Loading...
  • mice
  • To determine if Cbfa1 plays a role during bone formation we generated transgenic mice overexpressing Cbfa1 DNA-binding domain (DeltaCbfa1) in differentiated osteoblasts only postnatally. (tmc.edu)
  • Discoidin domain receptor 1 (DDR-1)-deficient mice exhibited a high incidence of osteoarthritis (OA) in the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) as early as 9 weeks of age. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Chondrocytes isolated from the TMJs of DDR-1-deficient mice maintained their osteoarthritic characteristics when placed in culture. (ox.ac.uk)
  • interaction
  • All studies are consistent with the assumption that promoter escape reduces the lifetime of the sigma-core interaction from very long at initiation (too long to be measured in a typical biochemical experiment) to a shorter, measurable lifetime upon transition to elongation. (wikipedia.org)
  • novel
  • A discoidin domain receptor 1 knock-out mouse as a novel model for osteoarthritis of the temporomandibular joint. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Therefore, the DDR-1 knock-out mouse can serve as a novel model for temporomandibular disorders, such as OA of the TMJ, and will help to develop new treatment options, particularly those involving tissue regeneration. (ox.ac.uk)
  • tumor
  • However, although it would seem that PHD2 downregulates HIF-1α and thus also tumorigenesis, there have been suggestions of paradoxical roles of PHD2 in tumor proliferation. (wikipedia.org)
  • For example, methylselenocysteine (MSC) inhibition of HIF-1α led to tumor growth inhibition in renal cell carcinoma in a PHD-dependent manner. (wikipedia.org)
  • RPB3
  • RPB3 (POLR2C) - the third-largest subunit. (wikipedia.org)
  • A subcomplex of RPB2 and RPB3 appears soon after subunit synthesis. (wikipedia.org)
  • RPB3, RPB5, and RPB7 interact with themselves to form homodimers, and RPB3 and RPB5 together are able to contact all of the other RPB subunits, except RPB9. (wikipedia.org)
  • Once RPB1 enters the complex, other subunits such as RPB5 and RPB7 can enter, where RPB5 binds to RPB6 and RPB8 and RPB3 brings in RPB10, RPB 11, and RPB12. (wikipedia.org)
  • affinity
  • We also show that Cbfa1 regulates positively the activity of its own promoter, which has the highest affinity Cbfa1-binding sites characterized. (tmc.edu)
  • 1997
  • http://www.springerimages.com/Images/RSS/1-10.1007_s00216-009-2785-x-0 Xu C, Rosen BP (1997). (wikipedia.org)
  • RUNX
  • DDR-1-deficient chondrocytes from the TMJ were positively influenced towards chondrogenesis by a three-dimensional matrix combined with a runx-2 knockdown or stimulation with extracellular matrix components, such as nidogen-2. (ox.ac.uk)
  • helices
  • The conserved region contains four alpha helices and three loops arranged as in histone H3. (wikipedia.org)
  • The W2 domain has a globular fold and is exclusively composed out of alpha-helices. (wikipedia.org)
  • The structure can be divided into a structural C-terminal core onto which the two N-terminal helices are attached. (wikipedia.org)
  • It belongs to the thioredoxin superfamily fold which is defined by a beta-sheet core surrounded by alpha-helices. (wikipedia.org)
  • Structurally, it contains a 33-amino acid ankyrin repeat that forms a series of alpha helices. (wikipedia.org)
  • Genes
  • By artificial manipulation of expression through recombinant DNA methods, we have shown that products of one of these genes is required for proper cell adhesion, expression of a specific cell adhesion moleucle and for proper nerve growth factor action in a neuronal cell paradigm. (uky.edu)
  • In the absence of activated GR, other transcription factors such as NF-κB or AP-1 themselves are able to transactivate target genes. (wikipedia.org)
  • However activated GR can complex with these other transcription factors and prevent them from binding their target genes and hence repress the expression of genes that are normally upregulated by NF-κB or AP-1. (wikipedia.org)
  • To date, 5 β-subunit and 11 γ-subunit genes and have been identified in mammals. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Gβ genes have very similar sequences, while significantly greater variation is seen in the Gγ genes, indicating that the functional specificity of the Gβγ dimer may be dependent on the type of Gγ subunit involved. (wikipedia.org)
  • residues
  • The beta subunit of MST1R/RON is phosphorylated at tyrosine residues upon activation by MSP. (clontech.com)
  • A hallmark of this class is the presence of a von Willebrand factor type A domain (Pfam:PF00092) (I-domain) of approximately 200 amino acid residues at the N terminus, which confers divalent cation binding properties. (githubusercontent.com)
  • the promoter lacks one of the two C residues from the pentameric motif, and the artificial addition of the second C has no significant effects on binding activity. (wikipedia.org)
  • It should also be noted that for sequences that flanked the ATTGG motif with two adenine residues (AA) on its 5' end and G(A/G) on its 3' end, seems to have inhibited formation of the CBF-DNA complex and subsequently occurred in only 1% of the promoter sequences. (wikipedia.org)
  • The result of this sequential cascade is to bind ubiquitin to lysine residues on the protein substrate via an isopeptide bond, cysteine residues through a thioester bond, serine and threonine residues through an ester bond, or the amino group of the protein's N-terminus via a peptide bond. (wikipedia.org)
