• proliferation
  • Interleukin 1- and interleukin 2-dependent proliferation of activated T cells, and the activation of quiescent helper T cells and cytotoxic T cells is prevented by the activity of TGF-β1. (wikipedia.org)
  • p16 Ink4 was a weak inhibitor of intimal VSMC proliferation in injured arteries ( P =NS), and it did not significantly reduce intima/media area ratios ( P =NS), which is consistent with its minor effects on VSMC growth in vitro. (ahajournals.org)
  • p27 Kip1 is constitutively expressed in normal arteries, is downregulated after arterial injury, becomes upregulated during the later phases of arterial repair, and is inversely correlated with VSMC proliferation. (ahajournals.org)
  • 1996
  • Membrane potential-dependent transport of essential metabolic substrates during the cell cycle and/or volume regulation could also play a role (for review, see Wonderlin and Strobl, 1996 ). (jneurosci.org)
  • In 1996, Aggarwal patented curcumin as an inhibitor of NF-κB activation, and he co-founded a company in 2004 called Curry Pharmaceuticals, based in Research Triangle Park, N.C., which was seeking to develop drugs based on synthetic analogs of curcumin. (wikipedia.org)
  • inhibit
  • Once p27 is excluded from the nucleus it cannot inhibit the cell's growth. (wikipedia.org)
  • These Ras-mediated pathways lead to the increase in transcription of cyclin D1, and inhibit its proteolysis and export from the nucleus. (wikipedia.org)
  • mRNA
  • p27 and p21 mRNA did not differ. (aspetjournals.org)
  • In eukaryotes, overexpression of translation initiation factor 4E (eIF4E) leads to an increased level of cyclin D protein and increased amount of cyclin D mRNA outside of the nucleus. (wikipedia.org)
  • This p27 cis-regulatory element is 114 nucleotides in length and is located at the very 5' end of the 5'UTR of the p27 mRNA. (wikipedia.org)
  • Both the open reading frame and the stem loop elements contribute to cell cycle-regulated translation of the p27 mRNA. (wikipedia.org)
  • cells
  • Expression of p15, p16, p21 and p27 did not vary in granulosa and theca cells by the follicle stage. (biomedcentral.com)
  • D-type cyclins are usually synthesized by mid-G1 phase and accumulate to a maximum as cells advance through the G1/S boundary. (biomedcentral.com)
  • p27 has been shown to bind to and stabilize Neurogenin-2 promoting differentiation of neural progenitor cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • In normal mice, p27 Kip1 is evident in a subset of receptor and presynaptic taste cells beginning about 3 days post-injection, correlating with the onset of taste cell maturation. (biomedsearch.com)
  • The antiproliferative effects of K + channel blockers and veratridine were still present in OP cells isolated from INK4a −/− mice, lacking the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors p16 INK4a and p19 ARF . (jneurosci.org)
  • are not involved in ion channel-dependent cell cycle arrest in OP cells. (jneurosci.org)
  • It is likely that these effect are mediated by the properties of statins to reduce proteasome activity, leading to an accumulation of cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors p21 and p27, and to subsequent G1-phase arrest, as seen in cells of different cancer lines. (wikipedia.org)
  • Degradation of the p27 protein occurs as cells exit quiescence and enter G1. (wikipedia.org)
  • The three homologues, called cyclin D1, cyclin D2, and cyclin D3 are expressed in most proliferating cells and the relative amounts expressed differ in various cell types. (wikipedia.org)
  • The p27 cis-regulatory element is a structured G/C rich RNA element which is involved in controlling cell cycle regulated translation of the p27kip protein in human cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cyclin D1 is expressed in all adult human tissues with the exception of cells derived from bone marrow stem cell lines (both lymphoid and myeloid). (wikipedia.org)
  • For example, CDK6 is involved in the differentiation of T cells, acting as an inhibitor of differentiation. (wikipedia.org)
  • levels of p27
  • Liver protein levels of p27, p21, p70 S6 kinase (p70 s6k ), phosphorylated p70 s6k ( p -p70 s6k ), eukaryotic initiation factor 4E-binding protein (4E-BP1), p -4E-BP1 (Thr37/46), and p -4E-BP1 (Ser65/Thr70) were determined by Western blotting. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Detects endogenous levels of p27 Kip 1 only when phosphorylated at threonine 198. (abcam.com)
  • synthesis
  • The synthesis of another G1 phase cyclin, cyclin E, increases in late G1 and decreases once DNA replication is initiated. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Specifically, p21 has a high affinity for the PIP-box binding region on PCNA, binding of p21 to this region is proposed to block the binding of processivity factors necessary for PCNA dependent S-phase DNA synthesis, but not PCNA dependent nucleotide excision repair (NER). (wikipedia.org)
  • As such, p21 acts as an effective inhibitor of DNA S-phase DNA synthesis though permits NER, leading to the proposal that p21 acts to preferentially select polymerase processivity factors depending on the context of DNA synthesis. (wikipedia.org)
  • The synthesis of cyclin D is initiated during G1 and drives the G1/S phase transition. (wikipedia.org)
  • The abundance of cyclins is generally regulated by protein synthesis and degradation through an APC/C dependent pathway. (wikipedia.org)
  • degrades
  • Studies have also demonstrated that the E3 ubiquitin ligase complex CRL4Cdt2 degrades p21 in a PCNA dependent manner over S-phase, necessary to prevent p21 dependent re-replication, as well as in response to UV irradiation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Mice
  • 4 A deficiency of p27 Kip1 in mice leads to benign hyperplasia in multiple organs, but it does not directly produce tumors. (ahajournals.org)
  • CDKIs
  • In this study we tested the expression of CDKIs p15, p16, p21 and p27 by immunohistochemistry to determine the role of CDKIs in the initiation of primordial follicle growth. (biomedcentral.com)
  • p15, p16, p21 and p27 in mouse ovaries by immunohistochemistry to assess whether the initiation of primordial follicle growth was associated with the expression of CDKIs. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Regulation
  • P27 regulation is accomplished by two different mechanisms. (wikipedia.org)
  • Alternatively to the transcription, translation, and protelytic method of regulation, p27 levels can also be changed by exporting p27 to the cytoplasm. (wikipedia.org)
  • In contrast to the many sharp transitions of ultrasensitive kinase cascade feedback loops, this mechanism allows fine tuned regulation. (wikipedia.org)
  • genes
  • The MAP kinase ERK activates the downstream transcription factors Myc, AP-1 and Fos which in turn activate the transcription of the Cdk4, Cdk6 and cyclin D genes, and increase ribosome biogenesis. (wikipedia.org)
  • bind
  • This occurs when p27 is phosphorylated on Ser(10) which allows for CRM1, a nuclear export carrier protein, to bind to and remove p27 from the nucleus. (wikipedia.org)