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  • murine
  • Phosphorylation by p38, but not Cdks, triggers an interaction between Rb and the human homologue of murine double minute 2: Hdm2), leading to degradation of Rb, release of E2F1 and cell death. (wustl.edu)
  • tumor
  • These findings provide a mechanistic explanation for how Rb regulates cell division and apoptosis through different kinases, and reveal how Hdm2 may functionally link the tumor suppressors Rb and p53. (wustl.edu)
  • cell
  • The cell cycle includes 4 main phases: Gap 1 (G1), DNA replication (S), Gap 2 (G2), and mitosis (M). Tight regulation of the transition between these phases halts cell cycle progression if a phase is not properly completed. (qiagen.com)
  • Cell cycle progression is regulated by the cyclic rise and fall of kinase expression, and their interaction with, and action on, their cyclin targets. (qiagen.com)
  • Extensive experimental data were obtained for two pancreatic cancer cell lines (MiaPaCa-2 and BxPC-3), including cell proliferation rates over 0-120 h of drug exposure, and the fraction of cells in different cell cycle phases or apoptosis. (frontiersin.org)
  • Cell cycle analysis demonstrated that gemcitabine induced cell cycle arrest in S phase, and trabectedin induced transient cell cycle arrest in S phase that progressed to G 2 / M phase. (frontiersin.org)
  • Systems cell cycle models were developed based on observed mechanisms and were used to characterize both cell proliferation and cell numbers in the sub G 1 , G 0 / G 1 , S , and G 2 / M phases in the control and drug-treated groups. (frontiersin.org)
  • Cyclin dependent kinases: Cdks) promote cell division by phosphorylating and reversibly inactivating Rb by a hierarchical series of phosphorylation events and sequential conformational changes. (wustl.edu)
  • The stress-regulated mitogen activated protein kinase: MAPK) p38 also phosphorylates Rb, but it does so in a cell cycle-independent manner that is associated with apoptosis rather than with cell division. (wustl.edu)

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  • complexes
  • CP110 is an important centrosomal protein that is phosphorylated by both mitotic and interphase Cdk/cyclin complexes and is thought to influence centrosome duplication in S phase. (wikipedia.org)
  • MPS1 is a protein kinase that is essential to the spindle assembly checkpoint, and may remodel an SAS6-cored intermediate between severed mother and daughter centrioles into a pair of cartwheel protein complexes onto which procentrioles assemble. (wikipedia.org)
  • degradation
  • While both stress granules and processing bodies are associated with mRNAs, processing bodies have been long proposed to be sites of mRNA degradation because they contain enzymes like DCP1/2 and XRN1 that are known to degrade mRNAs. (wikipedia.org)
  • Different cyclins exhibit distinct expression and degradation patterns that contribute to the temporal coordination of cell cycle events. (wikipedia.org)
  • extracellular
  • Expression of phosphorylated (p-)tyrosine, p-Akt, phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinase (p-ERK) 1/ERK2 (p42/p44), and p27 after treatment of erlotinib was not associated with erlotinib sensitivity. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • MAP kinases are also known as extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERKs), and are involved in signaling cascades that regulate a number of cellular processes, including proliferation, differentiation, and transcriptional regulation. (wikipedia.org)
  • EGFR
  • Inhibitors of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) tyrosine kinases,such as erlotinib and gefitinib, have not been very effective in the treatment of breast cancer although many breast cancer cells express EGFR. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • This action blocks downstream signal transduction and inhibits the tumorigenic effects associated with ligand-dependent and ligand-independent EGFR activation ( 1 , 2 ). (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • inhibition
  • Many of these stressors result in the activation of particular stress-associated kinases (HRI, PERK, PKR, and GCN2), translational inhibition and stress granule formation. (wikipedia.org)
  • mutations
  • Recent genetic studies indicate that mutations of Cdkl family kinases are associated with neurodevelopmental and neuropsychiatric disorders in humans. (frontiersin.org)
  • family
  • These findings suggest that Cdkl2 is involved in cognitive function and provide in vivo evidence for the function of Cdkl family kinases expressed in terminally differentiated neurons in mice. (frontiersin.org)
