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  • pathway
  • Neurons of the avian nucleus magnocellularis transmit phase-locked action potentials of the auditory nerve in a pathway that contributes to sound localization based on interaural timing differences. (jneurosci.org)
  • The presence of increased synchrony and bursting in subcortical nuclei suggests that perceptual binding by means of synchronous neural activity is processed early and diffusely in the auditory pathway. (jneurosci.org)
  • Despite this pivotal position in the auditory pathway, details of the basic physiological information being carried by axons of these cells and their projections to more central auditory nuclei have not been fully explored. (kuleuven.be)
  • cochlea
  • Whether the ventral subdivision of the cochlear nucleus shows hyperactivity has never been investigated despite the fact that, like the dorsal division, it also receives direct input from the damaged cochlea and supplies major ascending inputs to brainstem and midbrain auditory centers. (jneurosci.org)
  • in this way the tonotopic organization that is established in the cochlea is preserved in the cochlear nuclei. (wikipedia.org)
  • An auditory brainstem implant (ABI) is a surgically implanted electronic device that provides a sense of sound to a person who is profoundly deaf, due to retrocochlear hearing impairment (due to illness or injury damaging the cochlea or auditory nerve, and so precluding the use of a cochlear implant). (wikipedia.org)
  • The auditory brainstem implant uses technology similar to that of the cochlear implant, but instead of electrical stimulation being used to stimulate the cochlea, it is used to stimulate the brainstem of the recipient. (wikipedia.org)
  • The loss of hearing and speech recognition in most NF2 patients may be due to the tumor interfering with the blood supply to the cochlea, VIIIn, and/or cochlear nucleus. (wikipedia.org)
  • These nuclei are also tonotopically organized, and the process of achieving this tonotopy after the cochlea is not well understood. (wikipedia.org)
  • responses
  • Here we examine the temporal representation of the pitch-shift and ambiguity of IRN in the responses of anesthetized guinea-pig ventral cochlear nucleus (VCN) units. (jneurosci.org)
  • The role of the BNST in the acoustic startle reflex may be attributed to specific areas within the nucleus responsible for stress and anxiety responses. (wikipedia.org)
  • axons
  • There are three major fiber bundles, axons of cochlear nuclear neurons, that carry information from the cochlear nuclei to targets that are mainly on the opposite side of the brain. (wikipedia.org)
  • Second, there is a synapse from the CRN axons to the cells in the nucleus reticularis pontis caudalis (PnC) of the brain. (wikipedia.org)
  • Third, a synapse occurs from the PnC axons to the motor neurons in the facial motor nucleus or the spinal cord that will directly or indirectly control the movement of muscles. (wikipedia.org)
  • Spinal Cord
  • The activation of the facial motor nucleus causes a jerk of the head while an activation in the spinal cord causes the whole body to startle. (wikipedia.org)
  • implants
  • CochlearNucleus® implants are the most reliable on the market. (cochlear.com)
  • The processor for both the eight and 20 electrode implants used Nucleus 22 ABI (Cochlear Limited) external speech processors. (wikipedia.org)
  • FFRs have the potential to be used to evaluate the neural representation of speech sounds processed by different strategies employed by users of cochlear implants, primarily identification and discrimination of speech. (wikipedia.org)
  • neural
  • Hyperactivity in the ventral subdivision of cochlear nucleus therefore needs to be considered in relation to neural models of the genesis of tinnitus. (jneurosci.org)
  • They originally believed that the potential originated from the cochlear nerve, but it was later discovered that the response is non-neural and is cochlear in origin, specifically from the outer hair cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • While several researchers raced to publish the first detailed account of the FFR, the term "FFR" was originally coined by Worden and Marsh in 1968, to describe the CM-like neural components recorded directly from several brainstem nuclei (research based on Jewett and Williston's work on click ABR's). (wikipedia.org)
  • Currently, there is renewed interest in using the FFR to evaluate: the role of neural phase-locking in encoding of complex sounds in normally hearing and hearing impaired subjects, encoding of voice pitch, binaural hearing, and evaluating the characteristics of the neural version of cochlear nonlinearity. (wikipedia.org)
  • rats
  • This study was carried out to investigate incidence of autophagy and apoptosis in spiral ganglion cells (SGCs) and cochlear nucleus neurons, and their involvement in the pathogenesis of diabetes-induced hearing impairment in rats. (alliedacademies.org)
  • neuronal
  • We found a significant elevation of spontaneous firing rates in VCN after cochlear trauma, and this increase may be more evident in particular neuronal response categories in VCN. (jneurosci.org)
  • cells
  • Increased cross-unit synchrony and bursting have been linked to tinnitus in several higher auditory stations but not in fusiform cells of the dorsal cochlear nucleus (DCN), key brainstem neurons in tinnitus generation. (jneurosci.org)
  • Classified as cochlear nucleus type IV cells, the firing rate may be very rapid in response to a low intensity sound at one frequency and then fall below the spontaneous rate with only a small increment in stimulus frequency or intensity. (wikipedia.org)
  • For example, cochlear hair cells, retinal receptor cells, and retinal bipolar cells do not spike. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the transmission electron microscope, these cells are characterized by a darkly stained nucleus surrounded by a thin rim of cytoplasm. (wikipedia.org)
  • anterior
  • The anterior cochlear nucleus contains several cell types, which correspond fairly well with different physiological unit types. (wikipedia.org)
  • The amygdala, hippocampus, bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST) and anterior cingulate cortex are all thought to play a role in modulating the reflex. (wikipedia.org)
  • molecular layer
  • This nucleus consists of three layers, including an outer molecular layer, a middle fusiform cell layer and a deep polymorph layer ( Osen and Mugnaini, 1981 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • Thus
  • All acoustic information thus enters the brain through the cochlear nuclei, where the processing of acoustic information begins. (wikipedia.org)
  • Thus, the nucleus laminaris acts as a delay-line coincidence detector, converting distance traveled to time delay and generating a map of interaural time difference. (wikipedia.org)
  • contrast
  • In the cochlear nucleus of the rufous horseshoe bat (Rhinolophus rouxi) and the mustache bat (Pteronotus parnelli), species-specific catecholaminergic innervation patterns are found that contrast with the relatively homogeneous innervation in the rodent. (uni-muenchen.de)
  • Synaptic
  • In chick, although the auditory system begins to function early in embryonic development, maturation of audition around the time of hatching suggested that synaptic transmission in the cochlear nucleus of young chicks may undergo further developmental changes. (jneurosci.org)
  • Anxiety
  • The role of the BNST in the acoustic startle reflex may be attributed to specific areas within the nucleus responsible for stress and anxiety responses. (wikipedia.org)