fluid protein-15, and cytokeratin-20. (springeropen.com)
  • Fluid and HCO 3 − secretion are vital functions of the pancreatic duct and other secretory epithelia. (wiley.com)
  • chief among them is the pancreatic duct, which secretes a fluid containing up to 140 mM HCO 3 − while absorbing most of the Cl − from the pancreatic juice ( Steward et al , 2005 ). (wiley.com)
  • arteries
  • Approximately half of superficial cystic arteries have been shown to enter through the hepatobiliary triangle, while deep cystic arteries are often quite small in length and diameter. (wikipedia.org)
  • CFTR
  • Remarkably, inhibition of CFTR activity with CFTR inh -172, knock-down of CFTR by siRNA and measurement of CFTR current in WT and slc26a6 −/− duct cells revealed that deletion of slc26a6 resulted in dis-regulation of CFTR activity by removal of tonic inhibition of CFTR by slc26a6. (wiley.com)