  • This evidence suggests that the Cdkl kinase family might be involved in behavioral modification, activity-dependent synaptic plasticity, and learning. (frontiersin.org)
  • Regulation
  • The heterogeneity of kinases involved in phospho-regulation provides a fundamental basis for the sequential biochemical reactions that underlie the mechanisms of synaptic plasticity. (frontiersin.org)
  • shown
  • Cyclin A1 was shown to be expressed in testis and brain, as well as in several leukemic cell lines, and is thought to primarily function in the control of meiosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • murine
  • Phosphorylation by p38, but not Cdks, triggers an interaction between Rb and the human homologue of murine double minute 2: Hdm2), leading to degradation of Rb, release of E2F1 and cell death. (wustl.edu)
  • tumor
  • These findings provide a mechanistic explanation for how Rb regulates cell division and apoptosis through different kinases, and reveal how Hdm2 may functionally link the tumor suppressors Rb and p53. (wustl.edu)
  • cell
  • The cell cycle includes 4 main phases: Gap 1 (G1), DNA replication (S), Gap 2 (G2), and mitosis (M). Tight regulation of the transition between these phases halts cell cycle progression if a phase is not properly completed. (qiagen.com)
  • Cell cycle progression is regulated by the cyclic rise and fall of kinase expression, and their interaction with, and action on, their cyclin targets. (qiagen.com)
  • Extensive experimental data were obtained for two pancreatic cancer cell lines (MiaPaCa-2 and BxPC-3), including cell proliferation rates over 0-120 h of drug exposure, and the fraction of cells in different cell cycle phases or apoptosis. (frontiersin.org)
  • Cell cycle analysis demonstrated that gemcitabine induced cell cycle arrest in S phase, and trabectedin induced transient cell cycle arrest in S phase that progressed to G 2 / M phase. (frontiersin.org)
  • Systems cell cycle models were developed based on observed mechanisms and were used to characterize both cell proliferation and cell numbers in the sub G 1 , G 0 / G 1 , S , and G 2 / M phases in the control and drug-treated groups. (frontiersin.org)
  • Cyclin dependent kinases: Cdks) promote cell division by phosphorylating and reversibly inactivating Rb by a hierarchical series of phosphorylation events and sequential conformational changes. (wustl.edu)
  • The stress-regulated mitogen activated protein kinase: MAPK) p38 also phosphorylates Rb, but it does so in a cell cycle-independent manner that is associated with apoptosis rather than with cell division. (wustl.edu)
  • genes
  • Cux1 DNA binding is stimulated by activation of the PAR2/F2RL1 cell-surface G-protein-coupled receptor in fibroblasts and breast-cancer epithelial cells to regulate Matrix metalloproteinase 10, Interleukin1-alpha, and Cyclo-oxygenase 2 (COX2) genes. (wikipedia.org)
  • The presence of full-length PTPkappa in melanoma cells decreases the level of free-cytosolic β-catenin, which consequently reduces the level of nuclear β-catenin and reduces the expression of the β-catenin-regulated genes, cyclin D1 and c-myc. (wikipedia.org)
  • Furthermore
  • Furthermore, over- on the activity of these interacting kinases in order to expression of Smads2/3/4 improves, whereas Smad7 decipher the molecular interplay between TGF-β and overexpression worsens, obesity-associated metabolic other intracellular signaling pathways. (deepdyve.com)
  • receptor
  • Viral tropism for the decidua and placenta is then dependent on viral entry receptor expression in these tissues as well as on the maternal immune response to the virus. (jci.org)
  • Phospho-S215LKD and phospho-S296LAE motifs are also critical to TRADD for recruiting Fas-associated death domain protein and receptor-interacting protein kinase. (jimmunol.org)
  • TNF-bound TNFR1 recruits TNFR-associated death domain protein (TRADD), an adaptor protein that serves as the platform for additional recruitment of receptor-interacting protein kinase (RIP) and Fas-associated death domain protein (FADD), initiating both NF-κB activation and apoptosis induction ( 1 - 3 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • cell cycle
  • 1) To continue cell cycle and enter S phase (2) Stop cell cycle and enter G0 phase for undergoing differentiation. (wikipedia.org)
  • The point where mitogens are no longer needed to move the cell cycle forward is called the "restriction point" and depends on cyclins to be passed. (wikipedia.org)
  • mice
  • 281. Filipkowski RK, Kaczmarek L. Severely impaired adult brain neurogenesis in cyclin D2 knock-out mice produces very limited phenotypic changes. (gov.pl)
  • 2018
  • Behavioural Brain Research, 2: 35-45, 2018. (gov.pl)