• hyphae
  • C. neoformans makes hyphae during mating, and eventually creates basidiospores at the end of the hyphae before producing spores. (humpath.com)
  • The sexual state of C . neoformans is characterized by the formation of dikaryotic hyphae, which possess typical basidiomycetous clamp connections and bear terminal basidia. (rupress.org)
  • The molecular analysis of hyphae production in MATα C . neoformans has resulted in the identification of a gene named STE12α whose sequence displays similarity to the Saccharomyces cerevisiae STE12 gene ( 6 ). (rupress.org)
  • Fungi
  • Studies suggest that colonies of C. neoformans and related fungi growing on the ruins of the melted down reactor of the Chernobyl nuclear power plant may be able to use the energy of radiation for "radiotrophic" growth. (wikipedia.org)
  • intracellular
  • Cryptococcus neoformans was the first intracellular pathogen for which the non-lytic escape process termed vomocytosis was observed. (wikipedia.org)
  • One mechanism by which C. neoformans survives the hostile intracellular environment of the macrophage involves upregulation of expression of genes involved in responses to oxidative stress. (wikipedia.org)
  • In order to survive in the hostile intracellular environment of the macrophage, one of the responses of C. neoformans is to upregulate genes employed in responses to oxidative stress. (wikipedia.org)
  • Cryptococcus neoformans Obligate intracellular parasites cannot reproduce outside their host cell, meaning that the parasite's reproduction is entirely reliant on intracellular resources. (wikipedia.org)
  • agar
  • The ability of C. neoformans to grow in five culture media usually employed in bacteriologic diagnosis (blood agar, chocolate agar, CLDE, eosin-metilen blue and Salmonella-Shigella agars) was evaluated. (scielo.org.ar)
  • hosts
  • Besides a prevalent asexual life cycle, C. neoformans also presents a bipolar mating cycle with two mating types, MATa and MATα, with the latter being the most prevalently isolated from hosts and the environment . (kenyon.edu)
  • These mechanisms are not very effective when C. neoformans infects hosts with intact immune defenses, but they can lead to disseminated disease in immunosuppressed individuals. (humpath.com)
  • C. neoformans can establish latent infections accompanied by granuloma formation but can reactivate in immunosuppressed hosts. (humpath.com)
  • Innate immune responses restrict the growth and invasion of C. neoformans in mammalian hosts ( 16 ). (spandidos-publications.com)
  • fungal organism
  • Specific modulation of protein expression through introduction of double-stranded RNA thus operates in C. neoformans , which is the first demonstration of this technique in a fungal organism. (genetics.org)
  • invasion
  • C. neoformans can also utilize the host plasminogen system to enhance degradation and invasion of tissues and penetrate the blood-brain barrier. (kenyon.edu)
  • J. Stie and D. Fox, "Blood-brain barrier invasion by Cryptococcus neoformans is enhanced by functional interactions with plasmin," Microbiology , vol. 158, part 1, pp. 240-258, 2012. (hindawi.com)
  • enzymes
  • Furthermore, C. neoformans induces the activation of antioxidant enzymes, including superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalases, and the synthesis of antioxidants, such as glutathione (GSH), to adapt to oxidative attack ( 14 , 15 ). (spandidos-publications.com)
  • soil
  • C. neoformans is present in the soil and in bird (particularly pigeon) droppings and infects patients when it is inhaled. (humpath.com)