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  • acid
  • Calcium cyanide can be prepared by treating powdered calcium oxide with boiling anhydrous hydrocyanic acid in the presence of an accelerator such as ammonia or water in order to minimize the loss of the hydrocyanic acid by polymerization. (wikipedia.org)
  • Alternatively calcium cyanide may be prepared by reacting hydrocyanic acid gas with quicklime (CaO) at high temperatures around 400 °C. At higher temperatures around 600 °C calcium cyanimide is formed instead. (wikipedia.org)
  • ammonia
  • Silver cyanide is also soluble in solutions containing other ligands such as ammonia or tertiary phosphines. (wikipedia.org)
  • The aqueous solution is analyzed for cyanide ion by silver nitrate titrimetric method or an ion-selective electrode method, and ammonia is measured by titration or electrode technique. (wikipedia.org)
  • methyl
  • For example in acetonitrile , the cyanide group is bonded to methyl (CH 3 ). (wikipedia.org)
  • An example of a nitrile is CH 3 CN, acetonitrile , also known as methyl cyanide. (wikipedia.org)
  • For example, CH 3 CN is referred to by the names acetonitrile or ethanenitrile per IUPAC, but occasionally it is labeled using the common name methyl cyanide. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • Because of the cyanide anion's high nucleophilicity, cyano groups are readily introduced into organic molecules by displacement of a halide group (e.g., the chloride on methyl chloride). (wikipedia.org)
  • Thus, CH3CN can be called methyl cyanide but more commonly is referred to as acetonitrile. (wikipedia.org)
  • One compound similar to diethylaluminum cyanide is bis[di(trimethylsilyl)methyl]aluminium cyanide, ((Me3Si)2CH)2AlCN, which has been shown crystallographically to exist as a trimer with the following structure: Bis(tert-butyl)aluminium cyanide, tBu2AlCN exists as a tetramer in the crystalline phase: Diethylaluminum cyanide is used for the stoichiometric hydrocyanation of α,β-unsaturated ketones. (wikipedia.org)
  • Isopropyl cyanide (C3H7CN) contains a carbon atom bounded by a simple link to two methyl (-CH3) structures and to a cyano group (-CN). (wikipedia.org)
  • blood cyanide levels
  • While most flaxseed supplements are safe, taking flax the wrong way can increase your blood cyanide levels. (livestrong.com)
  • Exposure to lower levels of cyanide over a long period (e.g., after use of improperly processed cassava roots as a primary food source in tropical Africa) results in increased blood cyanide levels, which can result in weakness and a variety of symptoms, including permanent paralysis, nervous lesions, hypothyroidism, and miscarriages. (wikipedia.org)
  • cyano
  • A cyanide is a chemical compound that contains the group C≡N. This group, known as the cyano group , consists of a carbon atom triple-bonded to a nitrogen atom. (wikipedia.org)
  • amounts
  • The French used about 4000 tons of cyanide in WWI without notable military success, possibly because the small one- to two-pound munitions used could not deliver the large amounts needed to cause biological effects. (fas.org)
  • Plants that have metabolized large amounts of cyanide can be hazardous to animals who eat those plants. (ehow.com)
  • Cyanide poisoning of livestock by way of cyanide buildup in grasses and other plants cultivated for cattle grazing have been so problematic that botanists have developed strains of cattle-grazing plants resistant to the buildup of large amounts of cyanide. (ehow.com)
  • When a human drinks water or touches soil that has large amounts of cyanide, health problems can quickly ensue. (ehow.com)
  • Similarly, humans can be put at risk when eating foods harvested from plants containing large amounts of cyanide. (ehow.com)
  • Prolonged exposure to small amounts of cyanide over long periods of time has been linked to breathing difficulties, chest pain, vomiting, blood changes, headaches and enlargement of the thyroid gland. (ehow.com)
  • Exposure to large amounts of cyanide in a short time can cause brain and heart damage and in some cases can lead to coma and death. (ehow.com)
  • Cyanides are found in substantial amounts in certain seeds and fruit stones, e.g., those of bitter almonds , apricots , apples , and peaches . (wikipedia.org)
