• bloodstream
  • The definition criteria which has been used is the same as the one which has been previously used to identify bloodstream healthcare associated infections. (wikipedia.org)
  • Even though the syringe and needle are only used by a single person, this practice is still unsafe as it can introduce bacteria from the skin into the bloodstream and cause serious and sometimes lethal infections. (wikipedia.org)
  • cattle
  • The disease is different in cattle and sheep and cross-infection is not thought to occur. (wikipedia.org)
  • Much of this success can be attributed to sustained cattle controls reducing cross-infection and breaking the disease cycle. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the 1930s, 40% of cattle in the UK were infected with M. bovis and there were 50,000 new cases of human M. bovis infection every year. (wikipedia.org)
  • Badgers (Meles meles) were first identified as carriers of M. bovis in 1971, but the report of an independent review committee in 1997 (The Krebs Report) concluded that while there was 'strong circumstantial evidence to suggest that badgers represent a significant source of M. bovis infection in cattle. (wikipedia.org)
  • pathogens
  • Results: SEMs strongly supported a latent (host phenotype) variable associated with FcaGHV1 exposure and co-infection risk, suggesting these individuals are simply more likely to become infected with multiple pathogens. (oregonstate.edu)
  • secondary
  • Influenza debilitates the animal, leaving a horse susceptible to secondary infections. (bluecross.org.uk)
  • Mechanisms that may contribute to this association include abnormalities in the levels of certain blood proteins (for example fibrinogen or C reactive protein) secondary to the chronic infection 1 2 and raised blood pressure in people infected with H pylori . (bmj.com)
  • Whilst infection was known in the 19th century as a dangerous complication in severe burns, until the 1950s, its significance was regarded as secondary. (wikipedia.org)
  • causal
  • Background: Epidemiological studies of disease exposure risk are frequently based on observational, cross-sectional data, and use statistical approaches as crucial tools for formalising causal processes and making predictions of exposure risks. (oregonstate.edu)
  • symptoms
  • The primary aims of the study are to assess the effects of H pylori infection (and its eradication, on a double blind basis) on digestive symptoms and their treatment and on various other aspects of health and quality of life. (bmj.com)
  • Other signs and symptoms may include sinus infections, poor growth, fatty stool, clubbing of the fingers and toes, and infertility in most males. (wikipedia.org)
  • Play media The main signs and symptoms of cystic fibrosis are salty-tasting skin, poor growth, and poor weight gain despite normal food intake, accumulation of thick, sticky mucus, frequent chest infections, and coughing or shortness of breath. (wikipedia.org)
  • Inflammation and infection cause injury and structural changes to the lungs, leading to a variety of symptoms. (wikipedia.org)
  • In cacao trees, first symptoms of infection usually present as a sparse white mycelium on the bark surface, which can be easily overlooked. (wikipedia.org)
  • structural
  • Methods: We describe analyses of cross-sectional data using structural equation models (SEMs), a contemporary advancement on traditional regression approaches, based on our study system of feline gammaherpesvirus (FcaGHV1) in domestic cats. (oregonstate.edu)
  • lung
  • Long-term issues include difficulty breathing and coughing up mucus as a result of frequent lung infections. (wikipedia.org)
  • Nitrous oxide (N2O), also known as "laughing gas", easily crosses the alveoli of the lung and is dissolved into the passing blood, where it travels to the brain, leaving a dissociated and euphoric feeling in most cases. (wikipedia.org)
  • cause
  • S. canis is important to the skin and mucosal health of cats and dogs, but under certain circumstances, these bacteria can cause opportunistic infections. (wikipedia.org)
  • During infection, the bacteria have been known to cause neonatal septicemia, abortion, and cellulitis in dogs. (wikipedia.org)
  • humans
  • Actual infections in humans are nowadays rare in developed countries, mainly because pasteurisation kills M. bovis bacteria in infected milk. (wikipedia.org)
  • Instances of mortality from S. canis in humans are very low with only a few reported cases, while actual instances of infection may be underreported due to mischaracterizations of the bacteria as S. dysgalactiae. (wikipedia.org)
  • sheep
  • Sheep custodians can assist by ensuring infected lambs receive sufficient milk and separating out the infected stock to slow down cross-transmission to healthy animals. (wikipedia.org)
  • Methods
  • Sample and population estimates were calculated for key steps along the HIV care continuum for HIV-infected MSM and logistic regression methods were used to examine correlates of being unaware of one's HIV infection. (bmj.com)
  • H pylori infection had little effect on blood pressure in the general population in the age groups studied when methods designed to minimise potential sampling biases and selection biases were used. (bmj.com)
  • processes
  • The results of this study demonstrate the application of SEMs to understanding epidemiological processes using observational data, and could be used more widely as a complementary tool to understand complex cross-sectional information in a wide variety of disciplines. (oregonstate.edu)
  • Thus, the cross-sectoral evaluation of the quality of structure, processes and results is decisive for the success of integrated infection prophylaxis. (egms.de)
  • exposure
  • Signs of infection, which begin to develop a few days after exposure to the virus, include a husky cough and nasal discharge (which changes over a period of four to five days from thin to thick mucus), combined with general signs of ill health. (bluecross.org.uk)
  • Signs
  • It is vital that veterinary advice is sought as soon as a horse shows signs of a possible infection. (bluecross.org.uk)
  • The infection takes three weeks to have an obvious effect, with the first signs (muscle stiffness, spasms and a reluctance to move) often becoming apparent some time after the wound has healed. (bluecross.org.uk)
  • Study
  • The current study aimed to determine if self-identified HIV-negative, MSM clinic attendees who used GSN apps have an increased incidence of sexually transmitted infections (STI) compared to self-identified HIV-negative, MSM attendees who met sexual partners via in-person venues, such as bars or clubs or through MSM-specific hook-up websites. (bmj.com)
  • We have attempted to minimise such problems in a large prospective community based study of the association between H pylori infection and blood pressure. (bmj.com)
  • among
  • We sought to characterise the HIV care continuum and identify correlates of being unaware of one's HIV infection among men who have sex with men (MSM) in Moscow, Russia. (bmj.com)
  • care
  • The healthier the horse and the higher the standards of horse care, the greater the chance of fighting and minimising the effects of an infection. (bluecross.org.uk)
  • Research
  • Research on the risks of cross-contamination arose immediately after the invention of jet injection technology. (wikipedia.org)
  • severe
  • Another severe case was reported pharyngitis, genital lesions and infection of the hooves which led to lameness and, in some cases, sloughing of the hoof. (wikipedia.org)
  • important
  • Healthcare providers play an important role in the transmission of these infections on their hands, clothing and equipment. (journals.co.za)
  • This may be particularly important when attempting to infer causality in patterns of co-infection through pathogen-facilitation. (oregonstate.edu)
  • main
  • The main sources of infection in the home are people (who are carriers or are infected), foods (particularly raw foods) and water, and domestic animals (in the U.S. more than 50% of homes have one or more pets). (wikipedia.org)
  • disease
  • Our findings indicate that, contrary to some previous suggestions, the association that exists between cardiovascular disease and H pylori infection is not accounted for by any increase in blood pressure. (bmj.com)
  • treatment
  • However, it has been contested if STSS and NF are caused solely by S. canis infection or if it is induced from the treatment of dogs with fluoroquinolone during the infection. (wikipedia.org)
  • studies
  • There are several methodological difficulties in carrying out studies to determine whether H pylori infection results in raised blood pressure. (bmj.com)
  • skin
  • The first sign of a foot-rot infection is when the skin between the claws of the hoof begins to swell (cellulitis). (wikipedia.org)