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  • blockage of the bile
  • High conjugated bilirubin may be due to liver diseases such as cirrhosis or hepatitis, infections, medications, or blockage of the bile duct. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the developed world, the cause is more often blockage of the bile duct or medications while in the developing world, it is more often infections such as viral hepatitis, leptospirosis, schistosomiasis, or malaria. (wikipedia.org)
  • Other complications include ascending cholangitis if there is a bacterial infection which can cause purulent inflammation in the biliary tree and liver, and acute pancreatitis as blockage of the bile ducts can prevent active enzymes being secreted into the bowel, instead damaging the pancreas. (wikipedia.org)
  • inflammation
  • In older individuals, choledochal cysts are more likely to cause abdominal pain and intermittent episodes of jaundice and occasionally cholangitis (inflammation within the bile ducts caused by the spread of bacteria from the intestine into the bile ducts). (wikipedia.org)
  • Stones
  • If the stones block the duct and cause bilirubin to leak into the bloodstream and surrounding tissue, there may also be jaundice and itching. (wikipedia.org)
  • Surgical
  • Kakita A. Management and surgical result of the intraoperative bile duct injury. (springer.com)
  • Choledochal cysts are treated by surgical excision of the cyst with the formation of a roux-en-Y anastomosis hepaticojujenostomy/ choledochojujenostomy to the biliary duct. (wikipedia.org)
  • HCO3
  • Our aim in this study was to investigate the potential of a recombinant Sendai virus (SeV) vector to introduce normal CFTR into human CF pancreatic duct (CFPAC-1) cells, and to assess the effect of CFTR gene transfer on the key transporters involved in HCO3- transport. (cfgenetherapy.org.uk)
  • CFTR expression had no effect on cell growth, monolayer integrity, and mRNA levels for key transporters in the duct cell (pNBC, AE2, NHE2, NHE3, DRA, and PAT-1), but did upregulate the activity of apical Cl-/HCO3- and Na+/H+ exchangers (NHEs). (cfgenetherapy.org.uk)
  • In CFTR-corrected cells, apical Cl-/HCO3- exchange activity was further enhanced by cAMP, a key feature exhibited by normal pancreatic duct cells. (cfgenetherapy.org.uk)
  • Our data show that SeV vector is a potential CFTR gene transfer agent for human pancreatic duct cells and that expression of CFTR in CF cells is associated with a restoration of Cl- and HCO3- transport at the apical membrane. (cfgenetherapy.org.uk)
  • arteries
  • Approximately half of superficial cystic arteries have been shown to enter through the hepatobiliary triangle, while deep cystic arteries are often quite small in length and diameter. (wikipedia.org)
  • fluid
  • Fluid and HCO 3 − secretion are vital functions of the pancreatic duct and other secretory epithelia. (wiley.com)
  • chief among them is the pancreatic duct, which secretes a fluid containing up to 140 mM HCO 3 − while absorbing most of the Cl − from the pancreatic juice ( Steward et al , 2005 ). (wiley.com)
  • CFTR
  • Remarkably, inhibition of CFTR activity with CFTR inh -172, knock-down of CFTR by siRNA and measurement of CFTR current in WT and slc26a6 −/− duct cells revealed that deletion of slc26a6 resulted in dis-regulation of CFTR activity by removal of tonic inhibition of CFTR by slc26a6. (wiley.com)
  • pancreas
  • N. A. Ahmad, M. L. Kochman, J. D. Lewis, and G. G. Ginsberg, "Can EUS alone differentiate between malignant and benign cystic lesions of the pancreas? (hindawi.com)
  • A selective approach to the resection of cystic lesions of the pancreas: results from 539 consecutive patients," Annals of Surgery , vol. 244, no. 4, pp. 572-582, 2006. (hindawi.com)
  • These secretions become thick and sticky, plugging the ducts, tubes and passageways in the pancreas and lungs. (reference.com)
  • Treatment for chronic pancreatitis usually involves pain management, enzyme therapy, dietary changes, and in some instances surgery (to remove a damaged part of the pancreas or to widen a narrow duct, for example). (chicagoendoscopy.com)
  • sweat ducts
  • 1. a dermatologic condition due to occlusion of sweat ducts, which may result in symptoms ranging from pruritus, scratch dermatitis, and miliaria to very persistent inflammatory changes, depending upon the extent of the blockage, environmental temperature, and duration of sweating stimulus. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • In the eccrine sweat glands, ENaC is predominantly located in the apical membrane facing the lumen of the sweat ducts. (wikipedia.org)
  • ENaC
  • NEDD4-2 has been shown to ubiquitinate and therefore down regulate the epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) in the collecting ducts of the kidneys, therefore opposing the actions of aldosterone and increasing salt excretion. (wikipedia.org)
  • The major function of ENaC in these ducts is the re-uptake of Na⁺ ions that are excreted in sweat. (wikipedia.org)