  • In addition to the highly conserved Runt domain, the AML-1 gene product carries a putative ATP-binding site (GRSGRGKS), and has a C-terminal region rich in proline and serine residues. (wikipedia.org)
  • downstream
  • The protease resistant C terminal core stabilises the DNA-TBP complex by interacting with nonspecific sequences either side of the TATA box called the upstream and downstream B recognition elements (BREu and BREd), as well as interacting with the Initiator element (INR). (wikipedia.org)
  • The binding of TFIIB up and downstream of the TATA box strengthens this complex but this binding is not sequence specific as the TFIIB does not come into contact with any of the DNA bases. (wikipedia.org)
  • subfamily
  • Each subfamily shares the common core G domain, which provides essential GTPase and nucleotide exchange activity. (wikipedia.org)
  • The surrounding sequence helps determine the functional specificity of the small GTPase, for example the 'Insert Loop', common to the Rho subfamily, specifically contributes to binding to effector proteins such as IQGAP and WASP. (wikipedia.org)
  • receptors
  • Evidence suggest that N-Cadherins stabilize the connection between the presynaptic terminal and postsynaptic spine and that this stabilization increases the likelihood that released glutamate will bind receptors on the postsynaptic neuron. (wikipedia.org)
  • PIP2 functions as an intermediate in the [IP3/DAG pathway], which is initiated by ligands binding to G protein-coupled receptors activating the Gq alpha subunit. (wikipedia.org)
  • synaptic
  • Studies utilizing PHPLCδ1 domain over-expression (acting as PI(4,5)P2 buffer or blocker) , PIPKIγ knockout in chromaffin cell and in central nerve system , PIPKIγ knockdown in beta cell lines , and over-expression of membrane-tethered inositol 5-phosphatase domain of synaptojanin 1 , all suggested vesicle (synaptic vesicle and LDCV) secretion were severely impaired after PI(4,5)P2 depletion or blockage. (wikipedia.org)
  • Inhibition
  • Inhibition of N-cadherin binding via blocking antibodies prevents the induction of late phase L-long term potentiation, suggesting that the adhesive property of dimeric N-cadherin is necessary for late phase L-LTP. (wikipedia.org)
  • One of the major functions of Gβγ is the inhibition of the Gα subunit. (wikipedia.org)
  • helical
  • The core domain consists of two alpha helical structures that form nearly identical domains connected by a short linker region and rotated by 90 degrees between each other. (wikipedia.org)
  • The N terminus helical domains of the two subunits form a coiled coil with one another that typically extends away from the core of the dimer. (wikipedia.org)
  • guanosine
  • Small GTPases (EC 3.6.5.2) are a family of hydrolase enzymes that can bind and hydrolyze guanosine triphosphate (GTP). (wikipedia.org)
  • entrance
  • ATPs) in order to facilitate the association between 19S and 20S particles, as well as to cause confirmation changes of alpha subunit C-terminals that form the substate entrance of 20S complex. (wikipedia.org)
  • Concomitantly, the rings of alpha subunits form the entrance for substrates entering the proteolytic chamber. (wikipedia.org)
  • polypeptide
  • A heat-stable polypeptide present in these extracts, ATP-dependent proteolysis factor 1 (APF-1), was found to become covalently attached to the model protein substrate lysozyme in an ATP- and Mg2+-dependent process. (wikipedia.org)
  • Folding of the β-subunit is thought to be aided by the chaperone CCT (chaperonin containing tailless-complex polypeptide 1), which also prevents aggregation of folded subunits. (wikipedia.org)
  • substrates
  • Among these lid subunits, protein Rpn11 presents the metalloproteases activity to hydrolyze the ubiquitin molecules from the poly-ubiquitin chain before protein substrates are unfolded and degraded. (wikipedia.org)
  • Protein Rpn11 presents the metalloproteases activity to hydrolyze the ubiquitin molecules from the poly-ubiquitin chain before protein substrates are unfolded and degraded The Proteasome and its subunits are of clinical significance for at least two reasons: (1) a compromised complex assembly or a dysfunctional proteasome can be associated with the underlying pathophysiology of specific diseases, and (2) they can be exploited as drug targets for therapeutic interventions. (wikipedia.org)
  • coiled-coil
  • The B linker is the region between the B reader and the B core that is found in the cleft of RNA polymerase II and continues by the rudder and the clamp coiled-coil until it reaches the C terminal B core that is found above the wall of RNA polymerase II. (wikipedia.org)
  • preferentially
  • By using PCR-mediated random binding selection process, researchers were able to show that the sequence "3' - (T/C)G ATTGG (T/C)(T/C)(A/G) - 5'" immediately flanking the ATTGG region (CCAAT in the complementary strand) was preferentially selected on the coding strand (opposite of the template strand). (wikipedia.org)
  • In homodimeric form, α-catenins do not bind β- catenins, but preferentially bind F-actin and other proteins promoting F-actin polymerization. (wikipedia.org)
  • hydrophobic
  • Each of the domains has 5 alpha helices with a hydrophobic core. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the Gβγ dimer, the Gγ subunit wraps around the outside of Gβ, interacting through hydrophobic associations, and exhibits no tertiary interactions with itself. (wikipedia.org)