  • Exposure to larger amounts of cyanide may cause more severe symptoms, including loss of consciousness and respiratory distress or failure. (livestrong.com)
  • The precipitate dissolves upon the addition of further amounts of cyanide to form linear [Ag(CN)(aq) and [Ag(CN)−(aq) on the addition of further cyanide. (wikipedia.org)
  • concentrations
  • The cyanide ion is ubiquitous in nearly all living organisms which tolerate and even require the ion in low concentrations. (fas.org)
  • The preferred way to deliver cyanide is by large munitions (bombs, large shells), because smaller weapons will not provide the concentrations needed for effects. (fas.org)
  • In some species, high concentrations of cyanide can inhibit respiration and affect a plant's ability to absorb nutrients from soil, in some cases causing plant death. (ehow.com)
  • Regular use of cyanide in the mining industry is used in weak concentrations, harmful. (prezi.com)
  • acid
  • Benzyl cyanide can be hydrolyzed to give phenylacetic acid or used in the Pinner reaction to yield phenylacetic acid esters. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cyanide is quickly metabolized to 2-amino-2-thiazoline-4-carboxylic acid and thiocyanate with a half life of 10-30 minutes as a detoxifying mechanism. (wikipedia.org)
  • inhalation
  • At the time of the introduction of cyanide in World War I, the other chemical agents in use caused mainly local effects: riot control agents injured the skin and mucous membranes from direct contact, and phosgene damaged the lungs after inhalation. (fas.org)
  • exposure
  • Symptoms of cyanide poisoning vary and depend on, for example, route of poisoning, total dose and the exposure time. (opcw.org)
  • The immediate effects on plant life of cyanide exposure vary tremendously depending on the species of plant. (ehow.com)
  • still, it's important to know the signs of cyanide exposure just to err on the side of caution. (ehow.com)
  • The earliest effects of cyanide exposure are rapid, deep breathing and shortness of breath followed by convulsions (seizures) and loss of consciousness. (ehow.com)
  • Exposure to mercury cyanide produces symptoms of mercury poisoning and cyanide poisoning. (reference.com)
  • Cyanide poisoning is poisoning that results from exposure to a number of forms of cyanide. (wikipedia.org)
  • ingestion
  • Within a few hours of single ingestion, no cyanide can be detected, since all of it is metabolized unless death occurs first. (wikipedia.org)
  • The detection of cyanide long after supposed ingestion is an indication of a false positive in the diagnostics. (wikipedia.org)
  • Oxygen
  • The cyanide ion can rapidly combine with iron in cytochrome a 3 (a component of the cytochrome aa 3 or cytochrome oxidase complex in mitochrondria) to inhibit this enzyme, thus preventing intracellular oxygen utilization. (fas.org)
  • Cyanide shuts down body's ability to carry or absorb oxygen. (prezi.com)
  • Cyanide shreds energy mechanisms, breaks down cellular respiration, and causes rapid cell death due to oxygen deprivation. (prezi.com)
  • He said if discharged into a human body, cyanide was rapidly distributed through the body, and cut off the ability of living cells to use oxygen. (news24.com)
  • Initially, acute cyanide poisoning causes a red or ruddy complexion in the victim because the tissues are not able to use the oxygen in the blood. (wikipedia.org)
  • Through the irreversible combining of cyanide ions onto the active structural domain, oxygen is prevented from reaching the cells, and an effect similar to carbon monoxide poisoning results. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cyanide ions interfere with cellular respiration, resulting in the body's tissues being unable to use oxygen. (wikipedia.org)
  • Poisoning
  • The treatment against cyanide poisoning given to civilians is based on encouraging and speeding-up the body's own ability to excrete cyanide and to bind cyanide in the blood. (opcw.org)
  • New drug to treat cyanide poisoning. (prezi.com)
  • Review article: Management of cyanide poisoning. (prezi.com)
  • Intravenous solutions of sodium nitrite can also be used to counteract the effects of mercury cyanide poisoning. (reference.com)