  • blockage
  • The two basic distinctions are an obstructive type of cholestasis where there is a mechanical blockage in the duct system that can occur from a gallstone or malignancy, and metabolic types of cholestasis which are disturbances in bile formation that can occur because of genetic defects or acquired as a side effect of many medications. (wikipedia.org)
  • epithelial
  • Epithelial cells of the renal tubules, including all the segments of the nephron and the collecting ducts (with the exception of intercalated cells) show the presence of a single primary apical cilium. (wikipedia.org)
  • Additionally, new mouse models homozygous for Pkd1 hypomorphic alleles 22 and 23 and the demonstration of increased renal epithelial cell proliferation in Pkd2+/− mice suggest that mechanisms other than the two-hit hypothesis also contribute to the cystic phenotype. (wikipedia.org)
  • occur
  • These neck masses can occur anywhere along the path of the thyroglossal duct, from the base of the tongue to the suprasternal notch. (wikipedia.org)
  • Thyroglossal cyst usually presents as a midline neck lump (in the region of the hyoid bone) that is usually painless, smooth and cystic, though if infected, pain can occur. (wikipedia.org)
  • An infected thyroglossal duct cyst can occur when it is left untreated for a certain amount of time or simply when a thyroglossal duct cyst hasn't been suspected. (wikipedia.org)
  • common
  • Thoracic duct ligation with the creation of a pericardial window was the most common surgical procedure. (beds.ac.uk)
  • In addition to renal cell carcinoma and renal pelvis carcinoma, other, less common types of kidney cancer include: Squamous cell carcinoma Juxtaglomerular cell tumor (reninoma) Angiomyolipoma Bellini duct carcinoma Clear-cell sarcoma of the kidney Mesoblastic nephroma Wilms' tumor, usually is reported in children under the age of 5. (wikipedia.org)
  • lungs
  • The alveoli are located in the respiratory zone of the lungs, at the ends of the alveolar ducts and alveolar sac, representing the smallest units in the respiratory tract. (wikipedia.org)
  • cysts
  • Play media Thyroglossal duct cysts most often present with a palpable asymptomatic midline neck mass above the level of the hyoid bone. (wikipedia.org)
  • The persistent duct or sinus can promote oral secretions, which may cause cysts to become infected. (wikipedia.org)
  • A thyroglossal cyst can develop anywhere along a thyroglossal duct, though cysts within the tongue or in the floor of the mouth are rare. (wikipedia.org)
  • Thyroglossal Duct Cysts are a birth defect. (wikipedia.org)
  • In some individuals, portions of the duct remain behind, leaving small pockets, known as cysts. (wikipedia.org)
  • patients
  • One study using ultrasound found that the epididymides of patients suffering from post-vasectomy pain syndrome were enlarged and full of cystic growths. (wikipedia.org)
  • obstruction
  • Canalicular bile plugs between individual hepatocytes or within bile ducts may also be seen, representing bile that has been excreted from the hepatocytes but cannot go any further due to the obstruction. (wikipedia.org)
  • neck
  • During embryonic development, the thyroid gland is being formed, beginning at the base of the tongue and moving towards the neck canal, known as the thyroglossal duct. (wikipedia.org)
  • Once the thyroid reaches its final position in the neck, the duct normally disappears. (wikipedia.org)
  • treatment
  • The most effective treatment is ligation of the thoracic duct and the creation of a pericardial window. (beds.ac.uk)
  • either
  • Lung alveoli are the ends of the respiratory tree, branching from either alveolar sacs or alveolar ducts, which like alveoli are both sites of gas exchange with the blood as well. (wikipedia.org)
  • In dacryocystocele there this tube gets blocked on either end and as a result when mucoid fluid collects in the intermediate patent section it forms a cystic structure. (wikipedia.org)
  • cells
  • The FPC protein is found on the primary cilia of epithelia cells of cortical and medullary collecting ducts and cholangiocytes of bile ducts, and show similarity to polycystins and several other ciliopathy proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • usually
  • Craniopharyngioma is a rare, usually suprasellar neoplasm, which may be cystic, that develops from nests of epithelium derived from Rathke's pouch. (wikipedia.org)
  • surface
  • sweat gland one of the glands that secrete sweat , found in the corium or subcutaneous tissue, and opening by a duct on the surface of the body. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • known
  • A thyroglossal duct cyst may rupture unexpectedly, resulting in a draining sinus known as a thyroglossal fistula. (wikipedia.org)
  • Another type of cell, known as an alveolar macrophage, resides on the internal surfaces of the air cavities of the alveoli, the alveolar ducts, and the bronchioles. (wikipedia.org)