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  • genital
  • Cryptorchidism affects an estimated 3 percent of full-term male neonates and up to 30 percent of premature infants, making it the most common male genital anomaly identified at birth. (ahrq.gov)
  • Surgery
  • Even though the etiology of cryptorchidism is multifactorial, management has evolved with the clear recognition that hormonal treatment is not effective and surgery between 6-18 months of age leads to better testicular outcomes. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • Although the etiology of cryptorchidism remains poorly understood, management has evolved with the clear recognition that hormonal treatment is largely ineffective and early surgery (prior to 1-2 years of age) leads to better testicular outcomes. (thefreelibrary.com)