  • Mercury cyanide poisoning affects kidneys, sensorimotor skills and breathing. (reference.com)
  • The FDA`s announcement that the Tylenol capsule from Green`s bedroom contained 91 percent sodium cyanide all but ruled out any connection between his death and the Tylenol poisoning death of a New York woman by potassium cyanide on Feb. 8, local and federal investigators said. (chicagotribune.com)
  • The effects of potassium and sodium cyanide are identical, and symptoms of poisoning typically occur within a few minutes of ingesting the substance: the person loses consciousness, and brain death eventually follows. (wikipedia.org)
  • Grigori Rasputin may have survived a potassium cyanide poisoning because his stomach acidity was unusually low. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cyanide poisoning is a form of histotoxic hypoxia because the cells of an organism are unable to create ATP, primarily through the inhibition of the mitochondrial enzyme cytochrome c oxidase. (wikipedia.org)
  • thiocyanate
  • The enzyme rhodanese is present in the body, mainly in the liver, and together with sulphur transforms cyanide into thiocyanate, which is passed out in the urine. (opcw.org)
  • The biosynthesis of cyanide in the [NiFe]-hydrogenases proceeds from carbamoyl phosphate, which converts to cysteinyl thiocyanate, the CN− donor. (wikipedia.org)
  • Recently, cyanide and thiocyanate assays have been run with mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS), which are considered specific tests. (wikipedia.org)
  • molecules
  • In plants, cyanides are usually bound to sugar molecules in the form of cyanogenic glycosides and defend the plant against herbivores . (wikipedia.org)
  • Cyanide attaches to molecules called hemoglobin in the blood stream. (prezi.com)
  • Cyclopropyl cyanide, when heated to 660-760K and under pressure of 2-89torr, becomes cis and trans crotonitrile and allyl cyanide molecules, with some presence of methacrylonitrile. (wikipedia.org)
  • The discovery of this particular cyanide suggests that the complex molecules needed for life may have their origins in interstellar space. (wikipedia.org)
  • The branched carbon structure of isopropyl cyanide is a common feature in those molecules that are considered to be necessary life - such as amino acids, which are the building blocks of proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • The two cyanide molecules - isopropyl cyanide and normal-propyl cyanide - are the largest molecules yet detected in any star-forming region. (wikipedia.org)
  • carbon
  • A functional group with a hydroxyl and cyanide bonded to the same carbon is called cyanohydrin . (wikipedia.org)
  • The cyanide ion is isoelectronic with carbon monoxide and with molecular nitrogen . (wikipedia.org)
  • Prussian blue was first accidentally made around 1706, by heating substances containing iron and carbon and nitrogen, and other cyanides made subsequently (and named after it). (wikipedia.org)
  • The silver to carbon and silver to nitrogen bond lengths in AgCN are both ~2.09 Å and the cyanide groups show head-to-tail disorder. (wikipedia.org)
  • high volatility
  • Cyanide is a rapidly acting lethal agent that is limited in its military usefulness by its high LCt 50 and high volatility. (fas.org)
  • Other factors included the high volatility of cyanide (which quickly evaporated and dispersed) and its 'all or nothing' biological activity, i.e., it caused few effects below the lethal Ct (this is in contrast to mustard, which causes eye damage at 1% of the lethal amount). (fas.org)
  • rapidly
  • Despite the cyanide ions being diatomic, and thus less symmetric than chloride, they rotate so rapidly, their time-averaged shape is spherical. (wikipedia.org)
  • poison
  • It has a well-earned reputation as a powerful poison, but cyanide is used in many industrial processes as well -- including electroplating, metallurgy, organic chemicals production, photographic developing, manufacture of plastics, fumigation of ships and some mining processes. (ehow.com)
  • NASHVILLE - A 32-year-old man who died from a massive dose of cyanide here last week purchased nearly a pound of the deadly poison shortly before his death, police said Friday. (chicagotribune.com)
  • Cyanide is a poison. (livestrong.com)