  • The dimerized form of the protein is created by packing between the H1 and H4 helices in an antiparallel arrangement with the hydrophobic regions residing in the core. (wikipedia.org)
  • terminus
  • The C terminus consists of another short alpha helix and a random coil. (wikipedia.org)
  • The first ubiquitin molecule is covalently bound through its C-terminal carboxylate group to a particular lysine, cysteine, serine, threonine or N-terminus of the target protein. (wikipedia.org)
  • known
  • EF-1 alpha promoter versions of the Tet-On 3G Tetracycline Inducible Expression System provide for consistent long-term expression of the Tet-On 3G transactivator, even in cell types known for their tendency to silence a CMV promoter over time, such as hematopoietic cells and stem cells. (clontech.com)
  • We tested the EF-1 alpha version in Jurkat cells, a cell line known to show reduced expression and clonal variation in expression from CMV-based vectors. (clontech.com)
  • AGE-albumin) and in particular carboxymethyllysine (CML) are known to play a central role in diabetic nephropathy, we studied the activation of nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) in tubular epithelial cells in vivo and in vitro by AGE-albumin and CML. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • DDB1 serves as a bridge or adaptor protein which interacts with dozens of proteins known as DDB1 and CUL4-associated factors (DCAFs). (wikipedia.org)
  • These proteins are known as CCAAT box binding proteins/CCAAT box binding factors. (wikipedia.org)
  • The CAAT Box is what is known as a core promoter, also known as the basal promoter or simply the promoter, is a region of DNA that initiates transcription of a particular gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • subunits are known to be prenylated (covalently modified by the addition of lipid moieties) prior to addition to Gβ, which itself has not been found to be modified. (wikipedia.org)
  • S100 calcium-binding protein A10 (S100A10), also known as p11, is a protein that is encoded by the S100A10 gene in humans and the S100a10 gene in other species. (wikipedia.org)
  • The structure of p11 is classified by a pair of the helix-loop-helix motif, also known as the EF-hand-type that recognizes and binds calcium ions. (wikipedia.org)
  • Proteasome subunit alpha type-3 also known as macropain subunit C8 and proteasome component C8 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the PSMA3 gene. (wikipedia.org)
  • glutamate
  • Batten, S.R.;Matveeva, E.A.;Whiteheart, S.W.;Vanaman, T.C.;Gerhardt, G.A.;Slevin, J.T. "Linking kindling to increased glutamate release in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus through the STXBP5/tomosyn-1 gene. (uky.edu)
  • vivo
  • In order to efficiently characterize the subunits of protein complexes assembled in vivo , affinity purification followed by proteomics mass spectrometry (APMS) strategies have been devised. (embopress.org)
  • Distal
  • β-catenins and p120ctns bind cadherin's intracellular domain at the distal and proximal regions respectively. (wikipedia.org)
  • promoter
  • however the Tet-On 3G transactivator is expressed from an EF1-alpha promoter instead of a CMV promoter. (clontech.com)
  • When expressing the Tet-On 3G transactivator protein from the EF-1 alpha promoter, 83% of the Jurkat Tet-On 3G clones showed strong inducible expression and 33% demonstrated very high inducibility (greater than 2,000-fold). (clontech.com)
  • In bacteria The promoter is recognized by RNA polymerase and an associated sigma factor, which in turn are often brought to the promoter DNA by an activator protein's binding to its own DNA binding site nearby. (wikipedia.org)
  • In eukaryotes The process is more complicated, and at least seven different factors are necessary for the binding of an RNA polymerase II to the promoter. (wikipedia.org)
  • RNA polymerase holoenzymes containing other sigma factors recognize different core promoter sequences. (wikipedia.org)
  • In an experiment done with core binding factors (CBF) and DNA complexes, researchers were able to determine the preferential sequences of the promoter in a region over and immediately adjacent to the CAAT box, and two regions on either side of the CAAT box. (wikipedia.org)
  • tightly
  • The binding of TBP to DNA forms a 90° kink in the DNA and allows the TFIIB to clamp the TBP tightly to the DNA. (wikipedia.org)
  • targets
  • Tubular cells are are not only affected secondary to glomerular injury but are also primary targets for pathological influences in diabetes ( 1 - 4 , 8 - 15 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • The Proteasome and its subunits are of clinical significance for at least two reasons: (1) a compromised complex assembly or a dysfunctional proteasome can be associated with the underlying pathophysiology of specific diseases, and (2) they can be exploited as drug targets for therapeutic interventions. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although these hypotheses were initially controversial, Gβγ has since been shown to directly regulate as many different protein targets as the Gα subunit. (wikipedia.org)
  • adherence
  • Pubmed ID: 12683516 We observed adherence with hand hygiene in 14 units at 4 hospitals with varying sink-to-bed ratios (range, 1:1 to 1:6). (jove.com)